Mobile phone overuse

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Mobile phone overuse is an issue seen among certain mobile phone users. (Doctors call the issue "problem mobile phone use".)

Some laypeople claim that there can even be such a thing as a "mobile phone addiction". However, most doctors do not use any such diagnostic phrase. There is no consensus among doctors that "mobile phone addiction" would be a useful diagnosis.

Definition[edit]

“Overuse” is often defined as a “dependence syndrome”, the term used by the World Health Organization (WHO Expert Committee, 1964) to replace “addiction” or “habituation”.[1] This is categorised either as substance abuse, as from psychoactive drugs, alcohol and tobacco under ICD-10, or a behavioural addiction, such a mobile phone addiction.[2] “Substance use disorders” can be defined by 11 factors, according to DSM-5, including: (1) use in larger quantities or for longer than initially intended, (2) a desire to cut down or control use, (3) spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the substance, (4) craving, (8) use in situations in which it is physically hazardous, (9) continued use of the substance despite adverse physical or psychological consequences associated with use, and (11) withdrawal symptoms.[3]

Some mobile phone users exhibit problematic behaviors related to substance use disorders, such as preoccupation with mobile communication, excessive money or time spent on mobiles, use of mobiles in socially or physically inappropriate situations as in driving an automobile, use leading to adverse effects on relationships, increased time on mobile communication, and anxiety if separated from a mobile or sufficient signal.

Prevalence[edit]

This depends largely on definition and thus the scales used to quantify a subject’s behaviors. Two scales are in use, the 20-item self-reported Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP) scale,[4] and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which has been used both with adult populations and also adolescents. There are variations in the age, gender and percentage of the population affected problematically according to the scales and definitions used. The prevalence of among British adolescents was 10%, aged 11–14, who considered themselves to be expert users of this technology.[5] whereas in India addiction is given as 39-44%.[2] Under different diagnostic criteria the estimated prevalence ranges from 0 to 38%, with self-attribution of mobile phone addiction exceeding the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves.[6] In contrast, the prevalence of the related problem of Internet addiction was 4.9-10.7% in Korea and is now regarded as a serious public health issue.[7]

Behaviors associated with mobile-phone addiction differed between the sexes.[8] Women are more likely to develop addictive mobile behavior than men who experience less social stress than women and use their mobiles less for social purposes. Older people are less likely to develop addictive mobile behavior because of different social usage and stress and greater self-regulation.[9] The most common personality trait is low self-esteem, especially among women, and depression.[6]

Effects[edit]

Over-use of mobile phones can effect social and psychological well-being and health.[10]

Social[edit]

There is an enormous impact of the mobile phone on contemporary society from a social scientific perspective. In the book Perpetual contact: mobile communication, private talk, public performance[11] the author James E. Katz, PhD, writes: "They have transformed social practices and changed the way we do business, yet surprisingly we have little perception on their effect in our li[ves]."

Some people are replacing face-to-face conversations with cybernetic ones. Clinical psychologist Lisa Merlo says, "Some patients pretend to talk on the phone or fiddle with apps to avoid eye contact or other interactions at a party."[12] In a survey made by Gazelle, "More than 25% of respondents reported that they "almost always" use their smartphone while in a social setting such as during a meal or during a party. In addition, 58% said they use it ‘usually’ or ‘occasionally’ during these settings."[13] Furthermore,

  • 70% check their phones in the morning within just one hour of getting up
  • 56% check their phones before going to bed
  • 48% check their phones over the weekend
  • 51% constantly check their phones during vacation
  • 44% reported they would feel very anxious and irritable if they don't interact with their phones within a week[14]

People are substituting, on a grand scale, the valuable experience of chatting with people face-to-face with simply sending them a text that consists of a few words and abbreviations. The real time reaction isn’t there; there is a sense that there is a lack of reality, which has been replaced by a virtual reality. This evidently results in people who don’t know how to act when they’re not using their cell phones.[15]

Health[edit]

There is some evidence supporting the claim that excessive mobile phone use can cause or worsen health problems. Germs are everywhere, and with the number of times people interact with their cellphone under different circumstances and places, germs are very likely to transfer from one place to another. Research from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine at Queen Mary in 2011 indicated that one in six cell phones is contaminated with fecal matter. Under further inspection, some of the phones with the fecal matter were also harbouring lethal bacteria such as E. coli, which can result in fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.[16] According to an article Mobile phones and nosocomial infections written by researchers at Mansoura University of Egypt, it states that the risk of transmitting the bacteria by the medical staff (who carry their cellphones during their shift) is much higher because cellphones act as reservoir for the bacteria to grow.[17][18] Cancer, specifically brain cancer, and its correlation with phone use, is an ongoing investigation. There are many variables that affect the likelihood of hosting cancerous cells that includes how long people use their phones and how frequently they do so. There has been no definitive evidence linking cancer and phone use if used moderately, but the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization said in 2011 that radio frequency is a possible human carcinogen, based on heavy usage increasing the risk of developing glioma tumours — a common benign tumour, a rare but deadly form of cancer.[19] Although a relationship has not been fully established, research is continuing based on leads from changing patterns of mobile phone use over time and habits of phone users.[20] Low level radio frequency radiation has also been confirmed as a promoter of tumors.[21] Minor acute or immediate effects of radio frequency exposure have long been known. Tinnitus or Microwave auditory effect was discovered in 1962.[22] Studies show that users often associate using a mobile phone with headaches, impaired memory and concentration, fatigue, dizziness and disturbed sleep, all symptoms of radiation sickness.[23][24] There are also concerns that some people may develop electrosensitivity or IEI-EMF from excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields.[25]

In 2014, 58% of World Health Organization states advised the general population to reduce radio frequency exposure below heating guidelines. The most common advice is to use hands-free kits (69%), to reduce call time (44%), use text messaging (36%), avoid calling with low signals (24%) or use phones with low SAR (22%).[26] In 2015 Taiwan banned toddlers under the age of two from using mobile phones or any similar electronic devices,[27] and France banned WiFi from toddlers’ nurseries.[28][29]

Please see Mobile phones and driving safety, BlackBerry thumb, Mobile phone radiation and health, and Mobile phone#Health effects.

Psychological[edit]

There are concerns that some mobile phone users incur considerable debt, and that mobile phones are being used to violate privacy and to harass others.[30] In particular, there is increasing evidence that mobile phones are being used as a tool by children to bully other children.

Also, using a cell phone before bed can cause insomnia, according to a study by scientists from the Karolinska Institute and Uppsala University in Sweden and from Wayne State University in Michigan. The study[31][non-primary source needed] showed that this is due to the radiation received by the user as stated, "The study indicates that during laboratory exposure to 884 MHz wireless signals, components of sleep believed to be important for recovery from daily wear and tear are adversely affected."

There is countless research on mobile phone use and its influence on the human’s psychological mind, indicating support for mobile phones as good and bad. Referring to the possible negative outcomes of mobile phone use, we may encounter stress, sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression, especially in young adults. Consistent phone use can cause a chain reaction, affecting one aspect of a user’s life and expanding to contaminate the rest. It usually starts with social disorders, which can lead to depression and stress and ultimately affect lifestyle habits such as sleeping right and eating right.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WHO. "Management of substance abuse: Dependence Syndrome". 
  2. ^ a b Davey S, Davey A (2014). "Assessment of Smartphone Addiction in Indian Adolescents: A Mixed Method Study by Systematic-review and Meta-analysis Approach". J Prev Med. 5 (12): 1500–1511. PMID 25709785. 
  3. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2013). "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders". American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA. 5th edition. 
  4. ^ Merlo LJ, Stone AM, Bibbey A (2013). "Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale". J Addict. doi:10.1155/2013/912807. PMID 24826371. 
  5. ^ Lopez-Fernandez O, Honrubia-Serrano L, Freixa-Blanxart M, Gibson W (2014). "Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents". Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 17 (2): 91–98. doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0260. PMID 23981147. 
  6. ^ a b Pedrero Pérez EJ, Rodríguez Monje MT, Ruiz Sánchez De León JM (2012). "Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature". Adicciones 24: 139–152. PMID 22648317. 
  7. ^ Koo HJ, Kwon JH (2014). "Risk and protective factors of internet addiction: a meta-analysis of empirical studies in Korea". Yonsei Med J. 55 (6): 1691–1711. doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.6.1691. PMID 25323910. 
  8. ^ Roberts JA, Yaya LH, Manolis C (2014). "The invisible addiction: cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students". J Behav Addict. 3 (4): 254–265. doi:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.015. PMID 25595966. 
  9. ^ van Deursen AJAM, Bolle CL, Hegner SM, Kommers PAM (2015). "Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behaviour: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender". Computers in Human Behavior 45: 411–420. 
  10. ^ Effects of Smartphone addiction and how to deal with it website : http://www.gadgetspider.com/deal-with-smartphone-addiction/
  11. ^ Katz, J. E., & Akhus, M. Perceptual contact: Mobile communication, private talk, public performance. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  12. ^ Gibson, E. (27 July 2011). Smartphone dependency: a growing obsession with gadgets. Retrieved 27 September 2013 from USA Today website: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/medical/health/medical/mentalhealth/story/2011/07/Smartphone-dependency-a-growing-obsession-to-gadgets/49661286/1 open access publication - free to read
  13. ^ Belardi, B. (Ed.). (18 June 2012). Consumers Crave iPhone More Than Facebook, Sex. Retrieved 15 October 2013 from PR Newswire website: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/consumers-crave-iphone-more-than-facebook-sex-according-to-gazelle-159430685.html open access publication - free to read
  14. ^ Perlow, Leslie A. (2012). Sleeping with your smartphone : how to break the 24/7 habit and change the way you work. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business Review Press. ISBN 9781422144046. 
  15. ^ a b Thomée, Sara; Härenstam, Annika; Hagberg, Mats (2011). "Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - a prospective cohort study". BMC Public Health 11 (1): 66. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-66. 
  16. ^ Britt, Darice (June 2013). "Health Risks of Using Mobile Phones". South Carolina University. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Mobile phones and nosocomial infections". International Journal of Infection Control. 2012. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  18. ^ Badr, Rawia Ibrahim; Badr, Hatem ibrahim; Ali, Nabil Mansour (2012-03-26). "Mobile phones and nosocomial infections". International Journal of Infection Control 8 (2). ISSN 1996-9783. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  19. ^ World Health Organization: International Agency for Research on Cancer (2011). "IARC Classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans" (PDF). Press Release no. 208. 
  20. ^ Sinhna, Kounteya (18 May 2010). "Cell overuse can cause brain cancer". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  21. ^ Lerchl A, Klose M, Grote K, Wilhelm AF, Spathmann O, Fiedler T, Streckert J, Hansen V, Clemens M. "Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.151. PMID 25749340. 
  22. ^ Frey AH (1962). "Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy". J Appl Physiol 17 (4): 689–692. PMID 13895081. 
  23. ^ Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA (2004). "Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population". Saudi Med J. 25: 732–736. PMID 15195201. 
  24. ^ Khan MM (2008). "Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use". Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 21: 289–293. doi:10.2478/v10001-008-0028-6. PMID 19228576. 
  25. ^ Carpenter DO (2014). "Excessive Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields May Cause the Development of Electrohypersensitivity". Altern Ther Health Med. 20 (6): 40–42. PMID 25478802. 
  26. ^ Dhungel A, Zmirou-Navier D, van Deventer E (2015). "Risk management policies and practices regarding radio frequency electromagnetic fields: results from a WHO survey". Radiat Prot Dosimetry 164 (1-2): 22–27. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncu324. PMID 25394650. 
  27. ^ Sarah Malm (2015). "Does YOUR toddler play on an iPad? Taiwan makes it ILLEGAL for parents to let children under two use electronic gadgets... and under-18s must limit use to 'reasonable' lengths". Daily Mail (January 28, 2015). 
  28. ^ Pierre Le Hir (2015). "Une loi pour encadrer l'exposition aux ondes". Le Monde (January 29, 2015). 
  29. ^ Powerwatch (2015). "Wifi banned from nurseries in France" (05/02/2015). 
  30. ^ Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G. (2005). "Psychological Predictors of Problem Mobile Phone Use". Cyberpsychology & Behavior (New York: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.) 8 (1). doi:10.1089/cpb.2005.8.39. 
  31. ^ Arnetz, Bengt B.; Hillert, Lena; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Lowden, Arne; Kuster, Niels; Ebert, Sven; Boutry, Clementine; Moffat, Scott D.; Berg, Mats; Wiholm, Clairy. Effects from 884 MHz mobile phone radiofrequency on brain electrophysiology, sleep, cognition, and well-being, Referierte Publikationen, Chicago, 2008. open access publication - free to read[non-primary source needed]

Further reading[edit]