Orange, New South Wales

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Orange
New South Wales
Summer Street from east.jpg
The main street of Orange, Summer Street, as viewed from the vicinity of McNamara Street looking west in May 2008
Orange is located in New South Wales
Orange
Orange
Coordinates 33°17′0″S 149°06′0″E / 33.28333°S 149.10000°E / -33.28333; 149.10000Coordinates: 33°17′0″S 149°06′0″E / 33.28333°S 149.10000°E / -33.28333; 149.10000
Population 39,226 (2013 est.)[1]
Established 1846
Postcode(s) 2800
Elevation 863.2 m (2,832 ft)[2]
Location
LGA(s) City of Orange
County Wellington, Bathurst
State electorate(s) Orange
Federal Division(s) Calare
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
17.6 °C
64 °F
6.2 °C
43 °F
895.1 mm
35.2 in

Orange /ˈɒrɪndʒ/ is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres (158 mi) west of the state capital, Sydney [206 kilometres (128 mi) on a great circle[3]], at an altitude of 862 metres (2,828 ft). Orange has an estimated local government area population of 40,869[1] and an estimated city population of 39,226 [4] making the city a major provincial centre. According to the 2011 Census, the key industries include health care & social assistance, retail and the education & training sector.[5] A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas. With a peak elevation of 1,395 metres (4,577 ft) it gives commanding views of the district.

Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Walter W. Stone, book publisher (Wentworth Books) and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was also born in Orange. The first Australian Touring Car Championship, known today as V8 Supercar Championship Series, was held at the Gnoo Blas circuit in 1960.[6]

History[edit]

In 1822 Captain Percy Simpson marched into the Wellington District and established a convict settlement which was called "Blackman's Swamp" after James Blackman; Simpson had employed James Blackman as a guide because he had already accompanied an earlier explorer, John Oxley into that region.[7]

In the late 1820s, the surveyor J. B. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst and also of the road to Wellington. On a plan dated 1829, he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Sir Thomas Mitchell named the parish Orange, as he had been an associate of the Prince of Orange in the Peninsular War, when both were aides-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, whose title was bestowed on the valley to the west by Oxley.[8]

Legal occupation by graziers began late in 1829, and tiny settlements grew up on the properties and in connection with the road. In 1844, the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village, and to advise on the location for a township. His choices were Frederick's Valley, Pretty Plains, or Blackman's Swamp.

Blackman's Swamp was chosen, and it was proclaimed a village and named Orange by Major Thomas Mitchell in 1846 in honour of Prince William of Orange. At nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in 1851, resulting in a Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a central trading centre for the gold. This is contrary to the popular belief that gold was first discovered close to the nearby regional town of Bathurst.[citation needed]

The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, and in 1860 it was proclaimed a municipality. The railway from Sydney reached Orange in 1877. In 1946, 100 years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city.

Industries[edit]

Orange is a well-known fruit growing district, and produces apples, pears, and many stone fruits such as cherries, peaches, apricots, and plums; oranges are not grown in the area, since its climate is too cool. In recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for rapidly expanding wine production. The growth of this wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Orange's status as a prominent tourism destination.

Other large industries include:

  • Cadia gold mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange. The mine has been developed throughout the 1990s and is a major employer in the region with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open-cut mine in Australia, following the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Large mineral deposits are also being uncovered from the more recently developed Ridgeway underground mine which is adjacent to the Cadia Mine.
  • An Electrolux white goods factory, who have announced their closure date in 2017.

Orange is also the location of the headquarters of the New South Wales Department of Industry and Investment. (formerly the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries).

Education[edit]

Primary schools[edit]

The following Primary Schools are not within the city limits of Orange but are located within the rural fringe of Orange:

Secondary schools[edit]

Tertiary education[edit]

Churches[edit]

Suburbs[edit]

The following are listed as the suburbs within Orange City Council, according to the New South Wales Division of Local Government:[9]

  • Ammerdown: a residential locality to the north west of Orange on the Mitchell Highway.
  • Bletchington: containing mostly residential areas with one school, it is one of the largest residential areas, and it is often split into North Orange and Bletchington. Within the suburb are the Orange Botanic Gardens, the Orange Adventure Playground, and the Waratah Sports Ground.
  • Bloomfield: containing farmland, Bloomfield Golf Course, Riverside Mental Institution and Orange Health Service (a major regional hospital) along with the Gosling Creek Reservoir and the Gosling Creek nature reserve.
  • Borenore: a locality, 15 km (9 mi) west of Orange, comprising primarily farmland. Also the site of the Australian National Field Days.[10]
  • Bowen: containing residential, industrial, commercial, Kinross Woloroi School, and government offices, this suburb also has the main road out of Orange to Sydney. It also contains the Orange Showground and the Orange Cemetery.
  • Calare: the suburb is located to the west of the CBD. It is mostly a residential area, and contains Calare Public School and Orange High School, and Wentworth Golf Course. It is also commonly split into Calare, Bel-Air and Wentworth Estate and has The Quarry and Towac Park Racecourse.
  • Canobolas: this mainly farming and recreation area, contains the Mount Canobolas State recreation area and Mount Canobolas.
  • Clifton Grove: containing farmland and large residential blocks, it is down stream from the Suma Park Reservoir and also contains the Kinross State Forest.
  • Clover Hill: a residential suburb to the north of the CBD.
  • Glenroi: a mainly residential area with areas of public housing, along with the Electrolux white goods manufacturing plant. It also contains industrial land in areas surrounding the factory, as well as a more recent industrial area known as Leewood Estate.
  • Huntley: a locality south of Orange.
  • Lucknow: a small village approximately 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) east of Orange.[11] It is a historic mining town with small residential, small industrial and commercial with most being farmland.
  • March: a locality north of Orange.
  • Millthorpe: a village south east of Orange. The area constituting a suburb of Orange is constituted of farmland lying to the north west of the village.
  • Narrambla: a mainly industrial and farming land area.
  • Nashdale: a small but vibrant community located approximately 8 kilometres west of Orange. The community gathers around the local Nashdale Public School and hall. Rich producer of local food and wine.
  • Orange: the suburb comprises the central business district of the city, which contains an original grid street plan. The main street of Orange is Summer Street. The CBD can be defined as being the area of the city bounded by Hill, March, Peisley, and Moulder Streets.
  • Orange East: beginning on the eastern side of the railway line, Orange East is mostly residential, but contains some light businesses, especially on Summer, Byng, and Willams Streets.
  • Orange South: directly to the south of the CBD, beginning past Moulder Street this area contains Wade Park and the Orange Base Hospital.
  • Shadforth: a locality to the east of Orange bypassed by the Mitchell Highway that contains Shadforth Quarry.
  • Spring Hill: a village to the south-east of Orange.
  • Spring Terrace: a locality and small village located south of Orange, centred on the local primary school.
  • Springside: a locality to the south of Orange.
  • Suma Park: a lightly populated residential area on the eastern outskirts of Orange. It contains Suma Park Reservoir, Orange's main water supply.
  • Summer Hill: a lightly populated residential, industrial, and farmland area on the south eastern outskirts of Orange on the Mitchell Highway.
  • Warrendine: a mostly residential area with a high school and industrial land. It also has small school farmland and Jack Brabham Park.

Climate[edit]

Orange has a mild temperate climate with rainfall distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Compared with most population centres in Australia it has colder winters, especially in terms of its daytime maximum temperatures. In summer, the average (and absolute) maximum temperatures are also lower than in most inland centres, on account of its elevation.

Owing to its inland location the humidity is low in the summer months. Having 99.8 clear days annually,[12] it is still cloudier than the coastal areas of Sydney and Wollongong (104 and 107 clear days, respectively).[13][14]

Additionally, it is one of the only cities in Australia to receive regular snow, with moderate to occasionally heavy snowfalls occurring several times each winter. Its claim as Australia's snowiest city is sometimes disputed by Ballarat in Victoria and nearby Lithgow.

The climate has enabled the area to be a major apple and pear producer, and more recently a centre for cool-weather wine production.[15]

Climate data for Orange Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.4
(99.3)
37.5
(99.5)
33.0
(91.4)
29.8
(85.6)
22.0
(71.6)
18.5
(65.3)
17.8
(64)
20.4
(68.7)
25.6
(78.1)
30.7
(87.3)
35.6
(96.1)
35.0
(95)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
25.2
(77.4)
22.4
(72.3)
18.3
(64.9)
13.9
(57)
10.4
(50.7)
9.3
(48.7)
10.7
(51.3)
13.7
(56.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.5
(68.9)
23.9
(75)
17.6
(63.7)
Average low °C (°F) 12.2
(54)
12.3
(54.1)
9.6
(49.3)
6.2
(43.2)
3.6
(38.5)
1.5
(34.7)
0.7
(33.3)
1.4
(34.5)
3.3
(37.9)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
10.1
(50.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
2.4
(36.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
−3.5
(25.7)
−6.6
(20.1)
−6.5
(20.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−5.8
(21.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−3.0
(26.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
−7.1
(19.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 84.0
(3.307)
82.4
(3.244)
53.7
(2.114)
52.6
(2.071)
62.5
(2.461)
66.2
(2.606)
88.2
(3.472)
93.6
(3.685)
79.0
(3.11)
78.2
(3.079)
76.0
(2.992)
78.8
(3.102)
895.1
(35.24)
Avg. rainy days 8.7 8.2 7.2 7.2 10.1 12.4 13.7 13.5 11.6 10.8 10.3 9.0 122.7
 % humidity 44 49 51 55 63 70 70 65 61 56 53 45 57
Source: [12]

Mining[edit]

Cadia-Ridgeway Mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange, the mine has been developed throughout the 1990s employing several thousand employees with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open cut mine in Australia after the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie. Large mineral deposits are also being uncovered from the more recently developed Ridgeway underground mine which is adjacent to the Cadia Mine.

The mine is operated by Newcrest Mining. Cadia-Ridgeway is one of two gold mines, Newcrest currently operates in Australia, the other being Telfer in Western Australia. The company also owns and operates the Gosowong Mine in Indonesia and the Lihir mine in Papua New Guinea (both gold mines) amongst others .[16]

Winemaking[edit]

The Orange wine region is defined as the area above 600m in the local government areas of Orange, Cabonne and Blayney and can be usefully described as a circle around Orange. The Orange region is good for grapegrowing and winemaking due to a combination of geology, soils, climate and temperature. Together these factors combine to produce grapes and wine of distinct flavours and colour. The climate perhaps plays the biggest part in giving Orange some distinct natural advantages - the cool temperatures during most of the growing season coupled with dry autumn conditions are ideal for grape growing.[17]

Wineries in Orange[edit]

Wineries that use Orange region grapes in their wines include Brokenwood Wines (Hunter Valley based), Logan (Mudgee), Tamburlaine (Hunter Valley), Windowrie (Central Ranges) and Lowe Wines (Mudgee). In 2007, South Australian based Penfolds winery released the 2007 Penfolds Bin 311 Orange Region Chardonnay.

Media[edit]

Orange is served by several radio stations, including 105.1 2GZFM, 105.9 Star FM, 107.5 Orange Community Radio, 103.5 Rhema FM, HIT Country 88 FM and 1089AM – a commercial station that gets most of its programming from 2SM in Sydney. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) also broadcasts from four radio stations in Orange including ABC Local Radio (2CR) on 549AM and three national networks - ABC Classic FM on 102.7 FM, ABC Radio National on 104.3 FM, and Triple J on 101.9 FM.

The city receives five network television stations - Prime7 (a Seven Network affiliate), WIN TV (a Nine Network affiliate), Southern Cross Ten (a Ten Network affiliate), ABC TV and SBS One. All networks also provide additional digital-only television stations.

Of the three commercial networks, Prime and WIN air 30-minute local news bulletins on weeknights, both produced locally and broadcast from studios outside the region (Canberra and Wollongong, respectively). WIN also produces a statewide late night news bulletin for southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, while Southern Cross Ten provides short local news updates throughout the day.

Subscription television service Foxtel is available in Orange and the surrounding region via satellite.

The local newspapers are the Central Western Daily, the Midstate Observer and Orange City Life.

Clubs and entertainment[edit]

Orange has several music clubs which meet regularly. The Orange Blues Club[18] meets at the Victoria Hotel. The Orange Blues Club also hold an annual Blues Music Festival – Black Stump Blues Festival[19] The Orange Jazz Club[20] meets 1st Sunday monthly at the Royal Hotel.

Water resources[edit]

Orange has several water sources used for domestic consumption, both currently in use and formerly used. Currently Suma Park Dam and Spring Creek Reservoir are used for domestic water consumption. Two other dams, Lake Canobolas and Gosling Creek Reservoir, were previously used for domestic water consumption however are now used for recreational purposes. The city is currently on Level 2 water restrictions. Orange City Council is undertaking a number of strategies to supplement its supply, including stormwater harvesting.

The first batch of harvested stormwater was released into Suma Park Dam on 21 April 2009. The harvested stormwater was tested by Analytical Laboratory Services, an independent laboratory based in Sydney. ALS tested for 90 potential pollutants. The tests revealed that the water quality met all targets. The first batch contained 14 megalitres. It is believed to be an Australian first for harvesting stormwater for potable use. The hardware is in place, operating rules have been developed and environmental factors and impacts on downstream users have been considered. A three-month trial will ensure all these elements are working together to ensure high water quality and environmental standards are met. There are several phases involved in the commissioning period. The hardware, which includes three separate pumping stations, creek flow monitoring points and advanced electronics including fibre optic cables, will undergo further operating tests. The other elements of the scheme include a weir on Blackmans Swamp Creek, which creates a 3 megalitre pool and the site for the first pump station, a 200 megalitre dam and two 17 megalitre batching ponds.The pumps on the creek transfer stormwater to the 200 megalitre dam at a rate of up to 450 litres per second and are designed to rapidly extract peak storm flows from the creek. The operating rules require that a base flow immediately downstream in the creek must be maintained. The creek flow monitoring points ensure these standards are met. The monitoring station also measures when harvesting can commence. The trigger is flows passing the monitor in Blackmans Swamp Creek exceeding 1000 litres per second.

The local mine, Cadia-Ridgeway Mine, uses the city's treated effluent to supplement its water supply.

Orange is currently planning to implement a pipeline from the Macquarie river to boost the town waters supply. This is hotly debated, and researchers believe that it will endanger threatened wetland areas.[21]

Transport[edit]

Roads[edit]

Orange is situated on the Mitchell Highway, linking the city to Molong, Wellington, Dubbo and Bourke to the north west, and to Bathurst to the east and from there to Sydney via the Great Western Highway (260 km or 160 mi). Due west are Parkes (100 km or 62 mi) and Forbes (125 km or 78 mi), which is midway along the Newell Highway, running from Brisbane, Queensland to Melbourne, Victoria. In 2007 a bypass road, known as the northern distributor road, was opened for use after decades of planning.

Public transport[edit]

Orange Buslines operate a number of routes within the city and a service to the neighbouring city of Bathurst.

NSW TrainLink operate several coach services with connecting train services from Lithgow to Sydney. Australia Wide Coaches operate a daily coach service to Sydney Central Railway via Sydney International and Domestic Air Terminals.

Air[edit]

Orange is also serviced by a regional-class airport, Orange Airport, located approximately 15 km to the south of the city, in an area known as Huntley.

Railways[edit]

XPT at Orange station

Orange has two railway stations. The main station, on the Main Western Line to Bourke, was opened in 1877[22] and is served by the daily NSW TrainLink XPT service between Sydney and Dubbo and the weekly Xplorer service between Sydney and Broken Hill. A smaller station, opened in 1970,[23] known as Orange East Fork, lies on the branch line to Broken Hill and is served by the twice-weekly Indian Pacific service to Perth.

Preceding station   NSW TrainLink   Following station
towards Dubbo
NSW TrainLink Western
Dubbo XPT
towards Sydney
towards Broken Hill
NSW TrainLink Western
Broken Hill Outback Xplorer
Preceding station   Great Southern Railway   Following station
towards East Perth
Indian Pacific
towards Sydney

Sister cities[edit]

Orange is a sister city to:[24]

Notable residents[edit]

Attractions[edit]

  • Anzac Park
  • Borenore Caves
  • Cadia Mine
  • Cook Park
  • 25 Cellar Doors
  • Duntryleague Golf Club and Clubhouse
  • Federal Falls
  • Gnoo Blas Race Circuit Area
  • Hill End
  • Historic Centre of Orange
  • Lake Canobolas
  • Lucknow Historic Village
  • Mount Canobolas lookout
  • Ophir
  • Orange Botanic Gardens
  • Orange Heritage Trail
  • Orange indoor and outdoor Aquatic centre
  • Orange Regional Art Gallery
  • Narrambla, the birthplace of Banjo Paterson
  • Robertson Park
  • The Pinnacle lookout
  • Towac Valley
  • Wade Park

Pubs in Orange[edit]

  • Canobolas Hotel
  • Carrington Hotel
  • Gladstone Hotel
  • Hotel Orange
  • Kellys' Hotel
  • Metropolitan Hotel
  • Occidental Hotel
  • Ophir Tavern
  • Orange City RSL
  • Parkview Hotel
  • Robin Hood Hotel
  • Royal Hotel
  • Victoria Hotel
  • Great Western

Clubs in Orange[edit]

  • Orange City Bowling Club
  • Orange Ex-Services Club
  • Orange Rifle Club
  • Newstead Bowling Club
  • Waratah Sports Club

Historic Orange buildings[edit]

  • Anson House
  • Australia Cinema
  • Bowen Terrace
  • Centrepoint Arcade Building
  • Cook Park Greenhouses and caretakers houses
  • Dalton Bros Buildings (Myer Building)
  • Hotel Canobolas (a fine example of Art-Deco style, erected 1939)
  • Hotel Orange
  • Holy Trinity Anglican Church
  • Memorial Hall
  • Metropolitan Hotel
  • Orange Court House
  • Orange Fire Station
  • Orange Post Office
  • Orange Public School
  • Orange Town Hall
  • Royal Hotel
  • Saint Joseph's Church
  • Scout Hall
  • The former Strand Theatre
  • Wyoming Court

Historic houses[edit]

  • Strathroy Manor
  • Duntryleague House
  • Kangaroobie Mansion
  • Croagh Patrick
  • Woloroi House
  • Galbally
  • Killenny
  • Mena
  • Ammerdown House
  • Glenroi House (no longer standing, demolished for McDonald's)

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2012-13: Population Estimates by Statistical Area Level 2, 2003 to 2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  Estimated resident population (ERP) at 30 June 2013.
  2. ^ "Climate statistics for Orange Post Office". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Australian Government. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  3. ^ "Great Circle Distance between ORANGE and SYDNEY". Geosciences Australia website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  4. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3218.02012-13?OpenDocument
  5. ^ http://stat.abs.gov.au/itt/r.jsp?RegionSummary&region=16150&dataset=ABS_NRP9_LGA&geoconcept=REGION&maplayerid=LGA2012&measure=MEASURE&datasetASGS=ABS_NRP9_ASGS&datasetLGA=ABS_NRP9_LGA&regionLGA=REGION&regionASGS=REGION
  6. ^ Graham Howard & Stewart Wilson (1986). "1960: Let the race begin". Australian Touring Car Championship, 25 Fabulous Years. Gordon, NSW: R&T Publishing. pp. 14–26. ISBN 0-9590378-2-9. 
  7. ^ Greaves, Bernard. "Blackman, James (1792–1868)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  8. ^ "PLACE NAMES.". The Australian Women's Weekly (1932–1982) (1932–1982: National Library of Australia). 13 May 1964. p. 61. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  9. ^ "Suburb Search: Orange City Council". Local Council Boundaries. Division of Local Government. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "Event information". Australian National Field Days. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  11. ^ "Lucknow". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  12. ^ a b "Climate statistics for Orange Airport". Bureau of Meteorology. Commonwealth of Australia. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  13. ^ "Bureau of Meteorology – Summary statistics WOLLONGONG UNIVERSITY". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  14. ^ "Climate statistics for Australian locations". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "Orange Wine Region". WineCompanion.com.au. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  16. ^ http://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/news/local/news/general/stink-over-effluent/1557992.aspx
  17. ^ http://www.winesoforange.com.au/
  18. ^ "Orange Blues Club". Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  19. ^ "Black Stump Blues Festival". Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  20. ^ "Orange Jazz Club". Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  21. ^ Cubby, Ben, Pipeline plan puts protected wetlands in peril, say researchers [1]
  22. ^ "Orange railway station". www.nswrail.net. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  23. ^ "Orange East Fork Platform". www.nswrail.net. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ "Jason Belmonte: player profile". Professional Bowlers Association. 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  26. ^ Billy Bevan at the Internet Movie Database
  27. ^ Byrnes, Holly (8 August 2011). "Kate Bracks of Orange in NSW wins MasterChef in 2011". The Daily Telegraph (Australia). Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  28. ^ Hume, Anika (16 November 2011). "The Wiggles come to Mudgee". Mudgee Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  29. ^ "Former deputy premier Cutler dead". The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  30. ^ Rutledge, Martha. "Dalton, James (1834–1919)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  31. ^ Mark Furze at the Internet Movie Database
  32. ^ Wainwright, Robert (1 December 2007). "Don't let this fresh face fool you". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  33. ^ Swanton, Bruce. "Hanson, Frederick John (1914–1980)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  34. ^ Hill, A. J. "Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863–1930)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  35. ^ "Australia: Players & Officials: David Lyons". ESPN Scrum. 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  36. ^ "James Maloney profile". Television New Zealand. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2011. 
  37. ^ Ritchie, Dean (6 August 2009). "Eels send Daniel Mortimer back to family vineyard in Orange to re-charge". The Daily Telegraph (Australia). Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  38. ^ "About us". Mortimers of Orange. 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  39. ^ "Lucas John Kendall Parsons - Golf Champion". Orange City Council. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 
  40. ^ Semmler, Clement. "Paterson, Andrew Barton (Banjo) (1864–1941)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  41. ^ Haskell, Dennis. "Slessor, Kenneth Adolf (1901–1971)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  42. ^ Stephens, Tony (19 July 2004). "Would-be Queen Susan dies uncrowned". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 

External links[edit]