Royal Cambodian Armed Forces

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Royal Cambodian Armed Forces
កងទ័ពយុទ្ធពលខេឞរភូមិន្ទ
Kangyuthipol Khemarak Phumin
Forces armées royales cambodgiennes
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces Logo.gif
Founded 1953
Service branches Royal Cambodian Army
Royal Cambodian Navy
Royal Cambodian Air Force
Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia
Headquarters High Command Headquarters
Jok Dimitrov Boulevard, Khan 7 Makara, Phnom Penh
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief King Norodom Sihamoni
Minister of Defence General Tea Banh
Manpower
Military age 18–60
Available for
military service
4,000,000 males, age 18–50 (2010 est.),
3,900,000 females, age 18–50 (2010 est.)
Fit for
military service
3,000,000 males, age 18–50 (2010 est.),
2,900,000 females, age 18–50 (2010 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
150,000 males (2010 est.),
150,000 females (2010 est.)
Active personnel 125,000
Reserve personnel 200,000
Expenditures
Budget $650 million (FY01 est.)
Percent of GDP 3% (2010 est.)
Industry
Foreign suppliers  People's Republic of China[1]
 Russia
 Bulgaria[2]
 Vietnam
 Czech Republic
 Poland
 South Korea
 United States
 Indonesia
 Philippines
Related articles
History Military history of Cambodia

The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (Khmer: កងទ័ពយុទ្ធពលខេឞរភូមិន្ទ, Kangtorp Yuthipol Khemarak Phumin) (RCAF) is the national military forces of Cambodia. The Supreme Commander-in-Chief is HM King Norodom Sihamoni, General Pol Saroeun is the Commander in Chief of the RCAF, which consists of the Army, Navy, Air Force and the Gendarmerie.

The armed forces currently operate under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of National Defence. Under the constitution the RCAF is in charged of protecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia from external threats.

The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces consists of three branches:

The RCAF was created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two non communist resistance armies. At the time, there were also resistance forces opposing the Government comprising the Khmer Rouge and a separate royalist resistance movement (also known as the National United Army or NUA). The forerunner of the Cambodian Armed Forces is the Division 125. It was established in 1978 by Hun Sen (now is Prime Minister) and the Vietnam People's Army's support.[3][4]

The Royal Cambodian Army is the largest force with troops stationed in each province of the country. The Royal Cambodian Navy is the second largest force and operates at sea, along the Mekong and Bassac rivers and in the Tonle Sap Lake. The military police force numbers 10,000 employees and runs parallel to the civilian police force.

The military police have posts in every province and municipality across the country. The Royal Cambodian Air Force is the smallest of the three forces and has 5,000 employees. The air force operates in every province with an airport.[5]

Strength and demobilization[edit]

Cambodian de-mining force in Sudan.
Cambodian Marines aboard the USS Tortuga during military training.

In 2002, Prince Sisowath Sirirath, then Co-Minister of Defense, stated that the total Cambodian military strength stood around 120,000 persons.[6] With the end of fighting and the surrender of the last of the Khmer Rouge, the Cambodian military has been undergoing substantial changes as it shifts to become a peacetime force.

Since 1999, the government has been working to demobilize large numbers of servicemen with support from the World Bank. Demobilization efforts began in February 2000 and the first 10,000 soldiers were demobilized in a pilot project later that year. In 2001, the first phase of demobilization got under way and 20,000 soldiers returned to civilian life in large ceremonies around the country. A second phase of demobilization was planned for 2003 where an additional 30,000 servicemen would leave the armed forces. However, the process has been stalled by allegations of corruption and procurement irregularities.[5]

Component Military personnel
Army 85,000
Emblem of Royal Cambodian Navy.gif Navy 3,000
Air Force 2,500
Coat of arms of Cambodia.svg Special Forces 5,000
Coat of arms of Cambodia.svg Royal Gendarmerie 10,000
Total 105,000

History[edit]

Royal Khmer Armed Forces (FARK)[edit]

Flag under Lon Nol (1970-1975).

The Royal Khmer Armed Forces (Forces armées royales khmères; FARK), was established on 9 November 1953 under a Franco-Khmer convention. This contributed to the termination of the French colony and protectorate, and Cambodia obtained its own authentic military organization. The FARK's roles were defined as follows: to guarantee the sovereignty of the nation and of the king; to ensure security, social order and the respect of law; and to defend the Kingdom of Cambodia. With 50,000 troops, FARK was organized at battalion level under the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, the Head of State. At this early stage of the birth of an independent nation its armed forces were often armed with little more than fake carved wooden guns to fool aggressive Viet Minh forces. This forced King Norodom Sihanouk to sign border treaty agreements that was very unfavorable to Cambodia, resulting in the loss of much of its territory.

Khmer National Armed Forces (FANK)[edit]

The military situation changed dramatically following the coup d'état in March 1970. In the Khmer Republic regime, FARK was renamed Khmer National Armed Forces (Forces armées nationales khmères; FANK). When the Cambodian Civil War followed, and in response to a declared state of emergency, the FANK's size was expanded to reach 200,000 military personnel organized in brigades and divisions. The armed forces of all categories were placed under command and control of the President. In reality only portion of the army are combat ready. Corruptions among commanders created thousands of ghost soldiers in order to pocket the ghost soldiers salary. When facing NVA, Viet Cong or Khmer Rouge forces, FANK never had full strengths as reported. FANK regiments and battalions were often wiped out by NVA, Vietcong, Khmer Rouge forces; only American air powers kept Lon Nol's armed forces surviving. Sometimes, corrupt FANK commanders sold army surplus weapons to the Khmer Rouge forces they were fighting. Often many FANK commanders not even at the front lines when launching an operations against Khmer Rouge. American congress lost all confident by late 1973 and finally cut off all military aides to FANK. Many Cambodians lost their lives as results of the corruptions that led to the Khmer Rouge took over in April 1975.

Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea (RAK)[edit]

After the downfall of the Khmer Republic in April 1975, the Khmers rouges régime established a new military force called Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea (RAK). It was purely composed of original Khmers rouges fighters and defectors Lon Nol's FANK soldiers. These FANK defectors to joined the Khmers rouges were never fully trusted by the original Khmers rouges cadres. Later, were purged by Pol Pot. Thousands of Khmers rouges soldiers and commanders were ordered to be killed by the Khmers rouges leadership. Similar to other forces, the RAK was organized up to division level and under command of the Chief of the General Staff General Son Sen and General Ta Mok. RAK's strength was an impressive 375,000-strong, fully armed military force supplied by China and some Eastern bloc states. RAK was not operated efficiently because of many Vietnamese double agents hidden among them.[citation needed] When Democratic Kampuchea launched an invasions into southern part of Vietnam (aka Prey Nokor when it was Cambodia territories prior 1949), Vietnamese forces were caught off guard temporarily; double agents hidden among the Khmers rouges forces proved themselves to be valuable. These double agents were later found out to have become members of the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (KPRAF), the armed forces of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.

Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (KPRAF)[edit]

Aircraft fin-flash of the People's Republic of Kampuchea

Following the intervention of the Vietnamese forces in January 1979, which resulted in the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime and because of the effect of the Cold War, a new force was re-created in Cambodia: The Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Armed Forces, which later changed its name to the Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF) of the Phnom Penh government, was rebuilt. This military organization evolved, in terms of size and organization, from battalions to divisions.

In the meantime, anti-Vietnamese movements were formed along the Cambodian-Thai border. Apart from the remained NADK, two other non-communist resistance forces, the Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF) and the Armées Nationale pour Khmer Independent – ANKI (previously called Armées Nationale Sihanoukist – ANS) were established. The military evolution of the last two movements was similar in character: from small armed groups to divisions.

Because of the influence of the Cold War's ideological contest, and the interference of some global powers, Cambodia found itself in an insecure environment. This remained the case for more than 20 years after 1970, and was only partly resolved through the Paris Peace Accords signed in Paris October 1991. In reality KPRAF still dominated three factions of resistance groups. KPRAF integrated the Khmer Rough surrendering troops, KPNLF, ANKI and continue to dominated these groups even after integrations.

Re-establishment of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces[edit]

A legitimate national armed force, the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, was re-established in 1993 following the creation of a democratically elected First-Term Government consisted of two priministers. The armed forces of all parties, except the NADK, were integrated into one national armed force and later NADK integrated in 1998 after Pol Pot death. In reality KPRAF totally dominated these three integrated gurrilla groups. Commanders of KPNLF,ANKI, KR were later replaced one by one with KPRAF loyalist commanders.

In order to put security problems to an end, the Government commenced its Win Win policy in mid-1995. The policy was to end the internal security crisis through national reconciliation and national unity efforts, under the rule of the King of Cambodia. Subsequent defections NADK units began in early 1996. The Win Win policy of Samdech Prime Minister Hun Sen continued to succeed as the last groups of the Khmer Rouge guerrillas were integrated into the RCAF in late 1998. It historically marked the total dissolution of the Khmer Rouge's political and military organs and the return of all secession areas to government control.

The RCAF now has to continue reforms, so as to be in-line with the Government's political guidelines. These guidelines direct the armed forces to demobilize to an acceptable size, achieve sound capability, and inculcate high ethics and dignity, with advancement towards international standardization in the future. The RCAF also has to plan for its agenda to include security cooperation for the common benefit of the whole region.

Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia[edit]

The Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia is a paramilitary unit with 10,000 soldiers deployed in all provinces. It is headquartered in Phnom Penh. The unit's chain of command is through the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces High Command and commanded by a Lieutenant General, currently Lt-General Sao Sokha. Lt-General Sao Sokha was one of the commanders that defeated FUNCINPEC forces in coupe in July 1997. The Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia is deployed in every province and cities to keep law and order. After the penal procedure code had been passed the military police in Cambodia play an important role in Cambodia society which keep law and orders in cities like the National Police, an important tasks that had been revoked sub decree in 2002. Every provincial gendarmerie is commanded by a colonel, after 1 January 2009 by a brigadier general, except in the capital of Phnom Penh where it is commanded by brigadier general since it is created. [7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Dylan Hendrickson, 'Cambodia's security-sector reforms: limits of a downsizing strategy,' Conflict, Security, and Development, Volume 1, Issue 1.
  • Gerald Segal and Mats Berdal, 'The Cambodia Dilemma,' Jane's Intelligence Review, March 1993, p. 131-2. Includes listing of formations and equipment of the various factions.
  • Robert Karniol, 'Confined to local waters,' Naval Forces Update, Jane's Defence Weekly, 20 June 1992, p. 1097. Status of Cambodian navy.


External links[edit]

High Command Badge https://www.militaria-agent.com/catalog/CAMBODIA_DIRECTORY_OF_THE_HIGH_COMMAND_BADGE_SUBORDINATED_TO_THE_MINISTRY.html