Mahsud

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The Maseed, Masūd or Mehsūd or Mahsoud (Pashto: مسید، مهسود، مسود، محسود، مسعود‎), also spelled Masīd (Pashto: مسید‎), is a Karlanri Pashtun tribe inhabiting parts of the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. A number of Maseed lineages are settled in the Logar Province of Afghanistan, especially in Charkh District, Baraki barak and Muhammad Agha, but also in Wardak, Ghazni and Kunduz Provinces. The Maseeds inhabit the center and north of South Waziristan valley, surrounded on three sides by the Darwesh Wazirs, and being shut off by the Bettanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. Two Pashtun tribes, the Ahmadzai Wazirs and the Maseeds, inhabit and dominate South Waziristan. Within the heart of Maseed territory in South Waziristan lies the influential Ormur (Burki) tribe's stronghold of Kaniguram. The Ormurs are considered by other tribes of South Waziristan to be close brethren of the Maseeds due to marital and other ties and the fact that the Ormurs have lived in and controlled Kaniguram for over a thousand years.[citation needed] There are also some Maseeds living in the UAE, Germany and the United Kingdom.

The Maseeds usually pronounce their name Māsīd. They are divided into three great clans or subtribes, namely Manzai, Bahlolzai, and Shaman Khel. Maseeds usually call these Drei Māsīd, meaning the "Three Maseeds"(DREZE). Each tribe has his own Khan. In the words of Sir Olaf Caroe, who acted as the former governor of the British Indian Frontier, "The Maseed tribe are a people who can never even think of submitting to a foreign power." From 1860 to 1937, the English forces repeatedly attacked Maseed positions, but never got a foothold in the area.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The Maseeds originally lived in the centre of waziristan area of FATA. In the later 14th century, they migrated eastwards, and fell into dispute with the Bannuchi and Khattak tribes settled in the Shawal area. The Maseeds and the Wazirs succeeded to defeat the Khattaks and pushed them northeastwards towards Bannu and Kohat. Eventually, the Mahsuds settled at the center of Waziristan, in the Makeen, Kaniguram and Lada area.

During the British colonial period, the Maseeds were invaded several times by the British Empire, in 1860, 1881, 1894-5, 1900-1, 1919-20 and in 1925's Pink's War.

Primary locations[edit]

The Maseed tribe inhabits a large portion of the center of Waziristan, which is drained by the Tank Zam and Shahur Rivers. The Maseed territory is a rough triangle between Jandola, the hills north of Razmak, and from Shuidar to Janimela, north of Wana. No portion of their territory touches the “settled” districts, and the tribe is surrounded on the north and west by the Wazirs, on the east by the Bhittanis, and on the south by the Wazirs and Shranis.

With the exception of a few Shabi Khel in the Bannu District, some land near Gumal in the Tank Tehsil, and the colonies at Chark and elsewhere in the Logar Valley in Afghanistan, none of the Maseed own land outside of South Waziristan Agency. To escape the severe cold in the higher hills during the winter, a large number move down to the lower valleys but always keep within the Maseed territorial limits. Many of these people live in caves or tents.

“South Waziristan is mountainous with several high peaks; Pirghal, for example, being 11,600 feetkundaygaar 9900 feets. The Gomal is the main river, in addition to which there are many hill torrents, which…remain dry for most of the year.”

The mountains and valleys geographically isolate the Maseed from large scale movements of invaders and provide excellent opportunities to conduct effective ambushes on enemies.

The cave villages along the Shahur River near Barwand and along the Split Toi provide excellent hiding places and defensive positions.

Migratory patterns[edit]

Many Maseed inhabit in the lower valleys during the winter. They return to family compounds at higher elevations during the summer.

Key terrain features[edit]

Valleys:wacha khwara,ladha, Baddar, Darra Algad, Khaisara, Mastang, Shaktu, Sheranna, Split Toi, Tak Zam Plains: Razmak

Mountains: Kundeygaar,Pre Ghal, Spinghar, Spinkamar

Rivers: Tak Zam, Gumal, Shahur, Shinkai Toi, Baddar Toi, Split Toi, Lower Khaisara Toi, Tauda China, Kundygar, Osspass, Karrama, Torwam, Thangi Parkhai

Climate[edit]

The climate in the region is hot in summer, with high temperatures around 110 degrees Fahrenheit, and cool in winter, with low temperatures around 35 degrees Fahrenheit. There is modest rainfall in July and August and in January and February.

Recent history[edit]

On many occasions the Afghanistan throne was saved with the help of the Maseed(like general Ramzan Khan Maseed Shaman khil, Shabaram khan machi khel,Bakhan maseed, Mosa Khan Maseed, Miajee Maseed, Jagar Maseed etc.), Burki/Baraki, and Wazirs from Wazirstan, Pakistan.[citation needed] Of those who fought during this time, most came back to their homeland, but those who stayed were given high ranks of office, such as Faiz Muhammad Maseed, who was appointed as an interior minister during the Reign of Daud Khan in 1970s. Today the majority of Maseeds are still in Logar Province, with the title of Waziri, but by caste, they are Maseeds. The majority of these are Manzai with a sub-caste of Dramankel, Faridi,SHAMIRAI شمیرائی,Shabi khel etc. When the Soviet-Afghan War started, some of these families came back to Wazirstan but could not stay there, so they moved to cities like Peshawar and Karachi.some of them stay in waziristan and D.I.Khan. From the Maseed tribe a Dramankhel in Luli khel defeated the British army and saved Afghanistan from invading empires and the Maseeds were the last hope and the saviors of Afghanistan.

John Ayde described the Maseeds as:

They are poor but brave… and although turbulent and difficult to deal with, still have a great love of their country and cherish their independence, possessing qualities that we admire ourselves, and which deserve consideration and respect.

Maseed are very good marksmen and have the reputation of trustworthiness. Maseed is the most independent of all the tribes. Even their own maliks have a very limited control over them. However, Maseed have been increasingly integrated within Pakistani society since independence.


In 1850, Lewat's tribesmen the Great Baromi's (Shabi Khel) defeated 3,000 British troops with only 300 fighters, using guerrilla tactics by attacking the British in the Valley of Bobar (Waziristan) from all sides with outdated rifles and swords. This attack demoralized the British and made them fearful of the Maseeds. Survivors of this attack reported that the sight of the Maseed tribesmen charging at them (with loud roars and wearing long hair and beards like Lions) affected them mentally.[citation needed]

In 1860, three thousand Maseed tribesmen attacked the British regiment base in Tank (present South Waziristan). The British struggled to defeat them.[citation needed]

In 1897, Mujahed tribesmen again stood up against the British all the way from Chitral to Quetta kakar, and the British experienced difficulty when engaging them. It was during this time that the name of Mullah Powindah[Jagar Draman Khil][Miajee][Mulla ShaSaleem kaka] emerged.Powindah comes from the Pashto language, meaning "nomad".

Day after day, Mullah Powindah grew more popular and famous.and his right hand mulla shasaleem kaka machikhel popular of all wazir, Maseed trib. He emerged as a legendary figure among the people of the region and beyond. There was even a time the British considered him to be the sole leader of the Waziristan country. His followers would sporadically kill individual British officers. However, the British were not able to capture the attackers, who would return to their mountain hideouts. All attempts to stop these attacks were unsuccessful.[citation needed]

In 1907, the Wazir and Maseed tribesmen were blocked from entry into any government-controlled territory. Economic sanctions were imposed, blocking even basic amenities, such as food and medicine. The British commander of that time blockaded the areas of Makin and Kaniguram. Various areas were searched to arrest Mullah Powindah without success. The British thought that the tribesmen were receiving weapons by sea, from the coast of Balochistan and responded by creating check posts, but no weapons were confiscated.

Mullah Powindah died in 1913. It could be said that he was the crownless emperor of one of the most fiercesome of the Pashtun Tribes, the Maseeds. Upon his death, his son Shah Fazal Din was given leadership and his son-in-law, Mulla Abdul Hakeem kakar, was appointed his adviser.they have good relations with Amir Abdul Rahman Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan.

When World War I started in 1915, the British were concerned that they would be engaged in battle on more than one front. This was a threat to their safety and economy, so they decided to close those fronts of lesser significance. They abandoned their ‘Forward Policy’ for the time being and sent a message of friendship and peace to the tribes. The tribes did not trust the British, and rejected these peace proposals. Instead, the Maseed assembled a militia to attack the British.

By this time, the British had established an air force in the subcontinent, which was used to harass the tribesmen, and as a result the tribe's hatred of the British increased. As a result of their suffering they were bent upon taking revenge, and hence their morale increased. A series of attacks were made by the Maseeds, inflicting heavy losses on the enemy. The attack on the Marhatta Regiment resulted in the deaths of hundreds of sepoys and five British Officers. In the attack on the Punjab Regiment, the Maseed warriors slaughtered everyone. The aerial bombardments had inflicted significant losses on the tribesmen, but they were content that they were also doing well and had killed around 250 of the enemy forces.

After the end of World War I, the British returned to Waziristan. This time, they built roads and forts throughout the land. The sophistication and constant patrols of the British Air Force helped create a secure atmosphere for their ground troops. With this sense of security, the British Army constructed a road from Jandola to Ladha. At Razmak, they constructed a cantonment for their army officers and soldiers.

By 1922-23, all the British forces had moved from Wana to Razmak. They had constructed an airport there and instead of flying all the way from India, their aircraft would fly from Razmak Airport and bomb the countryside. Because of this, the countryside of Makin was totally devastated. The Maseed deemed it appropriate at this time to agree to a ceasefire because this new British tactic was inflicting widespread losses on their side. The ceasefire, they imagined, would also enable them to devise a strategy for countering the latest British advances.

In 1925, the Royal Air Force successfully put down a Maseed rebellion by strafing the tribes' mountain strongholds. The action, which came to be known as Pink's War led to the tribal leaders seeking peace terms.[1][2]

In 1927 Ghazi Ramadan Khan Mahsud attacked Wana camp with a huge lashkar (tribal militia). The result was a big loss for the British army. In 1928 Ghazi Ramadan Khan Mahsud re-assembled his lashkar again for his next attack, on Sararogha Fort. This time he attacked with a powerful force, killed all of the defending soldiers (numbering 300) and took hold of the Fort.[citation needed]


Lashkar invasion of Kashmir[edit]

Immediately after Pakistan came into existence, Maseeds raised a tribal lashkar which entered Kashmir to help the newly created state Pakistan to capture Kashmir. They quickly reached Baramulla town, the gateway to the Kashmir valley, but indulged in loot, arson, and murder at Baramulla for several days instead of pressing on to the capital, Srinagar, to seize Kashmir completely.

A large number of tribals from Pakistan attacked Kashmir under the code name "Operation Gulmarg" to seize Kashmir. The invading tribals started moving along Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road on 22 October 1947 with Pakistani army men in plain clothes. Muzaffarabad fell on 24 October 1947. They reached and captured Baramulla on 25 October. There they stayed for several days looting, killing, burning, plundering and desecrating and vandalising shrines and temples instead of moving on to Srinagar 50 km away and capture its airfield which was not defended at all. They killed European nuns at Baramulla's St. Joseph convent, only one of whom survived, and Christian nurses at the missionary hospital. This savage orgy of loot, murder continued for several days.[3] Baramulla suffered this savage orgy but saved the rest of Kashmir because the airplanes carrying the Indian troops airlifted from Delhi on the morning of 27 October could land at Srinagar airfield as the invaders were still at Baramulla.

Biju Patnaik (who later became Chief Minister of Orissa) piloted the first plane to land at Srinagar airport that morning. He brought along 17 soldiers of 1-Sikh regiment commanded by Lt.Col. Dewan Ranjit Rai. "...The pilot flew low over the airstrip twice to ensure that no raiders were around... Instructions from PM Nehru’s office were clear: If the airport was taken over by the enemy, you are not to land. Taking a full circle the DC-3 flew ground level. Anxious eye-balls peered from inside the aircraft – only to find the airstrip empty. Nary a soul was in sight. The raiders were busy distributing the war booty amongst themselves in Baramulla."

In the words of Gen Mohammad Akbar Khan (Brigadier-in-Charge, Pakistan, in his book "War for Kashmir in 1947"): "The uncouth raiders delayed in Baramulla for two (whole) days for some unknown reason."[4]

It took two weeks for the Indian army to evict the raiders, who had been joined by Pakistani regular troops and became well-entrenched, from Baramulla. lushker of kashmir.*Malik Hayat khsn machi khel.2 Gulap khan ishungee. 3abdul malik shabi khel.4 M Amin khan shamen khel,.5 KS Muhibullah khan machi khel.6Kharoot khan. 6 Ayaaz khan shabi khel,7 Khan Saifal Khan Shaman khel this was the chief leader of Maseed 3000 persons lushker of kashmir.

Culture[edit]

The People of Waziristan is living with a Humanity Specific culture. Pir Roshan is the first person who founded the Pashto alphabet. He was born in Kanygram of Waziristan. The Roshani Ghorzang was one of the great revolutions in the land of Pshtonkhwa.Mula Shasleem kaka, Mula Pawenda Maseed and Haji Mirza Ali Khan Fight several years for the unity of both side Pashtons. The first Pashto radio station was start for Waziristan.(from Germany in the era of Adolf Hetlor)

Jarga: Maseed have a 3Maseed Jarga for large problems. The Jarga is a tribal assembly of elders which takes decisions by consensus, particularly among the Pashtun people.

Music & Attan: Attan, is the famous dance of Maseed tribe. The people like the music. Today's violence is a new phenomenon that externally imposed on the people. Maseed tribe have famous Journalists, poets, writers and singers both side of Durand line.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Royal Air Force History - RAF History Timeline 1918 to 1929". Royal Air Force. 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  2. ^ "Program For Culture & Conflict Studies" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  3. ^ Triloki Nath Dhar. "The Story of Kashmir Affairs - A Peep into the Past". Kashmir-information.com. Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  4. ^ "October 27, 1947: Dakota in my dell ~ FRONTLINE KASHMIR". Frontlinekashmir.org. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2012-10-10.