MBTA Commuter Rail

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MBTA Commuter Rail
COMMUTER RAIL
MBTA.svg
Mbta district.svg
MBTA Commuter Rail system map
MBTA F40PHM-2C.JPG
Reporting mark MBTX
Locale Eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island
Dates of operation 1973–present
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (Standard gauge)
Length 394 miles (634 km)
Headquarters Boston, MA, USA
Website MBTA.com

The MBTA Commuter Rail system serves as the commuter rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's transportation coverage of Greater Boston in the United States. It is operated under contract by Keolis, which took over operations on July 1, 2014 from the Massachusetts Bay Commuter Railroad Company (MBCR).

The system is the sixth-busiest commuter rail in the U.S., behind New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia area systems, and is tied for fifth-busiest with Philadelphia's SEPTA Regional Rail in terms of weekday ridership. The line's characteristic purple-trimmed coaches operate as far south as North Kingstown, Rhode Island, and as far north as Newburyport and as far west as Worcester, both in Massachusetts. Trains originate at two major terminals in BostonSouth Station and North Station — both transportation hubs offering connections to Amtrak, local bus and subway lines. In the first quarter of 2014, daily weekday ridership was 131,000.[1]

Current lines[edit]

MBTA Commuter Rail system, circa 2012

The following lines terminate at South Station (listed from southeast to west):[2]

The following lines terminate at North Station (listed from west to northeast):[2]

Operational history[edit]

Consolidation under MBTA control[edit]

Boston & Maine Railroad[edit]

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts's involvement with the operating facets of commuter rail began in 1967 when the Boston & Maine Railroad (B&M petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission to discontinue all passenger services.[3] Service north of the state line was discontinued, but most service in Massachusetts was preserved through a contract between the Commonwealth and the B&M, at this time still an independent railroad company. The Commonwealth and MBTA began to purchase several lines, like the Lowell Line between Somerville and Wilmington, from the B&M.

B&M filed for bankruptcy protection in 1970. All remaining B&M commuter assets with the exception of yard tracks and freight-only branches were sold to the Commonwealth on December 14, 1976, though B&M was contracted to operate the service using its existing fleet of diesel railcars.[3]

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad[edit]

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad (NH, short for "New Haven"), the long-time operator of most South Station commuter trains, filed for bankruptcy for the last time in 1961.[citation needed] Two years earlier in 1959, NH discontinued passenger service on the Old Colony division in southeastern Massachusetts. NH was included in the Penn Central Transportation Company (PC) merger in 1968, which itself filed bankruptcy in 1970.[4] MBTA purchased many PC southside commuter lines on January 27, 1973, including the Providence/Stoughton Line as far as the Rhode Island border plus the branch to Stoughton, the Franklin Line and Needham Line and the Framingham/Worcester Line from Riverside to Framingham, as well as a number of abandoned lines and lines without passenger service including the Old Colony mainline from Boston to Braintree and the Plymouth/Kingston Line (which were later restored).[3] PC merged into Conrail on April 1, 1976; the MBTA bought the equipment but Conrail took over operations of the southside lines. The MBTA also purchased the Fairmount Line to restore it for passenger service as a bypass during Southwest Corridor (Boston) reconstruction.[3]

New York Central Railroad[edit]

The Framingham/Worcester Line, historically part of the Boston & Albany Railroad (B&A), was merged into the New York Central Railroad (NYC) and its ownership subsequently passed to PC in 1968. As part of the Massachusetts Turnpike Boston Extension's construction in the 1960s, the Worcester Line's roadbed between Route 128 and Boston was sold to the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, with the proviso that the control of the railroad remain with NYC. Conrail inherited the line which formed a vital freight artery between Boston's Beacon Yard and Conrail's Selkirk Yard. The Riverside-Framingham section was sold to the MBTA in 1976 as part of their larger acquisition of PC commuter assets, but the section past Framingham remained in Conrail control.[3] In September 2009, Conrail successor CSX Transportation and the Commonwealth finalized a $100 million agreement to purchase CSX's Framingham to Worcester tracks, as well as the Grand Junction Railroad plus lines which will be part of the South Coast Rail project, to improve service on the Framingham/Worcester Line.[5] After several years of construction and negotiations, ownership of the line was transferred to the commonwealth on October 4, 2012, with increased service on the outer section of the line beginning several weeks later.[3][6]

Combined operations[edit]

The Northeast Rail Service Act of 1981 compelled Conrail to transfer operations of all passenger and commuter services to local transit authorities, resulting in Conrail ceasing all subsidized passenger rail services.[7] B&M won the contract for the southside lines; for the first time, all Boston commuter service was operated by one entity. After bankruptcy, B&M continued to operate trains under the protection of the federal bankruptcy court, in the hopes that a reorganization could make it profitable again. It emerged from the court's protection when Timothy Mellon's Guilford Transportation Industries (GTI) bought it in 1983.[3] GTI let the contract expire in 1987, after a bitter strike had shut down most of the northside lines in 1986.[3]

Logo of Keolis Commuter Services, the current operator of MBTA Commuter Rail. This logo appears on employee uniforms and public timetables.

From 1987 to 2003, Amtrak managed all of Boston's commuter rail.[3] The relationship between MBTA and Amtrak was often rocky, and Amtrak did not submit a bid when the contract expired in 2003. MBTA observers saw Amtrak as having been a reliable manager and operator, but Amtrak sometimes experienced strained relations with the MBTA. Quibbles centered on equipment failures, crewing issues about the number of conductors per train, and responsibility for late trains. Because of these issues, and Amtrak's repeated statements that the MBTA contract was unreasonable, few were surprised at Amtrak's decision not to bid again.[8]

Two tenders were submitted, one from GTI and another from the newly formed Massachusetts Bay Commuter Railroad Company (MBCR), the latter of which won, taking over the MBTA Commuter Rail operation from Amtrak in July 2003. The MBCR contract originally expired in July 2008 but had an additional five-year option; it was later extended three years to July 2011 and then another two to July 2013.[8][9] After concerns about on-time performance, the 2011 extension increased the fine for late trains from $100 to $300.[10]

In August 2012, MBCR and Keolis Commuter Services (KCS) were the two bidders for the contract. On January 8, 2014, the MBTA awarded Keolis the contract for $2.68 billion over eight years, with the possibility of two two-year extensions that could bring the total price to $4.3 billion.

Service changes since MBTA takeover[edit]

Expansions[edit]

Several significant improvements have been made during MBTA's period of stewardship which started circa 1973. However, the Commonwealth's support for rail operations began in the 1950s with contracted operations and subsidies to railroads providing commuter service, and more so in 1964 with the advent of MBTA.

  • The Commonwealth of Massachusetts pioneered the concept of "Park and Ride" by providing funds to construct the Route 128 Station station on NH's Providence Line, at a location where the radial line intersected with the Massachusetts Route 128, locally thought of as the "Boston Beltway". Route 128 Station was established 1953 by NH President Frederic C. Dumaine, Jr.. The initial station was simple in design, built as a parking lot located next to the tracks.[11]
  • B&M's Eastern Route formerly operated across the bridge at Merrimack River and as far north as Portsmouth, New Hampshire on the former Eastern Railroad alignment. Service past Ipswich to Newburyport was limited to a single daily round trip after 1967, and suspended in April 1976.[3] Freight service to Newburyport lasted until 1984, and the line was formally abandoned in 1994 even as preparations began for restored service. After a brief period of abandonment, commuter rail service to Newburyport resumed on October 26, 1998, with an infill stop at Rowley.[12]
  • As part of the Northeast Corridor Improvement Program II (NECIP II) of the 1990s, MBTA's Providence Line was electrified using federal funds provided to Amtrak for its Acela Express project. However, MBTA does not operate electric equipment on the Providence Line, as such equipment would be unusable on other lines.
  • As Big Dig environmental mitigation, MBTA invested heavily in the Commuter Rail system by restoring large sections of NH's Old Colony division, which was abandoned in 1959. Service along the two main Old Colony Lines was reestablished in 1997, and the Greenbush Line opened in 2007.[3]
  • After 1975, Framingham/Worcester Line service was cut back to Framingham, though other lines reached exurbs more distant from Boston than Framingham. As compensation for delays in the Old Colony Lines restoration, rush-hour service to Worcester Union Station was restored in 1994, with infill stations at Ashland, Southborough, Westborough, and Grafton stations were added in the MetroWest region between 2000 and 2002.[3] The service was successful, resulting in relative de-emphasis of Amtrak and commuter bus services operating in the same corridor.
  • During the 1979-1987 reconstruction of the Southwest Corridor, Amtrak and MBTA trains were diverted over the Dorchester Branch, which had not seen passenger traffic since 1944. As part of this project, MBTA allowed Centralized Traffic Control to be installed on this branch, greatly increasing its signal capacity.[3] Regular service was kept on the Fairmount Line after 1987 because the relocated service was popular with residents of Dorchester and Roxbury. As Big Dig mitigation, MBTA rebuilt existing stations and is adding 4 new stations along the line.[13] The first of these, Talbot Ave, opened on November 12, 2012, followed by Newmarket and Four Corners/Geneva Ave on July 1, 2013.[14]
  • In 2013, the CapeFLYER service began running from South Station to Hyannis on summer weekends - the first direct service from Boston to Cape Cod since 1959. Though officially a Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority service, the CapeFLYER uses MBTA equipment.[3] Should this pilot service be successful, regular commuter service may be extended from Middleborough/Lakeville to Buzzards Bay.[16]
  • On August 12, 2013, MBTA broke ground on a 4.5 mile extension of the Fitchburg Line to a new planned Wachusett Commuter Rail Station in West Fitchburg. The new terminal will include an 800 foot long high platform on a siding off the main track and parking for 360 cars. The extension project also includes a train layover facility in Westminster.[17]
  • On November 14, 2013, MBTA began rehabilitating and rebuilding the tracks along 33 miles of right-of-way the agency acquired to restore service to Fall River and New Bedford (See South Coast Rail).

Contractions[edit]

During the period of MBTA control, services have also been curtailed:

  • All former B&M service that extended north of the Massachusetts border were curtailed by 1967, except for a brief period of experimental service from January 28, 1980 to March 1, 1981.[3] Since then, restoration and extension of the Lowell Line to Nashua, Manchester, and Concord, New Hampshire and the Haverhill Line to Portland, Maine have been repeatedly discussed. In 2001 Amtrak commenced operation of the Downeaster between Boston's North Station and Portland under the auspices of the Northern New England Passenger Rail Authority. The Nashua service discussion is continuing in the context of the widening of Interstate 93 in New Hampshire.
  • Passenger service on the Arlington-Lexington-Bedford Line ended on January 10, 1977.[3] The Alewife Extension of the MBTA Red Line replaced the service as far as Alewife in West Cambridge. No commuter rail service reaches the towns of Arlington, Lexington, and Bedford, Massachusetts. Today, the rail-banked line forms the Minuteman Bikeway and is a linear park in the vicinity of Davis Square, Somerville.
  • The Fitchburg Line under B&M operations terminated at Ayer, Massachusetts, but was subsequently extended as far as Gardner, Massachusetts in January 1981. However, the service between Gardner and Fitchburg was ended at the end of 1986 after the parallel Massachusetts Route 2 was upgraded to expressway standards, reducing travel time between these cities.[3]
  • The southern half of the Woburn Loop still operated when the MBTA took over control, joining the Lowell Line at Winchester. Half the Lowell Line services terminated at Woburn Heights (10.0 miles from Boston), while the others stopped at North Woburn (today's Anderson RTC) and continued to Lowell. Weekend service ended on September 7, 1980, and all service on the branch stopped on January 30, 1981.[3]
  • B&M operated one daily round trip to South Sudbury (19.7 miles from Boston) over the former Central Massachusetts Railroad until its discontinuation on November 26, 1971.[3]

Equipment[edit]

Typical Commuter Rail train, consisting of one diesel locomotive and six coaches, at Anderson Regional Transportation Center.
Boston Engine Terminal, the main northside maintenance facility, located in Somerville
Engine 011 shortly after its acquisition from UTA

All MBTA commuter rail service is provided by push-pull trains powered by diesel locomotives with a cab car on the opposite end. The current fleet of diesel locomotives comprises a mix of purpose-built passenger locomotives (such as the EMD F40PH) and freight locomotives rebuilt for passenger use (such as the GMD GP40MCs, which were originally GMD GP40-2LWs). All passenger locomotives are equipped with head end power (HEP). MBTA's locomotives were manufactured between 1978 and 2009 (excluding an EMD GP9 built in the late 1950s), with the newest locomotives being a pair of NRE 3GS21Bs used for switching duties.[18] Forty new MPI HSP46 locomotives are on order.[19]

The current fleet of active passenger coaches numbers 410 ranging from 1978 to 2005, with an additional 75 on order from Hyundai Rotem.[20] Passenger coaches are designated as either "Blind Trailer Coaches" (BTCs), which have no cab controls, or "Control Trailer Coaches" (CTCs), which have cab controls.[18] All MBTA Kawasaki coaches are bi-level, as are the new Hyundai Rotem coaches.[18][20] The first new coaches entered service on April 24, 2013.

Locomotive fleet[edit]

As of February 2012 MBTA operates a fleet of ninety diesel locomotives, including five leased from MARC, one under repair and three undergoing overhauls. An additional two locomotives are rostered but out of service. Forty new locomotives are on order with the first units scheduled to arrive in June 2013.[18][21]

Year built[21] Builder[21] Model[21] Numbers[21] Notes[21] Image
2009 MP MPI MP36PH-3C 010-011 Purchased from Utah Transit Authority's FrontRunner.[22] MBTA locomotive 010 at Buzzards Bay on CapeFLYER trial run.JPG
1995 MK M-K GP40WH-2 51,59,61,66,67 Former MARC engines leased from MotivePower on a month-to-month basis[23] All retired in late 2012 due to various issues with some of the units. MARC unit in Newburyport yard.JPG
1957 - 1960 EMD EMD GP9 902,904 Not used for passenger service; 902 is now stored and inoperable. EMD GP9.jpg
1978 - 1980 EMD EMD F40PH 1000-1017 Rebuilt by Bombardier 1989-1990. 1016 has been retired and was scrapped on April 21, 2014. Units are to be replaced by the HSP-46 Locomotives. MBTA Commuter Rail, Concord MA.jpg
1991 - 1993 MK M-K F40PHM-2C 1025-1036 Rebuilt by MPI 2003-2004. MBTA 1028 in the shop.JPG
1987 – 1988 EMD EMD F40PH-2C 1050-1075 Rebuilt by MPI 2001-2003. 1073 scrapped after 1990 collision. MBTA F40PH 1056 Ruggles.jpg
1973 – 1975 GMD GMD GP40MC 1115-1139 Rebuilt by AMF in 1997. Some units to be replaced by the HSP-46 locomotives. MBTA GP40 1136.jpg
2013 - 2014 MP MPI HSP46 2000-2039 On order; expected delivery 2014-2015. 2001 entered passenger service on April 16, 2014.[24] MBTA 2001 first revenue round trip at Reading.JPG
1971 EMD EMD GP40 3247 Not used for passenger service.
2009 NRE NRE 3GS21B 3248-3249 Not used for passenger service. MBTA3gs21b at Boston.JPG
Bilevel coach cars at Wellesley Hills
CTC-5 coach on the first revenue round trip
EMD FP10 locomotive in 1981
EMD GP9 work train locomotive at South Station. This now-retired locomotive (No. 902) was transferred from the Southeastern Michigan Transportation Authority when the commuter rail operations were abandoned in Detroit. It still sports SEMTA colors.

Coach fleet[edit]

As of January 2013 the MBTA operated 410 coaches, with 75 new coaches on order.[18][21] Those whose designations start with BTC are conventional coaches, while those starting with CTC are cab cars. Cab cars will occasionally also appear in the middle of a consist.

Year built[21] Builder[21] Model[21] Fleet ID[21] Seats[21] Notes[21] Image
1978–79 Pullman BTC-1C 200–258 114 Coaches 203 and 215 have been retired. Coach 219 is modified to fit skis. Rebuilt 1995–96 CapeFLYER in Hyannis.JPG
1987 Bombardier BTC-1A 350–389 127 Commuter train at Porter 2.JPG
1987–88 MBB BTC-3 500–532 86 These, and their CTC-3 counterparts, are the only rail vehicles produced by the company, which was an aerospace firm. Some coaches have been retired. MBTA 507 in dead line, April 2014.JPG
1987–88 MBB CTC-3 1500–1533 96 MBTAHorn.jpg
1989–90 Bombardier BTC-1B 600–653 122 MBTA 616 shop.jpg
1989–90 Bombardier CTC-1B 1600–1652 122 Coach 1648 has been retired. Cab controllers have been deactivated in coaches 1600–1624 making them BTCs. Lynn station with train 172.jpg
1990–91 Kawasaki BTC-4 700–749 185 Double decker MBTA cars.jpg
1990–91 Kawasaki CTC-4 1700–1724 175 East Braintree-Weymouth Landing.jpg
1997 Kawasaki BTC-4A 750–766 182 BTC-4A coaches on the CapeFLYER.JPG
2001 Kawasaki BTC-4B 767–781 182
2005 Kawasaki BTC-4C 900–932 178 BTC-4C coach on CapeFLYER at Buzzards Bay.JPG
2012 Hyundai Rotem BTC-5 800–846 179 47 on order for delivery through 2014.[20][25] The first coaches arrived for testing in November 2012.[26] The first units entered service in April 2013. Rotem car 801 at North Station.JPG
2012 Hyundai Rotem CTC-5 1800–1827 173 28 on order for delivery through 2014.[20][25] The first unit entered service in April 2013. Cab car 1800 at North Station.JPG

Retired equipment[edit]

As the Commonwealth assumed the control of the Commuter Rail during the 1970s, it inherited various non-standard equipment from predecessor railroads. These included:

  • Numerous Budd Rail Diesel Cars,[27] including a total of 86 from the B&M, New Haven Railroad and SEPTA. The RDC fleet was de-powered in the 1970s and turned into locomotive-hauled coaches by Morrison Knudsen.[27] These became known as "Boise Budds", after the location of the MK shop where the work was done. The RDC fleet was phased out during the 1980s and completely replaced with conventional coaches by 1989.[21] Remaining examples of these units now serve on the Grand Canyon Railway and Hobo Railroad; a derelict pair sit on a disused track near North Station, and a single unit has been restored and is displayed at Bedford Depot.
  • In 1978-80 MBTA acquired 19 rebuilt EMD FP10 units which were later transferred to Metro North Railroad in 1991-1993.[27] EMD GP-9s were also operated in Boston suburban service. One of the EMD GP9's is still retained as a work engine (MBTA #904),one of the six GP-9s received from SEMTA in 1987.
  • Ex-GO Transit stainless steel coaches were operated as an interim solution pending delivery of the CTC-1/BTC-1 order.
  • From 2002 to 2004, MBTA leased some retired Amtrak F40PH's while the F40PHM-2Cs were getting rebuilt.

Amenities[edit]

  • Free wi-fi is provided on most trains. The program started with a $262,000 pilot on the Worcester Line in January 2008.[28]
  • The Ski Train to Wachusett Mountain is equipped to carry skis and snowboards.[29]
  • A coach with bicycle racks is offered on the Rockport branch during summer months.[30]
  • Bathrooms are located on MBB cars (which are usually behind the locomotive), BTC-4C Kawasaki cars, and the new Rotem cars.

Fare policy[edit]

Commuter Rail tickets in the form of CharlieTickets purchased at fare vending machines and ticket booths (left) and paper tickets purchased on-board (right).

The MBTA Commuter Rail uses a fare zone policy whereby origin and destination stations are not individually priced, but assigned a zone based on distance from Boston.[31] There are a total of eleven zones (1A, then 1 through 10) with an increasing fare to or from Boston the higher the zone number. Zone 1A fares are the least expensive and cost the same as rapid transit ($2.00), while the highest priced Zone 10 fares are $11.00 per ride.[31] Travel between suburban zones without going to Boston is charged an "interzone" fare based on the number of zones traveled.[31] Seniors, those with a disability, and middle and high school students with proper identification receive a 50% discounted rate; children under eleven travel free with a paying adult.[32] Fares are collected by train conductors and while fare evasion is explicitly illegal, it is not criminal.[33][34]

Tickets may be purchased at automatic vending machines located in principal stations and at suburban stations from nearby businesses and vendors.[35][36] Stations without ticketing machines or vendors can purchase tickets on board.[33] Alternatively, riders can use the MBTA mTicket app to purchase tickets on iPhone and Android devices, which allows them to display their tickets on their mobile phone screens rather than presenting paper tickets or passes.[37] Travelers can purchase tickets as a one-way, round trip, twelve ride (no discount), or monthly pass (substantial discount over daily round-trip purchase).[31]

Ridership[edit]

Ridership levels on the Commuter Rail have grown since the MBTA's involvement began in the late 1960s, with overall average weekday ridership growing from 29,500 in 1969 to 76,000 in 1990 and 143,700 in 2008. This was accomplished by a series of rationalizations, such as closing lightly used lines, concentrating service on heavily utilized lines, and re-opening formerly abandoned branches with high traffic potential, such as the Old Colony Lines. A general growth of transit usage in the Northeastern United States also contributed. Growing ridership in this way required substantial capital investment, which was provided by a mixture of Federal mass transit funds and Commonwealth transportation bond issues.[citation needed]

Train operations[edit]

An MBTA train at Campello station inbound to South Station.

Like most commuter railroads in the Northeastern United States, MBTA is a NORAC Railroad and uses the Rulebook promulgated by that organization. Much of MBTA Commuter Rail is Rule 251 territory, as the tracks are signalled for movement in one direction of travel only. During the 1990s, parts of the system, such as the Framingham/Worcester Line, were re-signalled to allow a more advanced mode of operations known as NORAC Rule 261, which allows trains to operate in either direction on both tracks where double track is available. During the morning rush hour, both tracks can be simultaneously used for inbound traffic, allowing one train to make local stops while an express train overtakes the local train.[38]

On each train, the cab car is attached at the end closest to the downtown Boston terminal station for the particular line (either North or South Station), and the locomotive is attached at the end farthest from the terminal station. On each train serving the North Station lines, the "ADA" coach used to carry mobility-limited persons is attached right behind the locomotive, allowing level boarding at all suburban stations featuring mini-high platforms. On the other hand, on each train serving the South Station lines, the cab car also serves as the "ADA" coach. (The "ADA" coaches support compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.)

Trainlined doors that open automatically via central control are available on some equipment, but at low level platforms the conductor in each car must manually open a trap to allow passengers to descend via stairs onto the platform.

Proposed expansions[edit]

South Station lines[edit]

Foxboro station is proposed as the terminus of a Franklin Line branch

An extension of the Stoughton Line known as South Coast Rail is set to break ground to bring service to Taunton, Fall River, and New Bedford, Massachusetts. Routes through Attleboro and Middleboro were considered for the service but rejected.[39][40] Critics argue that building the extension does not make economic sense.[41]

In September 2010, the MBTA completed a study to determine the feasibility of extending regular commuter rail service to Foxboro via the Franklin Line. Currently, the station is only served during special events at Gillette Stadium. The study looked at extending some Fairmount Line service to Foxboro, running shuttle trains from Foxboro to Walpole, or a combination of both. No determination has been made as to if or when this service would begin.[42]

A Providence Line extension to Wickford Junction, in North Kingstown, Rhode Island opened on April 23, 2012. The Rhode Island Department of Transportation is also studying the feasibility of serving existing Amtrak stations in Kingston and Westerly as well as constructing new stations in Cranston, East Greenwich, and West Davisville. Federal funding has also been provided for preliminary planning of a new station in Pawtucket.[43]

There is also a proposal to extend the Middleborough/Lakeville Line to Wareham and eventually to Buzzards Bay. The CapeFLYER started service along this section to Hyannis on summer weekends in 2013.

A proposal was announced in 2012 to construct a new station on the Framingham/Worcester Line to service Brighton, near an expanded campus of New Balance. This station, named Boston Landing, is slated to open in 2016.[44]

In September 2013, the state announced plans to run diesel multiple unit service between Back Bay and the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on Track 61 beginning in 2015.[45]

North Station lines[edit]

Second main track under construction in Boxboro in 2011

On October 18, 2010, MBTA broke ground on an extension of the Fitchburg Line 4.5 miles (7.2 km) to a new Wachusett stop beyond the current terminal at Fitchburg Station. This extension is part of a larger improvement of the line, including upgraded high level platforms at both South Acton and Littleton are also planned, as well as a second main track is planned between South Acton and Ayer Junction, eliminating one of the single-track bottlenecks on the line. These improvements will speed the line so that the Fitchburg to Boston trip would take only about an hour.[46] The extension was funded by a $55.5 million Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) Grant.[47]

There is a proposal to build a South Salem station in Salem, Massachusetts, to improve access to Salem State University, as well as to extend Commuter Rail to Peabody, Massachusetts and Danvers, Massachusetts.[48]

The former state Secretary of Transportation James Aloisi had also indicated support for commuter service from Worcester to North Station via Clinton and Ayer, presumably along the Worcester, Nashua and Rochester Railroad right of way, owned by Pan Am Railways as of 2009.[49]

The state of New Hampshire has created the New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority and allocated money to build platforms at Nashua and Manchester.[50]

An article in the Eagle Tribune claims that Massachusetts is negotiating to buy property which has the potential to extend the Haverhill Line to Plaistow, New Hampshire. Funding is available, and Plaistow is potentially interested, but wants to better understand the potential drawbacks of being the location of the layover station.[51][52]

North-South Rail Link[edit]

Main article: North-South Rail Link

No direct connection exists between the two downtown commuter rail terminals; to travel from one station to the other, passengers must use the MBTA subway or bus lines to make the connection. Passengers using the Providence/Stoughton, Framingham/Worcester, Franklin, and Needham lines can transfer to and from North Station via the Orange Line subway, connecting at Back Bay. Passengers using the Fitchburg Line can transfer to and from South Station via the Red Line subway, connecting at Porter. All other passengers have to change subway trains at either Park Street or Downtown Crossing stations, thus requiring two distinct subway lines to complete a trip between North and South Stations.

A North-South Rail Link has been proposed to unite the two halves of the commuter rail system;[53] but, because of the high cost, Massachusetts has, as of May 2006, withdrawn its sponsorship of the proposal. Meanwhile, for non-revenue transfers of equipment, the MBTA and Amtrak use the Grand Junction Railroad Company main line.

Freight service[edit]

Boston Sand and Gravel and tracks as seen from an MBTA train

On the North Side lines, as part of the original sale agreement, B&M and its successor Pan Am Railways (formerly Guilford Transportation Industries) retains 'perpetual and exclusive' trackage rights for freight service. Pan Am provides freight service on those lines.[54]

Boston Sand and Gravel has an agreement with Pan Am to operate its shortline New Hampshire Northcoast Railroad trains from Ossipee, New Hampshire to just north of Boston's North Station to supply aggregates to its plant on the Boston/Cambridge border.[55] An occasional move occurs with run-through power from Norfolk Southern Railway to supply coal to a power plant in Bow, New Hampshire, over the Fitchburg Line. The Haverhill and Fitchburg lines also host four to six PAR manifest freight trains per day.

On the South Side lines, CSX Transportation retains trackage rights over much of the former New Haven territory. Limited service is also provided by the Providence & Worcester Railroad on the Providence Line, principally from Central Falls (the intersection with its main line to Worcester) through Providence towards New Haven (although some freights go as far east as Attleboro before leaving the corridor).[56] The Bay Colony Railroad provides a limited amount of service on some lines.

CSXT used to provide intermodal, autorack, and general merchandise over the Worcester Line, a part of CSXT's Boston Line.[57] This part of the Commuter Rail network could host over 12 mainline freight trains per day, including descendents of Conrail's expedited intermodal Trail Van trains. Currently most freight service terminates in Framingham, and a trainload facility in Westboro, with limited freight service east through Beacon Park Yard in Allston to a few local customers. CSX stopped using the Beacon Park intermodal yard in February 2013, after moving its intermodal service to an expanded yard in Worcester.[58][59]

On its former Old Colony division, the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad (NYNH&H) essentially vacated its right of freight operations by abandoning the tracks in 1959. As MBTA rebuilt the tracks, it gained freight service rights, and those rights were franchised to Conrail (predecessor to CSX), which provided freight service on the former Old Colony division.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Transit Ridership Report". American Public Transportation Association. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Commuter Rail Maps and Schedules". MBTA.com. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Belcher, Jonathan (2007-08-10). "Changes to Transit Service in the MBTA district" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  4. ^ Drury, George H. (1994). The Historical Guide to North American Railroads: Histories, Figures, and Features of more than 160 Railroads Abandoned or Merged since 1930. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. pp. 222–229, 248. ISBN 0-89024-072-8. 
  5. ^ "Lt. Governor: Historic CSX Rail Agreement". Commonwealth Conversations: Transportation. Massachusetts Department of Transportation. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  6. ^ Monahan, John J. (4 October 2012). "At CSX freight yard, Murray touts increased train service". Worcester Telegram & Gazette. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  7. ^ Northeast Rail Service Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97-35, 45 U.S.C. ch. 20, 1981-08-13.
  8. ^ a b "MBTA Exercises Option With MBCR For Commuter Rail Service, Launches New Customer-Focused Improvements". MBTA. 2010-01-06. "MBTA extends MBCR contract another two years." 
  9. ^ Commuter Rail Firm Gets Contract Extension Boston.com, accessed 16 February 2010.
  10. ^ Boston Metro, 6 June 2008, p. 2.
  11. ^ "Route 128 Station". New Haven Railroad Historical and Technical Association. 1 February 2000. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Karr, Ronald Dale (2010). Lost Railroads of New England (Third ed.). Branch Line Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780942147117. 
  13. ^ "Fairmount Line Improvements". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  14. ^ Rocheleau, Matt (12 November 2012). "MBTA opens new commuter rail station at Talbot Avenue in Dorchester on Fairmount Line". Boston Globe. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  15. ^ "Boston to T.F. Green rail service debuts". NBC 10 News. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
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