List of tallest buildings in Africa

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Cairo, Africa's largest city.
Johannesburg, the economic capital of all of Africa and the city with most skyscrapers on the continent.
The skyline of Nairobi, Kenya.
Durban, South Africa.
Port Louis, Mauritius.
Cape Town, South Africa.
Harare, Zimbabwe.
Pretoria, South Africa.
Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Khartoum, Sudan.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
Windhoek, Namibia.
Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Sandton, South Africa.

This article ranks skyscrapers on the African continent by height. While skyscrapers remain more sparse in Africa than in Asia and North America, a significant number of African cities possess distinguishable skylines. Initially, only a small number of major financial and commercial centers boasted large skylines, such as Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Nairobi, Harare and Abidjan. However, since the mid-2000s, skyscrapers have been constructed in many other African cities, including Maputo, Lagos, Kampala, Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, Luanda and Port Louis.

Since 1973, the tallest skyscraper in Africa has been Johannesburg's Carlton Centre, which stands 223 metres (732 ft) tall. However, several taller buildings are proposed. The tallest building under construction, 192 metres (630 ft) tall Britam Tower,[1][2] will became second tallest.

Tallest buildings[edit]

This list ranks African buildings that stand at least 100 m (328 ft) tall, based on standard height measurements. This includes spires and architectural details, but does not include antenna masts. Buildings over 150 m (492 ft) tall are highlighted.

Building Pinnacle Height Floors Year Country City
Carlton Centre 223 m (732 ft) 50 1973  South Africa Johannesburg
Ponte City Apartments 173 m (568 ft) 54 1975 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
NITEL Building[3] 160 m (520 ft) 32 1979  Nigeria Lagos
PSPF Towers - Tower A[4][5] 152.7 m (501 ft) 35 2014  Tanzania Dar Es Salaam
PSPF Towers - Tower B[6][7] 152.7 m (501 ft) 35 2014 Tanzania Tanzania Dar Es Salaam
Marble Towers 152 m (499 ft) 32 1973 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Pearl Dawn[8] 152 m (499 ft) 31 2010 South Africa South Africa Durban
South African Reserve Bank Building[9] 150 m (490 ft) 38 1988 South Africa South Africa Pretoria
Metlife Centre[10] 150 m (490 ft) 28 1993 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
88 on Field[11] 147 m (482 ft) 26 1985 South Africa South Africa Durban
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Building[12] 143 m (469 ft) 39 1994  Egypt Cairo
El Gezira Tower Movenpick Hotel[13] 142 m (466 ft) 43 1996 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Grand Hyatt Cairo[14] 142 m (466 ft) 41 2002 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Nile City South Tower[15] 142 m (466 ft) 34 2003 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Nile City North Tower[16] 142 m (466 ft) 34 2002 Egypt Egypt Cairo
KwaDukuza eGoli Hotel Tower 1[17] 140 m (460 ft) 40 1970 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Times Tower[18] 140 m (460 ft) 38 2000  Kenya Nairobi
Michelangelo Towers[19] 140 m (460 ft) 34 2005 South Africa South Africa Sandton
Trust Bank Building[20] 140 m (460 ft) 34 1970 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
El Maadi Residential Tower 13[21] 140 m (460 ft) 42 1985 Egypt Egypt Cairo
El Maadi Residential Tower 14[21] 140 m (460 ft) 42 1985 Egypt Egypt Cairo
El Maadi Residential Tower 15[21] 140 m (460 ft) 42 1985 Egypt Egypt Cairo
El Maadi Residential Tower 16[21] 140 m (460 ft) 42 1985 Egypt Egypt Cairo
El Maadi Residential Tower 17[21] 140 m (460 ft) 42 1985 Egypt Egypt Cairo
El Maadi Residential Tower 18[21] 140 m (460 ft) 42 1985 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Maroc Telecom HQ[23] 139 m (456 ft) 20 2012  Morocco Rabat
Standard Bank Building[24] 139 m (456 ft) 34 1968 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Portside Tower 139 m (456 ft) 32 2014 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
Southern Life Center[25] 138 m (453 ft) 30 1973 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
San Stefano Grand Plaza 135 m (443 ft) 35 2006 Egypt Egypt Alexandria [26]
Monte Blanc[27] 133 m (436 ft) 40 1985 South Africa South Africa Durban
ABSA Tower Pretoria[28] 132 m (433 ft) 38 1976 South Africa South Africa Pretoria
Bank Misr Building[29] 130 m (430 ft) 29 1985 Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa
NTC Tower[22] 140 m (460 ft) 29 2009 Sudan Sudan Khartoum
Old Mutual Centre[29] 130 m (430 ft) 33 1995 South Africa South Africa Durban
Tour CNPS[30] 130 m (430 ft) 32 1982 Cameroon Cameroon Yaoundé
209 Smit Street[31] 128 m (420 ft) 30 1976 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Four Seasons Hotel Cairo at Nile Plaza[32] 127 m (417 ft) 31 1999 Egypt Egypt Cairo
1 Thibault Square[33] 126.5 m (415 ft) 32 1972 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
Bank of Mauritius Tower[33] 124 m (407 ft) 26 2006  Mauritius Port Louis
Union Bank Building (Lagos)[34] 124 m (407 ft) 28  ?? Nigeria Nigeria Lagos
Kine Centre[35] 123 m (404 ft) 27 1974 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
New Reserve Bank Tower[36] 120 m (390 ft) 28 1997 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Harare
Corinthia Bab Africa Hotel[37] 120 m (390 ft) 28 2003 Libya Libya Tripoli
Nessco Building[38] 120 m (390 ft) 26 2007 Libya Libya Tripoli
Al Fatah Tower[39] 120 m (390 ft) 25 2006 Libya Libya Tripoli
Embassy Building[40] 120 m (390 ft) 28 1991 South Africa South Africa Durban
Teleposta Towers[41] 120 m (390 ft) 27 2000 Kenya Kenya Nairobi
La Cité Administrative Tour D[42] 120 m (390 ft) 30 1984  Ivory Coast Abidjan
Atterbury House [43] 119 m (390 ft) 29 1976 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
Carlton Center Hotel [44] 119 m (390 ft) 30 1973 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Holiday Inn Durban - Marine Parade[45] 118 m (387 ft) 28 1985 South Africa South Africa Durban
Holiday Inn Garden Court North Beach[46] 118 m (387 ft) 33 1978 South Africa South Africa Durban
Residences Roda Island[47] 118 m (387 ft) 39  ?? Egypt Egypt Cairo
ABSA Centre Cape Town [48] 117 m (384 ft) 33 1970 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
The Spinnaker[49] 117 m (384 ft) 27 2007 South Africa South Africa Durban
Casablanca Twin Center (Tour 1) 115 m (377 ft) 28 1999 Morocco Morocco Casablanca
Casablanca Twin Center (Tour 2) 115 m (377 ft) 28 1999 Morocco Morocco Casablanca
320 West Street[50] 111 m (364 ft) 30 1973 South Africa South Africa Durban
Bahia Center 1 111 m (364 ft) 31 2014 Algeria Algeria Oran
Bahia Center 2 111 m (364 ft) 31 2014 Algeria Algeria Oran
Bahia Center 3 111 m (364 ft) 31 2014 Algeria Algeria Oran
Bahia Center 4 111 m (364 ft) 31 2014 Algeria Algeria Oran
Mauritius Telecom Tower [51] 110 m (360 ft) 30 1990 Mauritius Mauritius Port Louis
Ramses Hilton & World Trade Center[52] 110 m (360 ft) 36 1980 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Hilton World Trade Center Residences I[53] 110 m (360 ft) 32  ?? Egypt Egypt Cairo
Schlesinger Building[54] 110 m (360 ft) 21 1965 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Golden Acre[55] 110 m (360 ft) 28 1979 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
Protea Hotel Landmark Lodge [56] 110 m (360 ft) 31 1976 South Africa South Africa Durban
The Parade[57] 110 m (360 ft) 30 1986 South Africa South Africa Durban
Loch Logan Park [58] 110 m (360 ft) 27 1986 South Africa South Africa Bloemfontein
Semiramis Inter-Continental Hotel[59] 107 m (351 ft) 29  ?? Egypt Egypt Cairo
Nabemba Tower[60] 106 m (348 ft) 30 1986 Republic of the Congo Congo Brazzaville
Tour Postel 2001[59] 105 m (344 ft) 26 1984 Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Abidjan
Ivoire InterContinental Abidjan Hotel Tower I[59] 105 m (344 ft) 24 1969 Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Abidjan
Immeuble CAISTAB[61] 105 m (344 ft) 25 1984 Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Abidjan
Cocoa House[61] 105 m (344 ft) 26 1965 Nigeria Nigeria Ibadan
Southern Sun Cape Sun[62] 105 m (344 ft) 32 1983 South Africa South Africa Cape Town
Highpoint Hillbrow [63] 105 m (344 ft) 25 1972 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Kenyatta International Conference Centre[64] 105 m (344 ft) 33 1974 Kenya Kenya Nairobi
Intercontinental Luanda[65][66] 104 m (341 ft) 25 2014  Angola Luanda
NSSF Building[67] 103 m (338 ft) 28 1973 Kenya Kenya Nairobi
Independence House[68] 103 m (338 ft) 23 1960 Nigeria Nigeria Lagos
Nani Tower[69] 103 m (338 ft) 22 2004 Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa
Four Seasons Cairo at First Residence[70] 103 m (338 ft) 30  ?? Egypt Egypt Cairo
RTNC Congo Building[71] 103 m (338 ft) 22  ?? Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa
Immeuble CCIC[72] 103 m (338 ft) 22  ?? Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa
Gecamines Commercial Building[72] 103 m (338 ft) 22 1977 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa
2 Fevrier Sofitel Hotel[73] 102 m (335 ft) 36 1980 Togo Togo Lome
Intercontinental Hotel & Casino[74] 104 m (341 ft) 25 2011 Angola Angola Luanda
Belmont Building[75] 102 m (335 ft) 32 1954 Egypt Egypt Cairo
ESCOM Building[76] 102 m (335 ft) 24 2009 Angola Angola Luanda
Old Mutual Namibia Headquarters[77] 100 m (330 ft) 21 2010 Namibia Namibia Windhoek
Huda Tower[78] 100 m (330 ft) 22 2004 Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa
I & M Bank Tower[79] 100 m (330 ft) 18 2001 Kenya Kenya Nairobi
Alexandria City Centre Tower I[80] 100 m (330 ft) 30 2003 Egypt Egypt Alexandria
Radio & Television Building[81] 100 m (330 ft) 30 1957 Egypt Egypt Cairo
El Gezira Sheraton Hotel[82] 100 m (330 ft) 30 1984 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Conrad International Cairo Hotel[83] 100 m (330 ft) 30 1999 Egypt Egypt Cairo
The Fairmont Cairo[84] 100 m (330 ft) 25 2007 Egypt Egypt Cairo
Deneys Reitz[85] 100 m (330 ft) 24 2010 South Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Hotel InterContinental Kinshasa Tower II[86] 100 m (330 ft) 20  ?? Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa
La Cité Administrative Tour E[61] 100 m (330 ft) 24 1984 Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Abidjan
La Cité Administrative Tour C[61] 100 m (330 ft) 24 1984 Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Abidjan
Bank of Tanzania South Tower[87] 100 m (330 ft) 20 2006 Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Bank of Tanzania North Tower[88] 100 m (330 ft) 20 2006 Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam
NRZ Headquarters[89] 100 m (330 ft) 23 1985 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Bulawayo
Immeuble Kébé[90] 100 m (330 ft) 21 1973 Senegal Senegal Dakar
Park Avenue[91] 100 m (330 ft) 24 1973 South Africa South Africa Pietermaritzburg
Sanport 140[92] 100 m (330 ft) 22 1976 South Africa South Africa Port Elizabeth
Rita Tower[93][94] N/A 30 2014 Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Millenium Tower[95][96] N/A 27 2014 Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Uhuru Heights[97][98] N/A 27 2012 Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Edificio Kanhangulo[99] N/A 25 2013 Angola Angola Luanda

Timeline of tallest skyscrapers in Africa[edit]

Name City Years as tallest Metres Feet Floors Photo
Carlton Centre Johannesburg 1973–present 223 H 732 50 CarltonCentreExterior.jpg
KwaDukuza eGoli Hotel Tower 1, Trust Bank Building Johannesburg 1970–1973 140 459 31 KwaDukuza2.jpg
Standard Bank Building Johannesburg 1968–1970 138.8 455 34 Joburg top.jpg
Schlesinger Building Johannesburg 1965–1968 110 361 21 Schlesinger2.jpg
Naspers Centre Cape Town 1962–1965 93 205 22 Naspers Building, Cape Town.jpg
Mutual Heights Building Cape Town 1940–1962 91 298 18
Chamber of Mines Building Johannesburg 1936–1940 80 262 18
Union Buildings Pretoria 1913–1936 60 196 10 Uniegebou.jpg

Tallest under construction, approved or proposed[edit]

Luanda, Angola, is undergoing massive reconstruction due to the end of the Angolan Civil War.
Artist's impression of the Neotown development in Port Louis, Mauritius.

Under construction[edit]

This list ranks buildings currently under construction in Africa that will stand at least 100 metres (328 ft) tall.

Name Height Floors Year Country City Notes
Britam Tower 200 m (660 ft) 31 2016  Kenya Nairobi [1][2]
Hazina Trade Centre 180 m (590 ft) 40 2015  Kenya Nairobi [100]
Abuja World Trade Centre 158 m (518 ft) 37 2015 Nigeria Nigeria Abuja [101][102]
IMOB Business Tower 145 m (476 ft) 35 2015 Angola Angola Luanda [103][104]
St. Regis Hotel Tower 136 m (446 ft) 31 2014 Egypt Egypt Cairo [105][106]
Banco de Mocambique Tower 1 130 m (430 ft) 31 2014 Mozambique Mozambique Maputo [107]
Kianda Towers 107 m (351 ft) 27 2014 Angola Angola Luanda [108][109]
Kingdom Kampala Centre N/A 34 2014 Uganda Uganda Kampala [110]
Congo Office des Routes N/A 32 2015 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa [111]
CIF Tower II N/A 30 2014 Angola Angola Luanda [112]
UAP Park Tower N/A 23 2015 Kenya Kenya Nairobi [113]

On-hold, approved or proposed[edit]

This section lists skyscrapers that are on-hold, approved or proposed in Africa, and are planned to rise over 100 m (328 ft) tall.

Name Height Floors Country
City Status Notes
Centurion Symbio-City 447 m (1,467 ft) 110 South Africa South Africa Centurion Proposed This proposal may be the tallest building in Africa. It will be flanked by 2 towers of 60 and 80 floors[114]
Hope City 270 m (890 ft) 72 Ghana Ghana Accra Proposed Upon completion will have one of its six towers being the tallest in Africa[115]
The One Nairobi 270 m (890 ft) 70 Kenya Kenya Nairobi Proposed [116]
International Finance Centre 1 ~250 m (820 ft) 60 South Africa South Africa Sandton Proposed [117]
Congo Towers - Tower A ~180 m (590 ft) 44 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa Proposed [118]
International Finance Centre 2 ~180 m (590 ft) 42 South Africa South Africa Sandton Proposed [117]
Mutual Place ~180 m (590 ft) 41 South Africa South Africa Sandton Proposed [117]
Angola World Trade Center Tower A 170 m (560 ft) 42 Angola Angola Luanda Proposed [119]
Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Headquarters 165 m (541 ft) 42 Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa Proposed [120]
Kgoro - The Gateway A ~165 m (541 ft) 45 South Africa South Africa Sandton Proposed [117]
Kgoro - The Gateway B ~165 m (541 ft) 30 South Africa South Africa Sandton Proposed [117]
75 on Maude ~160 m (520 ft) 40 South Africa South Africa Sandton On Hold [117]
Millennium Tower (Abuja) 160 m (520 ft) 42 Nigeria Nigeria Abuja Proposed [121]
Angola World Trade Center Tower B 150 m (490 ft) 37 Angola Angola Luanda Proposed [119]
Mexico Square Tower ~150 m (490 ft) 35 Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa Proposed [118]
Congo Towers - Tower B ~140 m (460 ft) 33 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa Proposed [118]
Tour Minam 1 140 m (460 ft) 33 Senegal Senegal Dakar Proposed [122]
Tour Minam 2 140 m (460 ft) 33 Senegal Senegal Dakar Proposed [122]
Langa Sun Hotel 135 m (443 ft) 32 South Africa South Africa Durban Proposed [123]
Strand on Adderley - Tower 1 ~125 m (410 ft) 30 South Africa South Africa Cape Town Proposed [117]
Strand on Adderley - Tower 2 ~125 m (410 ft) 30 South Africa South Africa Cape Town Proposed [117]
Tanzania Port Authority HQ 125 m (410 ft) 30 Tanzania Tanzania Dar es Salaam Proposed [124]
Abyssinia Bank Tower ~120 m (390 ft) 34 Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa Proposed [125]
Sandown Tower ~120 m (390 ft) 30 South Africa South Africa Durban Proposed [117]
Crystal Towers ~120 m (390 ft) 30 South Africa South Africa Pretoria Proposed [117]
Prism Towers 112 m (367 ft) 24  Kenya Nairobi Proposed [126]
Village Walk Tower 110 m (360 ft) 30 South Africa South Africa Sandton Approved [117]
Luanda Tower 110 m (360 ft) 23 Angola Angola Luanda Proposed [117]
Euro Africa Tower 110 m (360 ft) 23 Angola Angola Luanda Proposed [127]
Edifício Rocha Monteiro 105 m (344 ft) 24 Angola Angola Luanda Approved [125]
Phomella Towers ~100 m (330 ft) 28 South Africa South Africa Pretoria Proposed [117]
Kampala Tower ~222 m (728 ft) 60 Uganda Uganda Kampala Proposed [117]
Movement House ~100 m (330 ft) 27 Uganda Uganda Kampala Proposed [117]
Kingdom Kampala ~100 m (330 ft) 34 Uganda Uganda Kampala Proposed [117]
Kampala Hilton Hotel ~100 m (330 ft) 26 Uganda Uganda Kampala Proposed [117]
NSSF Towers ~100 m (330 ft) 25 Uganda Uganda Kampala Proposed [117]
Mapeera House ~100 m (330 ft) 18 Uganda Uganda Kampala Proposed [117]
Emakhosini Centre ~100 m (330 ft) 25 South Africa South Africa Durban Proposed [117]
Gare Centrale Twin Tower A 100 m (330 ft) 32 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa On Hold [128] Upon completion, this twin complex will be the tallest twin towers in central Africa.
Gare Centrale Twin Tower B 100 m (330 ft) 32 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa On Hold [129]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b SkyscraperPage: Britam Tower
  2. ^ a b Britam Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ PSPF Commercial Tower A at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  5. ^ SkyscraperPage: PSPF Commercial Towers - Tower A
  6. ^ PSPF Commercial Tower B at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  7. ^ SkyscraperPage: PSPF Commercial Towers - Tower B
  8. ^ emporis.com - Pearl Dawn, Durban
  9. ^ emporis.com - South African Reserve Bank Building, Pretoria
  10. ^ Metlife Centre, Cape Town
  11. ^ emporis.com - 88 on Field
  12. ^ emporis.com - Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Cairo
  13. ^ El Gezira Tower Movenpick Hotel, Cairo
  14. ^ Grand Hyatt Cairo, Cairo
  15. ^ Nile City South Tower, Cairo
  16. ^ Nile City North Tower, Cairo
  17. ^ Kwa Dukuza eGoli Hotel
  18. ^ New Central Bank Tower, Nairobi
  19. ^ Michelangelo Towers
  20. ^ Trust Bank Building (Johannesburg)
  21. ^ a b c d e f emporis.com - El Maadi Residential Complex
  22. ^ a b NTC Tower
  23. ^ [2]. Retrieved 2012-07-14.
  24. ^ Standard Bank Building
  25. ^ Southern Life Center
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ Monte Blanc
  28. ^ ABSA Tower Pretoria
  29. ^ a b Old Mutual Centre
  30. ^ [4]
  31. ^ [5]
  32. ^ [6]
  33. ^ a b [7]
  34. ^ [8]
  35. ^ [9]
  36. ^ [10]
  37. ^ [11]
  38. ^ [12]
  39. ^ [13]
  40. ^ [14]
  41. ^ [15]
  42. ^ [16]
  43. ^ Shell House
  44. ^ Carlton Center Hotel
  45. ^ Holiday Inn Durban - Marine Parade
  46. ^ Holiday Inn Garden Court North Beach
  47. ^ [17]
  48. ^ ABSA Centre Cape Town
  49. ^ The Spinnaker
  50. ^ The Spinnaker
  51. ^ mauritius telecom
  52. ^ [18]
  53. ^ [19]
  54. ^ Schlesinger Building
  55. ^ Golden Acre
  56. ^ Protea Hotel Landmark Lodge
  57. ^ The Parade
  58. ^ [20]
  59. ^ a b c [21]
  60. ^ [22]
  61. ^ a b c d [23]
  62. ^ Holiday Inn Cape Town
  63. ^ Highpoint Hillbrow
  64. ^ [24]
  65. ^ [25]
  66. ^ Intercontinental Hotel & Casino at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  67. ^ [26]
  68. ^ [27]
  69. ^ [28]
  70. ^ [29]
  71. ^ [30]
  72. ^ a b [31]
  73. ^ [32]
  74. ^ [33]
  75. ^ [34]
  76. ^ CTBUH: ESCOM Building
  77. ^ [35]
  78. ^ [36]
  79. ^ [37]
  80. ^ [38]
  81. ^ [39]
  82. ^ [40]
  83. ^ [41]
  84. ^ [42]
  85. ^ Deneys Reitz
  86. ^ [43]
  87. ^ [44]
  88. ^ [45]
  89. ^ [46]
  90. ^ [47]
  91. ^ [48]
  92. ^ [49]
  93. ^ Rita Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  94. ^ SkyscraperPage: Rita Tower
  95. ^ SkyscraperPage: Millennium Tower
  96. ^ Millenium Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  97. ^ SkyscraperPage: Uhuru Heights
  98. ^ Uhuru Heights at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  99. ^ SkyscraperPage: Edificio Kanhangulo
  100. ^ Hazina Trade Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  101. ^ [50]
  102. ^ Abuja World Trade Centre at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  103. ^ SkyscraperPage: IMOB Business Tower
  104. ^ IMOB Business Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  105. ^ SkyscraperPage: St. Regis Hotel Towers - Main Tower
  106. ^ The Nile Corniche Project in Cairo: One of the largest construction projects in Egypt
  107. ^ Banco de Mocambique Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  108. ^ SkyscraperPage: Kianda Towers
  109. ^ Edificio Kilamba at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  110. ^ SkyscraperPage: Kingdom Kampala Centre
  111. ^ SkyscraperPage: Congo Office des Routes
  112. ^ SkyscraperPage: CIF Tower II
  113. ^ SkyscraperPage: UAP Park Towers
  114. ^ [51]
  115. ^ [52]
  116. ^ [53]
  117. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t [54]
  118. ^ a b c [55]
  119. ^ a b [56]
  120. ^ [57]
  121. ^ emporis.com: Millennium Tower and Cultural Centre
  122. ^ a b [58]
  123. ^ [59]
  124. ^ [60]
  125. ^ a b [61]
  126. ^ SkyscraperPage: Prism Towers
  127. ^ [62]
  128. ^ [63]
  129. ^ [64]