Philippine Marine Corps

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Philippine Marine Corps
Hukbong Kawal Pandagat ng Pilipinas
Pmcseal.gif
Seal of the PMC
Active November 2, 1950 – present
Country  Republic of the Philippines
Branch Philippine Navy
Type Conventional-Special Warfare, Internal-External Defense
Role

Direct Actions,

Naval Combat & Support
Size 8,700
Part of Armed Forces of the Philippines
Garrison/HQ Fort Bonifacio, Makati City, Philippines
Nickname PMC, Philippine Marines. "The Few The Proud The Marines" The Best In Soldiery.
Motto Karangalan' Katungkulan, Kabayanihan
"Honor, Duty, Valor"
"Honor, Deber, Valor"
Colors Scarlet, Gold and Blue
Anniversaries November 2
Engagements Communist Insurgencies
Islamic Insurgencies, Counter Insurgencies-Terrorism, Civilian Military Operations, International Peace Support and Humanitarian Relief Operations, UN Operation.
Commanders
Commandant of the Philippine Marine Corps Major General Romeo Tanalgo, AFP

The Philippine Marine Corps (PMC) (Filipino: Hukbong Kawal Pandagat ng Pilipinas) is the marine corps of the Philippines, and it's a Naval infantry branch of the Philippine Navy.

History[edit]


"The task of training these young men into Marines is vested upon us. Today, as we start training them, we will be striking the first hammer blow in forging the "cutting edge" of the Armed Forces."

— LTSG Manuel Gomez's mission on the formation of the Philippine Marine Corps in 1950

On orders from President Elpidio Quirino and Ramon Magsaysay, then Secretary of National Defense, the Corps was organized on November 7, 1950, as A Company of the Philippine Fleet's 1st Marine Battalion and then headquartered in Cavite City, in Naval Base Cavite. Personnel from the United States Army and United States Marine Corps helped train the very first Philippine Marines in combat and amphibious duties in Fort Bonifacio in Makati City and in various other locations. Lieutenant (senior grade) Manuel Gomez was its first commandant, with then Lieutenant (junior grade) Gregorio Lim assisting him, with six other officers (4 seconded from the Navy and two from the Philippine Army) joining them.

Their hardwork and training would pay off as the Marine Company conducted its first amphibious landing on April 19, 1951 in Umiray, Quezon, and took part in battle for the first time on June 4 of the same year in Nueva Ecija against communist rebels. These and other notable battles in various parts of the country led to the Navy's decision to complete the 1st Marine Battalion with the raising of B Company in 1955 and the Headquarters and Service Company also in the same year, thus the marine battalion of one HQ company and two marine rifle companies, with now LCDR Lim in charge, was finally complete.

Further marine companies and a weapons company would later be formed to augment the expansion of the force in the 1960s, and the abilities even expanded to VIP protection, and would also see the raising of its very own drum and bugle corps. The Marines would see themselves in action in securing the Spratly Islands in 1971 and in combating Muslim separatist forces and a strong New People's Army in the following years as the force became the Philippine Marine Brigade with the formation of the 2nd and 3rd Marine Battalions, the Headquarters Service Group, the 1st Provisional Tactical Battalion which saw action in Mindanao against Islamic separatists, and the Marine Training Group, later the Philippine Marines Training Group.

To highlight these changes the force was, in 1976, renamed as the Philippine Marines.

As the 1980s arrived, the force expansion was accompanied by battles against both communists and armed Islamist rebels all over the country, and in 1986 even took part in the successful People Power Revolution. The latter years would also see them in action as one coup d'état after another was launched, all ending in failure. It also saw Rodolfo Biazon become the first and only Marine Corps general to head the Armed Forces as Chief of Staff.

The 1990s would see further expansion as the force, as part of the Philippine Navy, became the Philippine Marine Corps of today in 1995 as the force turned 45 years. The early 2000s would see the Marine Corps once more facing not just communists and Islamic militants but also terrorist groups as well.

Formation[edit]

Philippine Marines 8th Marine Battalion Landing Team, push forward after splashing ashore in an amphibious assault vehicle during an amphibious assault training exercise

The Philippine Marine Corps is organized into three maneuver brigades, a Combat Service and Support Brigade (CSSB), a Headquarters for 7th Marine Brigade(R)NCR, and independent units such as the Force Recon Battalion (FRBn) and the Marine Security and Escort Group (MSEG). The three maneuver brigades provide administrative and logistical support to the units assigned to them, while the CSSB acts as a training and administrative command for the Field Artillery (FABN) and Assault Armor (AABN) battalions.[1]

Marine Battalion Landing Team (MBLT)[edit]

The Philippine Marine Corps has twelve regular Marine Battalions.[2] Three battalions are assigned to each of the three maneuver brigades and a single battalion is rotated back to the Marine headquarters for refit and retraining for at least six months up to one year before redeployment to operational areas in Southern Philippines.[3]

Each of the twelve battalions is organized into three rifle companies and a headquarters and service company. The battalions are augmented with elements of other units, such as artillery, armored vehicles or watercraft, for specific tasks. These units, when supported with assets from the CSSB form the core of a Marine Battalion Landing Team (MBLT). A combat engineer unit from the Naval Combat Engineering Brigade (NCEBde) or Seabees can be attached for support. A PMC Force Recon Component can also be attached to the battalion to make it Special Operations Capable (SOC).[3]

A Philippine Marine Corps instructor teaches the U.S. Marines a style of Philippine Martial Arts known as Pekiti-Tirsia Kali during a combat training exercise.

Marine Reserve Units[edit]

The 7th Marine Brigade (NCR) is the Main Active Reserve Force of the Philippine Marine Corps with 3 operational Marine Battalions Composed of active men & women from different backgrounds & experiences, that are integrated to the regular & special units of the Corps. Given the same (MOS) training that enable the 7th MBde personnel to have interoperability with the rest of the Corps. Administrative control rest on the Naval Reserve Command (NCR), Philippine Navy while Operational is with the Philippine Marine Corps (MC9). (Motto: Always Faithful, Always Ready, Nickname: Shadow Warriors)

Field Artillery Battalion[edit]

The Field Artillery Battalion (FABN) is currently organized into a Headquarters and Service Company and several howitzer batteries which are attached to the maneuver brigades to support their operations. It is equipped with both the M101A1 howitzer and the OTO Melara Model 56/14 pack howitzer. The unit also provides a limited air-defense capability through a token number of Bofors 40 mm L/60 guns.

Assault Armor Battalion[edit]

The Assault Armor Battalion (AABN) contains a Headquarters and Service Company, an Armor Maintenance Company (Armor Mnt Co), an Assault Amphibian Company (AAV Co), and a Light Armor Vehicle Company (LAV Co). It is tasked with providing the maneuver brigades with armored assets to support their operations. The unit's inventory consists of LAV-150s, LAV-300s, LVTP-5s and LVTH-6s. None of the LVTP-5s are currently in service but the Marines have been able to recondition four of the LVTH-6s for their use.

Marine Force Reconnaissance Battalion[edit]

Philippine Marine rushes up a small ditch while the unit of USMC provides communication during the Balikatan Exercise

The Force Recon Battalion (FRBn) is organized into a Headquarters, Service and Training Company and four Recon Companies, numbered 61st, 62nd, 63rd,and 64th. Each of these companies is attached to a Marine Brigade to serve as quick maneuvering force. It specialises in sea, air and land operations, like its counterpart in the Naval Special Warfare Group of the Philippine Navy, ranging from reconnaissance, close combat, demolition, intelligence and underwater operations in support to the overall naval operations.(Swift Silent Deadly)

Marine Security and Escort Group[edit]

The Marine Security and Escort Group (MSEG) is responsible for security on naval facilities, vital government installations and protection of VIPs. The unit also fills most of the PMC's ceremonial duties.

Marine Drum and Bugle Team[edit]

The Marine Drum and Bugle Team (MDBT) is the prime musical unit of the Philippine Marine Corps and the only Drum and Bugle Corps in the entire Armed Forces of the Philippines that provides marching band and musical services in support of the ceremonial and morale activities of the Corps. This is patterned along the lines of the United States Marine Drum and Bugle Corps and is stationed at Marine Barracks R. Brown in Makati City.

Marine Scout Snipers[edit]

The Marine Scout Snipers (MSS) is the very first unit in the Armed Forces of the Philippines dedicated exclusively to sniping and marksmanship. The Scout Snipers are notable for being able to effectively hit and neutralize targets at 800 metres (2,600 ft) using only 5.56 mm rounds.[citation needed] The Marine Scout Snipers are renowned for the development and manufacture of their own weapon, the Colt M16A1 based Marine Scout Sniper Rifle.

Philippine Marine Corps Marine Silent Drill Platoon[edit]

Also headquartered in Makati City, this is the premier military drill team of the Corps and one of 4 such units in the AFP, patterned after the United States Marine Corps Silent Drill Platoon. Like its US counterpart it does a unique silent precision exhibition drill using the M1 Garand rifles with fixed bayonets demonstrating the Corps's professionalism and discipline in all events where it is a part of.

Major Equipment[edit]

Infantry weapons[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Caliber Version In Service Notes
Pistol
M1911 A1 pistol.jpg M1911 pistol  United States
 Philippines
Semi-Automatic Pistol .45 ACP M1911 ------------ Standard issue sidearm, local variants made by Armscor company
Beretta 92 FS.gif Beretta 92  Italy Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Standard - Standard issue
Submachine Gun
MP5 in U.S. Ordnance Museum.jpg MP5  Germany Submachine gun 9x19mm Standard - Standard army issue submachine gun [4]
M3-SMG.jpg M3 Grease Gun  United States Submachine gun .45 ACP M3 Upgraded - Some reserved units refurbished and upgraded, used by armored crew and support troops[5][6]
Assault rifle
M16A1 brimob.jpg M16  United States
 Philippines
Assault rifle 5.56×45mm A1
A1 (enhanced)
A1 Dissipator
A2
- Standard infantry issue rifle. Government Arsenal refurbishing A1-standard rifles to A1 (enhanced) and A1 Dissipator 16" standards
Night Fighting Weapon System rifle with NVS scope.png Night Fighting Weapons System  Philippines Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NFWS - Introduced in 2004, developed by the PMC based on M16A1 rifle after experiences in the MSSR. Used by Force Recon Battalion[7]
PEO M4 Carbine RAS M68 CCO.jpg M4 carbine  United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm M4 & M4A1 - Used by Force Recon Battalion
HK416.jpg HK416  Germany Assault rifle 5.56×45mm D10RS & D14.5RS - Used by Force Recon Battalion[8][9]
CAR-15  United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Standard - Used by Force Recon Battalion
M14 rifle - USA - 7,62x51mm - Armémuseum.jpg M14 rifle  United States Battle rifle 7.62x51mm M14 - In service as standard squad battle rifle
Sniper Rifle
MSSR rifle camo paint.jpg Marine Scout Sniper Rifle  Philippines Designated Marksman Rifle 5.56×45mm MSSR 1st Gen
MSSR 2nd Gen
MSSR 3rd Gen
- Introduced in 1996, developed by the PMC based on M16A1 rifle[7]
Sniper Rifles M40 XM21.jpg M21  United States Sniper Rifle 7.62x51mm Standard -
Remington Model 700.JPG Remington M700  United States Sniper Rifle 7.62x51mm M40A1 - Introduced the M700P in 2004, modified by the PMC to M40A1 standard to suit their requirements[7][10]
Barrett M95SP.jpg Barrett M95  United States Sniper Rifle .50 BMG M95 - Used by Marine Scout Snipers.[7]
Machine Gun
PEO M240B Profile.jpg M240  United States General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm Standard ------------ Standard Squad Automatic Weapon
M60.jpg M60  United States General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm Standard ------------ Standard Squad Automatic Weapon
Browning M1919a.png M1919 Browning  United States Medium Machine Gun .30-06 Springfield M1919A4 ------------ Used on gun trucks and other vehicles[6][11]
Minimi.jpg FN Minimi  Belgium Light machine gun 5.56x45mm Standard ------------ Standard Squad Automatic Weapon.[12][13]
Machine gun M2 1.jpg M2 Browning  United States Heavy machine gun .50 BMG Standard ------------ In Service
Grenade Launcher
PEO M320 Grenade Launcher.jpg M320 Grenade Launcher Module  Germany Grenade launcher 40mm M320 ------------ Attached to HK416, some in stand-alone system
M203 1.jpg M203  United States Grenade launcher 40mm Standard ------------ Attached to M4/M4A1 and M16A1/M16A2
M79 afmil.jpg M79  United States Grenade launcher 40mm Standard ------------
Anti-tank Weapon
Armbrust rocket launcher photo Iraq OIG.jpg Armbrust  Germany/ Singapore Anti-tank Weapon 66mm Standard ------------ Sourced from Singapore, in limited numbers as an alternative to recoilless rifles.[14]
USAF M72 LAW.jpg M72 LAW  United States Anti-tank Weapon 66mm Standard ------------ Standard army issue anti-tank weapon
Rcl106lat2.jpg M40  United States Recoilless rifle 105mm Standard ------------ In Service
M67 recoilless rifle 01.jpg M67  United States Recoilless rifle 90mm Standard ------------ In Service
Mortar
Mortar M29.jpg M29 mortar  United States Mortar 81mm Standard - [15]
M30 mortar at the War Remnants Museum.jpg M30 mortar  United States Mortar 107mm Standard - Delivered in 1974.[15][16]

Communication equipment[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Version In Service Notes
AN/PRC-150 Falcon II  United States Manpack Combat Radio RF-5800H-MP ------------ Introduced in 2004. 15 units received in 2005, more units delivered in 2008[17][18] and 2011.[19]
AN/PRC-152 Falcon III  United States Handheld Combat Radio RF-5800V - Introduced in 2004. 103 units received in 2005, More units delivered in 2008[17][18] and 2011.[19]

Armored vehicles[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Version In Service Notes
LVTP-5-training.jpg LVT-5  United States Amphibious Fire Support Vehicle LVTH-6 4 Previously out of service, refurbished and recommissioned in 2006 with armor upgrades.
Cadillac Gage Commando.JPEG Commando  United States Armoured personnel carrier V-150 ~18 Delivery starting 1975,[16] at least 18 known in service[20] and 12 refurbished in 2007.[21]
LAV-300  United States Armored personnel carrier & Fire Support Vehicle V-300 APC
V-300 FSV
12
11
Introduced in early 90s. 23 in service as at 2012,[15] 1 FSV destroyed in enemy action.
M35 Armored Gun Truck  Philippines Armored Gun Trucks M35 Gun Truck ------------ Several M35 2 1/2-ton cargo trucks were converted to armored gun trucks by the PMC using armor plating from decommissioned LVT-5 acting as armored personnel carriers.[22]
USMarines AAV Iraq apr 2004 116 hires.jpg KAAV7A1  Republic of Korea Armoured Personnel Carrier KAAV7A1 8 on order Delivery expected by 2 years & 6 months after the signing of the contract.[23]

Utility vehicles[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Version In Service Notes
LARC V vehicle.JPEG LARC-V  United States Amphibious Support Vehicle LARC-V 5 Most refurbished in 2006.
GKN Aquatrack  United Kingdom Amphibious Support Vehicle Aquatrack 2 Introduced in mid 1990s. Originally owned by the Office of Civil Defense but under PMC stewardship.
US Navy 060322-N-5438H-018 U.S. Army soldiers assigned to the Bravo Battery 3rd Battalion 320th Field Artillery Regiment along with Iraq Army soldiers from the 1st Battalion 1st Brigade 4th Division perform a routine patrol.jpg AM General HMMWV  United States Light Utility Vehicle M998A1
M1038A1
M1025A1
- Divided into several variants and series
USMCAmbulance.jpg Maxi-Ambulance  United States Light Utility Vehicle M997A2 4 23 delivered to AFP on November 2011,[24] PMC received 4 units.
US Marine Corps 030224-M-XT622-034 USMC M923 (6X6) 5-ton cargo truck heads a convoy departing Camp Matilda, Kuwait crop.jpg M939 truck  United States Heavy Utility Vehicle M923 - Several delivered to AFP in 2013, several units for the Marines.[25]
M35.jpg M35 Truck  United States 2 1/2-ton Utility Vehicle M35 - Divided into several variants and series. More delivered in 2013.
JeepFrontM151.jpg M151  United States 1/4-ton Light Utility Vehicle and Weapons Carrier Standard - In Service, several carrying M40 106mm recoilless rifle
Delta Mini Cruiser (Philippine Army).jpg Delta Mini Cruiser  Philippines 1/4-ton Light Utility Vehicle M1777 - Divided into several variants and series, including short and stretched utility and armed variants, and modified variants for specialized units.
Marine Multi-purpose Vehicle  Philippines Light Utility Vehicle and Weapons Carrier Standard - To replace the M151 MUTT, usually armed with an M40 106mm recoilless rifle, or as a cheaper alternative to the Humvee.[26]
KM-50 Series  Republic of Korea 5-ton Utility Vehicle KM-500 12 155mm Artillery prime mover. 1st batch of 6 delivered 2012.
KM-45 Series  Republic of Korea 1 1/2-ton Utility Vehicle
Field Ambulance
KM-450
KM-451
<50
12
651 purchased by AFP on 2007, 61 units shared by Navy/Marines and Air Force[27]
60 purchased by AFP in 2012, 12 went to the Marines.
Freightliner M2 Business Class Crew Cab 6x4 2012.jpg Freightliner M2  United States Utility Truck M2 106 Crew Cab 6 Hauler for Riverine Patrol Boat trailer, each with RPB trailer.[28]

Artillery[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Version In Service Notes
M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg M101  United States 105mm Towed Howitzer Standard ~23 Total 300 delivered to the AFP, majority with the Army. Delivered in 1957-1958.[16] 75 still in service as of 2012.[15]
Spanish-marines-man-105mm-howitzer-19811001.jpg Mod 56  Italy 105mm Towed Howitzer Standard ~20 Total 250 delivered to AFP, majority went to the Army. Delivered in 1983.[16][20]

Anti-Aircraft[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Version In Service Notes
Bofors-p004596.jpg Bofors 40mm L/60  United States Anti-Aircraft gun Single Naval Mk. 3
Twin Naval Mk. 16
- Formerly ship-mounted anti-aircraft guns, transferred to the PMC. Mounted on trailer carriages.[20][29] More being planned as the navy transfers more gun mounts to the PMC.
HMS Dido gun.jpg Oerlikon 20mm gun  United States Anti-Aircraft gun Single Naval Mk. 10 - Formerly ship-mounted anti-aircraft guns, transferred to the PMC. Mounted of M35 2 1/2-ton trucks.[20][29]
Twin M2HB machine gun.jpg M2 Browning  United States Heavy machine gun Twin Naval Mk. 56 - Formerly patrol boat-mounted guns, with the naval gun tub fitted on an M35 2 1/2-ton trucks that tows the Bofors 40mm anti-aircraft gun trailers.[20][29]

Watercraft[edit]

Picture Model Origin Type Version In Service Notes
US Navy 070910-N-6639M-043 Sailors assigned to Riverine Squadron (RIVRON) 2 come ashore with two simulated detainees to be turned over to Mobile Security Squadron 3, Det. 33, during COMET 2007.jpg Riverine Patrol Boat  United States Small Unit Riverine Craft 40' x 10'8" SURC 6 Similar but larger version of the SURC used by the US Marines produced by Silver Ships Inc., purchased under FMS worth $6.5 million and introduced on September 2013[30]

Future[edit]

Main article: AFP Modernization Act
  • As of September 2013, DND invited bidders for Amphibious Assault Vehicles Acquisition Project of 8 brand-new units of amphibious assault vehicles (AAV) with Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) for the Philippine Navy amounted to Php2.5B. Delivery is required for 850 days from the opening of the letter of credit. This acquisition is part of the PN's MRV/SSV or "Mother Ship" Project which will serve as platform for insertion of troops in beaches in an event of military siege.[31][32]
  • The Philippine Marines has a joint purchase with the Philippine Army for around 44,080 new body armor (Force Protection Equipment),[33] composed of basic vest, plate inserts and soft-ballistic panel and weighing between 5.8 kilograms to 6.8 kg.[34]
  • A joint project between the Philippine Marines and the Philippine Army is the procurement of around 50,000 new rifles based on M16/M4/M4A1/AR-15 platform, and 5,500 close combat optics.[35][36] The PMC will get a fraction of the rifles and optics. The assault rifle acquisition project was awarded to Remington Defense for their Remington R4 carbine.[37]
  • A joint project between the Philippine Marines and Philippine Army for the acquisition of 12 units of 155mm towed howitzer and 280 rounds of 155mm howitzer HE ammunition.[38]

Marine Bases[edit]

Culture[edit]

The Philippine Marines share the traditions of both the US and Spanish marine units especially in the uniform and rank system. But the Corps has its own traditions as well.

Official traditions and customs[edit]

Core Values and Motto[edit]

Karangalan, Katungkulan, Kabayanihan (Honor, Duty, Valor) are not just the Marine Corps motto but also the main Core Values of the Philippine Marines of today, emphasizing the kind of values that service personnel of the PMC will always live on everyday.

PMC Seal[edit]

The seal incorporates the sun with its eight rays from the Flag of the Philippines, the anchor symbolizing the naval heritage and bond of the Corps as it is a part of the Philippine Navy, the closed loop rope (different from the rope in the USMC arms) symbolizing the links of Marines to one another and to show that a Philippine Marine once will be a Philippine Marine always, and the scroll showing the Marine Corps motto and Core Values: Karangalan, Katungkulan, Kabayanihan (Honor, Duty, Valor). As with the USMC, blue represents the naval heritage while the official Marine Corps colors of scarlet and gold are also present, forming the base of Marine Corps guidons, and all three form the basis for the battle color as opposed to the latter two which is the USMC color basis.

Battle Color of the Philippine Marine Corps[edit]

The battle color, maintained by Marine Barracks Rudiardo Brown in Fort Bonifacio, Makati City, Metro Manila, is in navy blue with two golden scrolls, one indicating the name of the corps at the top and the other, surrounding the anchor and the sun, indicating the Marine Corps motto and core values, all in red lettering. The battle color incorporates both the anchor and the sun with eight rays from the seal, but also includes the three stars of the national flag symbolizing the Philippines's three major island groups above the anchor. The color is similar to the one used by the USMC during the First World War.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Philippine Marine Corps (official website)". Retrieved 2006-06-25. [dead link]
  2. ^ IISS (2012), p. 276
  3. ^ a b "The Philippine Marine Battalions". The Philippine Marine Corps. Retrieved 30 July 2010. [dead link]
  4. ^ GERMAN FIREARMS IN THE PHILIPPINES by Roman Deckert, seen Sep 24, 2008
  5. ^ M3 Grease Guns Reissued
  6. ^ a b Philippine Marines Reintroduce Old Kit
  7. ^ a b c d The Philippine Marine Corps Scout Sniper Program
  8. ^ Anti-Militarist Network Caught in the Act: H&K Selling Guns to Human Rights Abusers
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ "On assignment in Zambo with Marine snipers". GMA News. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  11. ^ The M1919 .30 cal MG: Alive and well in the AFP
  12. ^ Inquirer.net (March 26, 2005) P.6-B contract for 1,700 guns placed on hold
  13. ^ The 5.56 x 45mm: 2002-2003
  14. ^ "Armbrust in the AFP". Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c d IISS (2012), p. 277
  16. ^ a b c d "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Information generated in 29 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Harris Corporation Awarded $80 Million Contract to Provide Falcon II(R) Tactical Radios to Philippines Ministry of Defence
  18. ^ a b Radios, Helicopters for the Philippines
  19. ^ a b "Philippine Army is Expanding". Asia Pacific Defense. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c d e GlobalSecuirty.org Philippine Marine Corps Equipment List
  21. ^ Textron Marine & Land Systems Textron Marine & Land Delivers First Six Re-powered V-150 Combat Vehicles to Philippine Marine Corps
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ [3]
  24. ^ "Military acquires 23 new Humvee units". BusinessMirror.com.ph. 2011-11-14. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  25. ^ Look at what I've stumbled upon!
  26. ^ [4]
  27. ^ Salarzon, JB: Special Report : P8 Billion na ang nagastos sa modernisasyon ng Army , Abante / Abante Tonight, August 2008.
  28. ^ [5]
  29. ^ a b c [6]
  30. ^ "US to turn-over 6 river craft to PHL Marines". GMA News. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  31. ^ "Amphibious Assault vehicle Acquisition Project". Department of National Defense, Philippines. 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  32. ^ "DND invites bidders for 8 Amphibious Assault Vehicles". AFPModernization.blogspot.com. 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  33. ^ "Force Protection Equipment Acquisition Project for the Philippine Army and Philippine Marines Corps". DND.gov.ph. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  34. ^ "DND wants US testing for soldiers’ protection kits". Business Mirror. 2013-03-31. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  35. ^ "DND to purchase P1.7-B worth of body armors". ABS-CBN News. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  36. ^ "Invitation to Bid- Assault Rifles & Close Combat Optics". PhilGEPS Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System. 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 
  37. ^ "Remington gets $47 million contract to make guns for Philippines". CNYCentral.com. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Invitation to Bid for 155mm Towed Howitzer with Ammunition Acquisition Project". DND.gov.ph. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  39. ^ "The Philippine Marine Corps". 
Works consulted
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2012). The Military Balance 2012. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222. 

External links[edit]