Geography of Cambodia

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Geography of Cambodia
Cambodia Topography.png
Continent Asia
Region Southeast Asia
Coordinates 13°00′N 105°00′E / 13.000°N 105.000°E / 13.000; 105.000
Area Ranked 96th
 • Total 181,035 km2 (69,898 sq mi)
 • Land 97.50%
 • Water 2.50%
Coastline 443 km (275 mi)
Borders 2572 km
Laos 541 km
Thailand 803 km
Vietnam 1228 km
Highest point Phnom Aural
1810 m
Lowest point Gulf of Thailand
0 m
Longest river Mekong river
450 km
Largest lake Tonlé Sap
16000 km²

Cambodia is a country in Southeast Asia, situated on the Gulf of Thailand, east of Thailand, west of Vietnam, and south of Laos. It borders Vietnam over a length of 1,228 km, Thailand over a length of 803 km and Laos over a length of 541 km, with 2,572 km in total and an additional 443 km of coastline. Cambodia covers 181,035 square kilometers in the south-western part of the Indochinese peninsula and lies completely within the tropics; its southern-most points are only slightly more than 10° above the equator. Roughly square in shape, the country is bounded on the north by the Dangrek Mountains facing Thailand and Laos, on the east by the Annamite Range of Vietnam, in the south-west by the Cardamom Mountains and in the South by the Elephant Mountains. The country's interior consists of alluvial flood-plains of the Mekong river, which feeds the large and almost centrally located Tonlé Sap Lake. The Mekong traverses the country from North to South over a length of around 450 km as the 12th longest river in the world.

The country's climate is tropical and monsoonal with a wet and a dry season, both of relatively equal length as temperatures and humidity are generally high throughout the entire year. Forest covers about two-thirds of the country, but it has been somewhat degraded in the more readily accessible areas by burning (a method called slash-and-burn agriculture), and by shifting agriculture.

Geology[edit]

Southeast Asia consists of allochthonous continental blocks from Gondwanaland. These include the South China, Indochina, Sibumasu, and West Burma blocks, which amalgamated to form the Southeast Asian continent during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time.[1] Southeast Asia is a tectonic collage of Precambrian microcontinents. Although the possiblity of Archean-age rocks has been raised occasionally, reliable radiometric dating data led to a general consensus that the region mainly consists of blocks of Proterozoic to Phanerozoic age.[2]

Topography[edit]

Detailed map of Cambodia

Cambodia falls within several well-defined geographic regions. The largest part of the country, about 75 percent, consists of the Tonlé Sap Basin and the Mekong Lowlands. To the southeast of this great basin is the Mekong Delta, which extends through Vietnam to the South China Sea. The basin and delta regions are rimmed with mountain ranges to the southwest by the Cardamom Mountains and the Elephant Mountains and to the north by the Dangrek Mountains. Higher land to the northeast and to the east merges into the Central Highlands of southern Vietnam.

The Tonle Sap Basin-Mekong Lowlands region consists chiefly of plains with elevations generally of less than 100 meters. As the elevation increases, the terrain becomes more rolling and dissected.

The Cardamom Mountains in the southwest, oriented generally in a northwest-southeast direction, rise to more than 1,500 meters. The highest mountain in Cambodia--Phnom Aural, at 1,771 meters—is in the eastern part of this range. The Elephant Mountains, an extension running toward the south and the southeast from the Cardamom Mountains, rises to elevations of between 500 and 1,000 meters. These two ranges are bordered on the west by a narrow coastal plain that contains Kampong Saom Bay, which faces the Gulf of Thailand. This area was largely isolated until the opening of the port of Sihanoukville (formerly called Kampong Saom) and the construction of a road and railroad connecting Sihanoukville, Kampot, Takeo, and Phnom Penh in the 1960s.

The Dangrek Mountains at the northern rim of the Tonlé Sap Basin consist of a steep escarpment with an average elevation of about 500 meters, the highest points of which reach more than 700 meters. The escarpment faces southward and is the southern edge of the Korat Plateau in Thailand. The watershed along the escarpment marks the boundary between Thailand and Cambodia. The main road through a pass in the Dangrek Mountains at O Smach connects northwestern Cambodia with Thailand. Despite this road and those running through a few other passes, in general the escarpment impedes easy communication between the two countries. Between the western part of the Dangrek and the northern part of the Cardamom ranges, however, lies an extension of the Tonlé Sap Basin that merges into lowlands in Thailand, which allows easy access from the border to Bangkok.

The Mekong Valley, which offers a communication route between Cambodia and Laos, separates the eastern end of the Dangrek Mountains and the northeastern highlands. To the southeast, the basin joins the Mekong Delta, which, extending into Vietnam, provides both water and land communications between the two countries.

Climate[edit]

Worldwide zones of Tropical savanna climate (Aw).
Worldwide zones of tropical monsoon climate (Am).

Cambodia's climate, like that of much the rest of mainland Southeast Asia is dominated by monsoons, which are known as tropical wet and dry because of the distinctly marked seasonal differences. The monsoonal air-flows are caused by annual alternating high pressure and low pressure over the Central Asian landmass. In summer, moisture-laden air—the southwest monsoon—is drawn landward from the Indian Ocean. The flow is reversed during the winter, and the northeast monsoon sends back dry air. The southwest monsoon brings the rainy season from mid-May to mid-September or to early October, and the northeast monsoon flow of drier and cooler air lasts from early November to March. The southern third of the country has a two-month dry season; the northern two-thirds, a four-month one. Short transitional periods, which are marked by some difference in humidity but by little change in temperature, intervene between the alternating seasons. Temperatures are fairly uniform throughout the Tonlé Sap Basin area, with only small variations from the average annual mean of around 25 °C (77.0 °F). The maximum mean is about 28.0 °C (82.4 °F); the minimum mean, about 22.98 °C (73.36 °F). Maximum temperatures of higher than 32 °C (89.6 °F), however, are common and, just before the start of the rainy season, they may rise to more than 38 °C (100.4 °F). Minimum temperatures rarely fall below 10 °C (50 °F). January is the coolest month, and April is the warmest. Tropical cyclones that often devastate coastal Vietnam rarely cause damage in Cambodia.

The total annual rainfall average is between 1,000 and 1,500 millimeters (39.4 and 59.1 in), and the heaviest amounts fall in the southeast. Rainfall from April to September in the Tonlé Sap Basin-Mekong Lowlands area averages 1,300 to 1,500 millimeters (51.2 to 59.1 in) annually, but the amount varies considerably from year to year. Rainfall around the basin increases with elevation. It is heaviest in the mountains along the coast in the southwest, which receive from 2,500 millimeters (98.4 in) to more than 5,000 millimeters (196.9 in) of precipitation annually as the southwest monsoon reaches the coast. This area of greatest rainfall, however, drains mostly to the sea; only a small quantity goes into the rivers flowing into the basin. The relative humidity is high at night throughout the year; usually it exceeds 90 percent. During the daytime in the dry season, humidity averages about 50 percent or slightly lower, but it may remain about 60 percent in the rainy period.


Climate data for Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.3
(88.3)
31.2
(88.2)
32.1
(89.8)
33.7
(92.7)
32.3
(90.1)
31.2
(88.2)
30.0
(86)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
31.2
(88.2)
31.7
(89.1)
31.43
(88.57)
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
24.6
(76.3)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77)
26.8
(80.2)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
25.1
(77.2)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
24.4
(75.9)
23.5
(74.3)
25.07
(77.12)
Precipitation mm (inches) 28.3
(1.114)
25.2
(0.992)
50.3
(1.98)
124.8
(4.913)
207.3
(8.161)
252.7
(9.949)
341.4
(13.441)
377.2
(14.85)
320.6
(12.622)
290.4
(11.433)
138.2
(5.441)
54.4
(2.142)
2,210.8
(87.038)
Source: world weather online[3]


Climate data for Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.3
(88.3)
32.2
(90)
34.1
(93.4)
35.7
(96.3)
34.3
(93.7)
33.2
(91.8)
32.0
(89.6)
32.8
(91)
32.8
(91)
31.8
(89.2)
30.2
(86.4)
30.7
(87.3)
32.59
(90.67)
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
23.6
(74.5)
25.4
(77.7)
26.0
(78.8)
26.8
(80.2)
26.3
(79.3)
26.9
(80.4)
25.1
(77.2)
25.2
(77.4)
25.7
(78.3)
24.4
(75.9)
23.5
(74.3)
25.23
(77.42)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
11.3
(0.445)
6.5
(0.256)
0.0
(0)
4.8
(0.189)
34.8
(1.37)
16.1
(0.634)
40.3
(1.587)
60.5
(2.382)
65.8
(2.591)
22.7
(0.894)
3.2
(0.126)
266
(10.474)
Source: world weather online[4]


Climate data for Senmonorom, Cambodia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
27.0
(80.6)
25.0
(77)
19.0
(66.2)
25.0
(77)
25.0
(77)
27.0
(80.6)
25.0
(77)
24.0
(75.2)
25.0
(77)
24.0
(75.2)
27.0
(80.6)
24.9
(76.85)
Average low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
13.0
(55.4)
17.0
(62.6)
13.0
(55.4)
18.0
(64.4)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
19.0
(66.2)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
16.0
(60.8)
15.0
(59)
16.7
(62)
Precipitation mm (inches) 30.0
(1.181)
48.0
(1.89)
21.0
(0.827)
144.0
(5.669)
90.0
(3.543)
114.0
(4.488)
282.0
(11.102)
555.0
(21.85)
192.0
(7.559)
234.0
(9.213)
129.0
(5.079)
39.0
(1.535)
1,878
(73.936)
Source: world weather online[4]


Drainage[edit]

Except for the smaller rivers in the southeast, most of the major rivers and river systems in Cambodia drain into the Tonle Sap or into the Mekong River. The Cardamom Mountains and Elephant Range form a separate drainage divide. To the east the rivers flow into the Tonle Sap, while on the west they flow into the Gulf of Thailand. Toward the southern end of the Elephant Mountains, however, because of the topography, some small rivers flow southward on the eastern side of the divide.

The Mekong River in Cambodia flows southward from the Cambodia-Laos border to a point below Kratie city, where it turns west for about 50 kilometers and then turns southwest to Phnom Penh. Extensive rapids run above Kratie city. From Kampong Cham Province the gradient slopes very gently, and inundation of areas along the river occurs at flood stage—June through November—through breaks in the natural levees that have built up along its course. At Phnom Penh four major water courses meet at a point called the Chattomukh (Four Faces). The Mekong River flows in from the northeast and the Tonle Sap, a river emanating from the Tonle Sap—flows in from the northwest. They divide into two parallel channels, the Mekong River proper and the Bassac River, and flow independently through the delta areas of Cambodia and Vietnam to the South China Sea.

The flow of water into the Tonle Sap is seasonal. In September or in October, the flow of the Mekong River, fed by monsoon rains, increases to a point where its outlets through the delta cannot handle the enormous volume of water. At this point, the water pushes northward up the Tonle Sab and empties into the Tonle Sap, thereby increasing the size of the lake from about 2,590 square kilometers to about 24,605 square kilometers at the height of the flooding. After the Mekong's waters crest—when its downstream channels can handle the volume of water—the flow reverses, and water flows out of the engorged lake.

As the level of the Tonle Sap retreats, it deposits a new layer of sediment. The annual flooding, combined with poor drainage immediately around the lake, transforms the surrounding area into marshlands unusable for agricultural purposes during the dry season. The sediment deposited into the lake during the Mekong's flood stage appears to be greater than the quantity carried away later by the Tonle Sap River. Gradual silting of the lake would seem to be occurring; during low-water level, it is only about 1.5 meters deep, while at flood stage it is between 10 and 15 meters deep.

Regional divisions[edit]

Cambodia's boundaries were for the most part based upon those recognized by France and by neighboring countries during the colonial period. The 800-kilometer boundary with Thailand, coincides with a natural feature, the watershed of the Dangrek Mountains, only in its northern sector. The 541-kilometer border with Laos and the 1,228-kilometer border with Vietnam result largely from French administrative decisions and do not follow major natural features. Border disputes have broken out in the past between Cambodia and Thailand as well as between Cambodia and Vietnam.

Area and boundaries[edit]

Area:
total: 181,035 km²
land: 181,035 km²
water: 4,520 km²

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nmi (27.6 mi; 44.4 km)
continental shelf: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km)
exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km)
territorial sea: 12 nmi (13.8 mi; 22.2 km)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Resources and land use[edit]

Natural resources: oil and natural gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 20.44%
permanent crops: 0.59%
other: 78.97% (2005)

'Total renewable water resources: 476.1 km3 (114.22 cu mi) (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 4.08 km3 or 0.979 cu mi/yr (1%/0%/98%)
per capita: 290 km3 or 69.6 cu mi/yr (2000)

Irrigated land: 2800 km² (2003)

Environmental concerns[edit]

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues: illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78), Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap

Lakes

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.researchgate.net/.../004635289df3f54337000000
  2. ^ searg.rhul.ac.uk/publications/books/biogeography/...pdfs/Metcalfe.pdf
  3. ^ "Climatological Information for Sihanoukville, Cambodia", Hong Kong Observatory, 2003. Web: KOS-Airport.
  4. ^ a b "Climatological Information for Phnom Penh, Cambodia", Hong Kong Observatory, 2003. Web: [1].