Japanese version of the Space Invaders arcade cabinet
|Display||Monochrome raster, vertical orientation|
Space Invaders (スペースインベーダー Supēsu Inbēdā ) is an arcade video game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978. It was originally manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and was later licensed for production in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Space Invaders is one of the earliest shooting games and the aim is to defeat waves of aliens with a laser cannon to earn as many points as possible. In designing the game, Nishikado drew inspiration from popular media: Breakout, The War of the Worlds, and Star Wars. To complete it, he had to design custom hardware and development tools.
It was one of the forerunners of modern video gaming and helped expand the video game industry from a novelty to a global industry (see golden age of video arcade games). When first released, Space Invaders was very successful.
The game has been the inspiration for other video games, re-released on numerous platforms, and led to several sequels. The 1980 Atari 2600 version quadrupled the system's sales and became the first "killer app" for video game consoles. Space Invaders has been referenced and parodied in multiple television shows, and been a part of several video game and cultural exhibitions. The pixelated enemy alien has become a pop culture icon, often used as a synecdoche representing video games as a whole.
Space Invaders is a two-dimensional fixed shooter game in which the player controls a laser cannon by moving it horizontally across the bottom of the screen and firing at descending aliens. The aim is to defeat five rows of eleven aliens—some versions feature different numbers—that move horizontally back and forth across the screen as they advance towards the bottom of the screen. The player defeats an alien, and earns points, by shooting it with the laser cannon. As more aliens are defeated, the aliens' movement and the game's music both speed up. Defeating the aliens brings another wave that is more difficult, a loop which can continue indefinitely.
The aliens attempt to destroy the cannon by firing at it while they approach the bottom of the screen. If they reach the bottom, the alien invasion is successful and the game ends. A special "mystery ship" will occasionally move across the top of the screen and award bonus points if destroyed. The laser cannon is partially protected by several stationary defense bunkers—the number varies by version—that are gradually destroyed by projectiles from the aliens and player.
Space Invaders was created by Tomohiro Nishikado, who spent a year designing the game and developing the necessary hardware to produce it. The game's inspiration is reported to have come from varying sources, including an adaptation of the mechanical game Space Monsters released by Taito in 1972, and a dream about Japanese school children who are waiting for Santa Claus and are attacked by invading aliens. However, Nishikado has cited Atari's arcade game Breakout as his inspiration. He aimed to create a shooting game that featured the same sense of achievement from completing stages and destroying targets, but with more complex graphics. Nishikado used a similar layout to that of Breakout, but altered the game mechanics. Rather than bounce a ball to attack static objects, players are given the ability to fire projectiles at their own discretion to attack moving enemies.
Early enemy designs included tanks, combat planes, and battleships. Nishikado, however, was not satisfied with the enemy movements; technical limitations made it difficult to simulate flying. Humans would have been easier to simulate, but Nishikado considered shooting them immoral. After seeing a magazine feature about Star Wars, he thought of using a space theme. Nishikado drew inspiration for the aliens from H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds—he had watched the 1953 film adaptation as a child—and created initial bitmap images after the octopus-like aliens. Other alien designs were modeled after squids and crabs. The game was originally titled Space Monsters, inspired by a popular song in Japan at the time ("Monster"), but was changed to Space Invaders by Nishikado's superiors.
Because microcomputers in Japan were not powerful enough at the time to perform the complex tasks involved in designing and programming Space Invaders, Nishikado had to design his own custom hardware and development tools for the game. He created the arcade board using new microprocessors from the United States. The game uses an Intel 8080 central processing unit, and features raster graphics on a CRT monitor and monaural sound hosted by a combination of analogue circuitry and a Texas Instruments SN76477 sound chip. Despite the specially developed hardware, Nishikado was unable to program the game as he wanted—the Control Program board was not powerful enough to display the graphics in color or move the enemies faster—and he considered the development of the hardware the most difficult part of the whole process. While programming the game, Nishikado discovered that the processor was able to render the alien graphics faster the fewer were on screen. Rather than design the game to compensate for the speed increase, he decided to keep it as a challenging gameplay mechanic.
Space Invaders was first released in a cocktail-table format with black and white graphics, while the Western release by Midway was in an upright cabinet format. The upright cabinet uses strips of orange and green cellophane over the screen to simulate color graphics. The graphics are reflected onto a painted backdrop of a moon against a space background. Later Japanese releases also used colored cellophane. The cabinet artwork features large, humanoid monsters not present in the game. Nishikado attributes this to the artist basing the designs on the original title, Space Monsters, rather than referring to the in-game graphics.
Impact and legacy 
After the first few months following its release in Japan, the game became very popular. Specialty arcades opened with nothing but Space Invaders cabinets, and by the end of 1978, Taito had installed over 100,000 machines and grossed over $600 million in Japan alone. Within two years by 1980,
Taito had sold over 300,000 Space Invaders arcade machines in Japan, in addition to 60,000 machines in the United States, where prices ranged from $2000 to $3000 for each machine, within one year. The arcade cabinets have since become collector's items with the cocktail and cabaret versions being the rarest. By mid-1981, more than four billion quarters, or $1 billion, had been grossed from Space Invaders machines, and it would continue to gross an average of $600 million a year through to 1982, by which time it had grossed $2 billion in quarters (equivalent to $4.6 billion in 2011), with a net profit of $450 million (equivalent to $1 billion in 2011). This made it the best-selling video game and highest-grossing entertainment product of its time, with comparisons made to the then highest-grossing film Star Wars, which had grossed $486 million in movie tickets (costing $2.25 each on average) with a net profit of $175 million. Space Invaders had earned Taito profits of over $500 million. The 1980 Atari 2600 version was the first official licensing of an arcade game and became the first "killer app" for video game consoles by quadrupling the system's sales. It sold over two million units in its first year on sale as a home console game, making it the first title to sell a million cartridges. Other official ports of the game were made for the Atari 8-bit computer line and Atari 5200 console. Taito released it for the NES in 1985 (Japan only). Numerous unofficial clones were made as well, such as the popular computer games Super Invader (1979) and TI Invaders (1981).
An oft-quoted urban legend states that there was a shortage of 100-yen coins—and subsequent production increase—in Japan attributed to the game, although in actuality, 100 yen coin production was lower in 1978 and 1979 than in previous or subsequent years. The claim also doesn't hold up to logical scrutiny; arcade operators would have emptied out their machines and taken the money to the bank, thus keeping the coins in circulation. Reports from those living in Japan at the time indicate "nothing out of the ordinary ... during the height of the Space Invaders invasion."
Game designer Shigeru Miyamoto considered Space Invaders a game that revolutionized the video game industry; he was never interested in video games before seeing it. Hideo Kojima also described it as the first video game that impressed him and got him interested in video games. Several publications ascribed the expansion of the video game industry from a novelty into a global industry to the success of the game. Edge magazine attributed the shift of video games from bars and arcades to more mainstream locations like restaurants and department stores to Space Invaders. Its popularity was such that it was the first game where an arcade machine's owner could make up for the cost of the machine in under one month, or in some places within one week.
Technology journalist Jason Whittaker credited the game's success to ending the video game crash of 1977, which had earlier been caused by Pong clones flooding the market, and beginning the golden age of video arcade games. According to The Observer, the home console versions were popular and encouraged users to learn programming; many who later became industry leaders. 1UP.com stated that Space Invaders showed that video games could compete against the major entertainment media at the time: movies, music, and television. IGN attributed the launch of the arcade phenomenon in North America in part to Space Invaders. Electronic Games credited the game's success as the impetus behind video gaming becoming a rapidly growing hobby and as "the single most popular coin-operated attraction of all time." Game Informer considered it, along with Pac-Man, one of the most popular arcade games that tapped into popular culture and generated excitement during the golden age of arcades. IGN listed it as one of the "Top 10 Most Influential Games" in 2007, citing the source of inspiration to video game designers and the impact it had on the shooting genre. 1UP ranked it at No. 3 in its list of "The 60 Most Influential Games of All Time," stating that, in contrast to earlier arcade games which "were attempts to simulate already-existing things," Space Invaders was "the first video game as a video game, instead of merely a playable electronic representation of something else." In 2008, Guinness World Records listed it as the top-rated arcade game in technical, creative, and cultural impact.
As one of the earliest shooting games, it set precedents and helped pave the way for future titles and for the shooting genre. Space Invaders popularized a more interactive style of gameplay with the enemies responding to the player controlled cannon's movement, and was the first video game to popularize the concept of achieving a high score, being the first to save the player's score. While earlier shooting games allowed the player to shoot at targets, Space Invaders was the first in which targets could fire back at the player. It was also the first game where players were given multiple lives, had to repel hordes of enemies, could take cover from enemy fire, and use destructible barriers, in addition to being the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack, with four simple diatonic descending bass notes repeating in a loop, which was dynamic and changed pace during stages, like a heartbeat sound that increases pace as enemies approached.
It also moved the gaming industry away from Pong-inspired sports games grounded in real-world situations towards action games involving fantastical situations. Whittaker commented that Space Invaders helped action games become the most dominant genre on both arcades and consoles, through to contemporary times. Guinness World Records considered Space Invaders one of the most successful arcade shooting games by 2008. In describing it as a "seminal arcade classic", IGN listed it as the number eight "classic shoot 'em up". Space Invaders set the template for the shoot 'em up genre. Its worldwide success created a demand for a wide variety of science fiction games, inspiring the development of arcade games, such as Atari's Asteroids, Williams Electronics' Defender, and Namco's Galaxian and Galaga, which were modeled after Space Invaders's gameplay and design. This influence extends to most shooting games released to the present day, including first-person shooters such as Wolfenstein, Doom, Halo and Call of Duty. Space Invaders also had an influence on early computer dungeon crawl games such as Dungeons of Daggorath, which used similar heartbeat sounds to indicate player health.
Remakes and sequels 
Space Invaders has been remade on numerous platforms and spawned many sequels. Re-releases include ported and updated versions of the original arcade game. Ported versions generally feature different graphics and additional gameplay options—for example, moving defense bunkers, zigzag shots, invisible aliens, and two-player cooperative gameplay. Ports on earlier systems like the Atari home consoles featured simplified graphics, while later systems such as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and PlayStation featured updated graphics. Later titles include several modes of gameplay and integrate new elements into the original design. For example, Space Invaders Extreme, released on the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable, integrated musical elements into the standard gameplay. A spin-off for WiiWare, Space Invaders Get Even, allows players to control the aliens instead of the laser cannon.
In 1980, Bally Midway released a pinball version of the game. However, few elements from the original game are included, and the aliens instead resemble the xenomorphs from the film Alien; Bally Midway was later sued over the game's resemblance to designs by H. R. Giger. Different ports have been met with mixed receptions; the Atari 2600 version was very successful while the Nintendo Entertainment System version was poorly received.
Taito has released several arcade sequels that built upon the basic design of the original. The first was Space Invaders Part II in 1979; it featured color graphics, an attract mode, and new gameplay elements, and added an intermission between gameplay. According to the Killer List of Video Games, this was the first video game to include an intermission. The game also allowed the player with the top score to sign their name on the high score table. This version was released in the United States as Deluxe Space Invaders (also known as Space Invaders Deluxe), but featured a different graphical color scheme and a lunar-city background. Another arcade sequel, titled Space Invaders II, was released exclusively in the United States. It was in a cocktail-table format with very fast alien firing and a competitive two-player mode. During the summer of 1985, Return of the Invaders was released with updated color graphics, and more complex movements and attack patterns for the aliens. Subsequent arcade sequels included Super Space Invaders '91, Space Invaders DX, and Space Invaders '95. Each game introduced minor gameplay additions to the original design. Like the original game, several of the arcade sequels have become collector's items, though some are considered rarer. In 2002, Taito released Space Raiders, a third-person shooter reminiscent of Space Invaders.
The game and its related games have been included in video game compilation titles. Space Invaders Anniversary was released in 2003 for the PlayStation 2 and included nine Space Invader variants. A similar title for the PlayStation Portable, Space Invaders Pocket, was released in 2005. Space Invaders, Space Invaders Part II and Return of the Invaders are included in Taito Legends, a compilation of Taito's classic arcade games released in 2005 on the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and PC. Super Space Invaders '91, Space Invaders DX and Space Invaders '95 were included in Taito Legends 2, a sequel compilation released in 2006.
In popular culture 
The game—and references to it—has appeared in numerous facets of popular culture. Soon after the game's release, hundreds of favourable articles and stories about the emerging video game medium popularized by Space Invaders aired on television and were printed in newspapers and magazines. The Space Invaders Tournament held by Atari in 1980 was the first video game competition and attracted more than 10,000 participants, establishing video gaming as a mainstream hobby. The Arcade Awards ceremony was created that same year to honour the best video games, with Space Invaders winning the first Game of the Year award. The impact of Space Invaders on the video game industry has been compared to that of The Beatles in the pop music industry. Considered "the first blockbuster video game," Space Invaders became synonymous with video games worldwide for some time.
Within a year of the game's release, the Japanese PTA unsuccessfully attempted to ban the game for allegedly inspiring truancy. In North America, doctors identified a condition called the "Space Invaders elbow" as a complaint, while a physician in The New England Journal of Medicine named a similar ailment the "Space Invaders Wrist." Space Invaders was also the first game to attract political controversy, when a 1981 Private Member's Bill called the "Control of Space Invaders (and other Electronic Games) Bill" drafted by British Labour Party MP George Foulkes attempted to ban the game for its "addictive properties" and for causing "deviancy"; a motion to bring the bill before Parliament was briefly debated but defeated by 114 votes to 94 votes – the bill itself was never considered by Parliament.
Multiple television series have aired episodes that either reference or parody the game and its elements; for example, Danger Mouse, That '70s Show, Scrubs, Chuck, and Robot Chicken. Elements are prominently featured in the "Raiders of the Lost Arcade" segment of "Anthology of Interest II", an episode of Futurama. Many publications and websites use the pixelated alien graphic as an icon for video games in general, including video game magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly, technology website Ars Technica, and concert event Video Games Live. There have also been Space Invaders themed merchandising, including necklaces and puzzles.
Musicians drew inspiration for their music from Space Invaders. Video Games Live performed audio from the game as part of a special retro "Classic Arcade Medley". The pioneering Japanese synthpop group Yellow Magic Orchestra reproduced Space Invaders sounds in its 1978 self-titled album and its hit single "Computer Game", the latter selling over 400,000 copies in the United States. Other pop songs based on Space Invaders soon followed, including disco records such as "Disco Space Invaders" (1979) by Funny Stuff, and the hit songs "Space Invader" (1980) by The Pretenders, "Space Invaders" (1980) by Uncle Vic and the Australian hit "Space Invaders" (1979) by Player One (known in the US as Playback), which in turn provided the bassline for Jesse Saunders' "On and On" (1984), the first Chicago house music track. Space Invaders is referenced in the lyrics to Rush's 1981 hit song "Tom Sawyer," and the game is singled out for special thanks in the liner notes to the band's Permanent Waves album. The game was also sampled in I-F's "Space Invaders Are Smoking Grass" (1997), the first electroclash record. In honor of the game's 30th anniversary, Taito produced an album titled Space Invaders 2008. The album is published by Avex Trax and features music inspired by the game. Taito's store Taito Station also unveiled a Space Invaders themed music video.
In 2006, the game was one of several video game related media selected to represent Japan as part of a project compiled by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs. In the same year, Space Invaders was included in the London Science Museum's Game On exhibition meant to showcase the various aspects of video game history, development, and culture. The game is also a part of the Barbican Centre's traveling Game On exhibition. At the Belluard Bollwerk International 2006 festival in Fribourg, Switzerland, Guillaume Reymond created a three-minute video recreation of a game of Space Invaders as part of the "Gameover" project using humans as pixels. The GH ART exhibit at the 2008 Games Convention in Leipzig, Germany, included an art game, Invaders!, based on Space Invaders's gameplay. The creator later asked for the game to be removed from the exhibit following criticism of elements based on the September 11 attacks in the United States. A French street artist known as Invader made a name for himself by creating mosaic artwork of Space Invader aliens around the world.
See also 
- Kevin Bowen. "The Gamespy Hall of Fame: Space Invaders". GameSpy. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- Craig Glenday, ed. (March 11, 2008). "Top 100 Arcade Games: Top 5". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
- "The Definitive Space Invaders". Retro Gamer (Imagine Publishing) (41): 24–33. September 2007.
- Seabrook, Andrea (April 12, 2008). "Replay: the Evolution of Video Game Music". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
- Staff (January 2008). "Classic GI: Space Invaders". Game Informer (Game Stop) (177): 108–109.
- Williams, Kevin. "Arcade Fantastic – Part 1". GameSpy. Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
- Staff. "Nishikado-San Speaks". Retro Gamer (Live Publishing) (3): 35.
- Loguidice, Bill; Matt Barton (January 9, 2009). "The History of Pong: Avoid Missing Game to Start Industry". Gamasutra. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- Kiphshidze, N; Zubiashvili, T; Chagunava, K (October 2005). "The Creation of Space Invaders". Edge (Future plc) (154): 7–13. ISSN 1512-0112. PMID 18323584. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- Edwards, Benj. "Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Space Invaders". 1UP.com. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
- "Space Invaders Videogame by Bally Midway (1978)". Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
- Morris, Dave (2004). The Art of Game Worlds. HarperCollins. p. 166. ISBN 0-06-072430-7.
- Glenday, Craig, ed. (2009). "Record-Breaking Games/Space Games". Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition. Guinness World Records. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-904994-45-9.
- "Can Asteroids Conquer Space Invaders?". Electronic Games 1 (1): 30–33 . Winter 1981. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Dale Peterson (1983), Genesis II, creation and recreation with computers, Reston Publishing, p. 175, ISBN 0-8359-2434-3, retrieved May 1, 2011, "By 1980, some 300,000 Space Invader video arcade games were in use in Japan, and an additional 60,000 in the United States."
- Jiji Gaho Sha, inc. (2003), Asia Pacific perspectives, Japan 1, University of Virginia, p. 57, retrieved April 9, 2011, "At that time, a game for use in entertainment arcades was considered a hit if it sold 1000 units; sales of Space Invaders topped 300,000 units in Japan and 60,000 units overseas."
- Ellis, David (2004). "Arcade Classics". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. p. 345. ISBN 0-375-72038-3.
- "Video arcades rival Broadway theatre and girlie shows in NY", InfoWorld 4 (14), April 12, 1982: 15, ISSN 0199-6649, retrieved May 1, 2011
- Kohler, Chris (2004). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames. p. "represented+a+significant+portion+of+the+cost" 19. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. "Within one year of its US release, an additional 60,000 machines had been sold. One arcade owner said of Space Invaders that it was the first arcade game whose intake "represented a significant portion of the cost of [buying] the game in any one week." That is, it was the first video game that paid for itself within about a month."
- Ellis, David (2004). "Arcade Classics". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. pp. 411–412. ISBN 0-375-72038-3.
- Glinert, Ephraim P. (1990), Visual Programming Environments: Applications and Issues, IEEE Computer Society Press, p. 321, ISBN 0-8186-8974-9, retrieved April 10, 2011, "As of mid-1981, according to Steve Bloom, author of Video Invaders, more than four billion quarters had been dropped into Space Invaders games around the world"
- "Video Warriors on the Screen", New Scientist 95 (1317), August 5, 1982: 377, ISSN 0262-4079, retrieved May 1, 2011, "But this is 1982, and the game Space Invaders – as the Disney handout enviously reminds us – grosses over $600 million a year."
- "Making millions, 25 cents at a time". The Fifth Estate. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 23, 1982. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- "Space Invaders vs. Star Wars", Executive (Southam Business Publications) 24, 1982: 9, retrieved April 30, 2011, "According to TEC, Atari's arcade game Space Invaders has taken in $2 billion, with net recipts of $450 million."
- "CPI Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- "Space Invaders vs. Star Wars", Executive (Southam Business Publications) 24, 1982: 9, retrieved April 30, 2011, "They compare this to the box office movie top blockbuster Star Wars, which has taken in only $486 million, for a net of $175 million."
- Kevin Bowen. "The Gamespy Hall of Fame: Space Invaders". GameSpy. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- Kent, Steven (2001). Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Hutcheon, Stephen (June 7, 1983). "The video games boom has yet to come". The Age. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Weiss, Brett (2007). Classic home video games, 1972–1984: a complete reference guide. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 108. ISBN 0-7864-3226-8.
- "Super Invader Is Reader’s Choice". Softalk (13). April 1981. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- Craig Glenday, ed. (March 11, 2008). "Record Breaking Games: Shooting Games Roundup". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
- Richards, Giles (July 24, 2005). "A life through video games". The Observer. UK: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- "JAPAN 100 Yen Y# 82 Yr.42(1967)-Yr.63(1988)". World Coin price Guide. Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Fox, Mark (2012). "Space Invaders targets coins". World Coin News (Krause Publications) 39 (2): 35–37. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Sayre, Carolyn (July 19, 2007). "10 Questions for Shigeru Miyamoto". Time. Retrieved September 4, 2007.
- Snyder, Daniel D. (March 21, 2012). "How Hideo Kojima Became a Legendary Video-Game Designer". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Edge Staff (August 13, 2007). "The 30 Defining Moments in Gaming". Edge. Future plc. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- Whittaker, Jason (2004). The Cyberspace Handbook. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 0-415-16835-X.
- Buchanan, Levi (April 8, 2008). "Top 10 Classic Shoot 'Em Ups". IGN. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- "Atari Offers Largest Game Library". Electronic Games 1 (1): 40–41 . Winter 1981. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Classic GI: King of the Hill". Game Informer (Cathy Preston) (178): 108. February 2008.
- Geddes, Ryan; Hatfield, Daemon (December 10, 2007). "IGN's Top 10 Most Influential Games". IGN. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
- Kaiser, Rowan (May 10, 2011). "The 60 Most Influential Games of All Time". 1UP.com. p. 13. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
- Craig Glenday, ed. (March 11, 2008). "Record Breaking Games: Shooting Games". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
- "Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games". Electronic Games 1 (2): 35 Extra
|at=(help). March 1982. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Brian Ashcraft & Jean Snow (2008), Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers, Kodansha International, ISBN 4-7700-3078-9, retrieved May 1, 2011, "Space Invaders offered a novelty: players had three lives. Those who got good at the game could play for as long as they could keep from being blown to bits."
- Brian Ashcraft (January 20, 2010). "How Cover Shaped Gaming's Last Decade". Kotaku. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Karen Collins (2008). From Pac-Man to pop music: interactive audio in games and new media. Ashgate. p. 2. ISBN 0-7546-6200-4. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
- Bill Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009), Vintage games: an insider look at the history of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most influential games of all time, Focal Press, p. 232, ISBN 0-240-81146-1, retrieved May 1, 2011
- "Essential 50: Space Invaders". 1UP.com. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Whittaker, Jason (2004). The cyberspace handbook. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 0-415-16835-X.
- "Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games". Electronic Games 1 (2): 35–45 . March 1982. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Osborne, Scott (June 1, 2001). "Hall of Fame: Galaxian and Galaga". GameSpy. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- "The Making of Defender". Retro Gamer (Imagine Publishing) (55): 34–39. October 2008.
- Strickland, Ronald (2002). Growing Ip Postmodern: Neoliberalism and the War on the Young. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 112–113. ISBN 0-7425-1651-2. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Gee, James Paul (2004). What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 47. ISBN 1-4039-6538-2. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Mäyrä, Frans (2008). An Introduction to Games Studies: Games in Culture. SAGE. p. 104. ISBN 1-4129-3445-1. Retrieved April 10, 2011. "The gameplay of Doom is at its core familiar from the early classics like Space Invaders ... it presents the player with the clear and simple challenge of surviving while shooting everything that moves."
- Jones, Steven Edward (2008). The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Studies. Taylor & Francis. pp. 84–85. ISBN 0-415-96055-X. Retrieved April 10, 2011. "The developers of Halo are aware of their own place in gaming history, and one of them once joked that their game could be seen as “Space Invaders in a tube.” The joke contains a double-edged insight: on the one hand, Halo is first and finally about shooting aliens; on the other hand, even the 1978 2-D arcade shooter, Space Invaders, designed by Tomohiro Nishikado for the company Taito, is more interesting than that would suggest."
- Simon Carles (November 16, 2010). "No More Russian – Infinity Ward's Modern Warfare 2, One Year On". GameSetWatch. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- Hatfield, Daemon (April 2, 2008). "Space Invaders Extreme Set for US". IGN. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
- "Space Invaders". Official Nintendo Magazine (29): 46. May 2008.
- IGN Staff (June 17, 2008). "Space Invaders Set for WiiWare". IGN. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "A Whole Different Ball Game". Retro Gamer (Imagine Publishing) (45): 47. January 2008.
- "Space Invaders Part II". The Arcade Flyer Archive. Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Davies, Jonti (May 16, 2005). "Space Invaders Pocket". GameSpy. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Space Invaders Deluxe, klov.com. Accessed on line March 28, 2011.
- "The Definitive Space Invaders". NowGamer. January 19, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- "Space Raiders: Release Summary". GameSpot. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- ed. Rico Komanoya, ed. (2004). "Space Raiders". Japanese Game Graphics: Behind the Scenes of Your Favorite Games. New York, NY: Harper Design International. pp. 116–121. ISBN 0-06-056772-4.
- Calvert, Justin (January 22, 2004). "Empire signs Space Invaders titles". GameSpot. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Nix (May 12, 2005). "Boot to the Head for Bootleggers". IGN. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
- "Sega and Empire Interactive Launch Taito Legends for PlayStation 2, Xbox, PC". Sega. October 25, 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- Surette, Tim (August 13, 2005). "Sega goes old school with Taito". GameSpot. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Sinclair, Brendan (April 10, 2007). "More Taito Legends headed to US". GameSpot. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "The Arcade Awards". Electronic Games 1 (1): 38–9. Winter 1981. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Horwitz, Jeremy (July 8, 2002). "Technology: Mortal Apathy?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
- Chris Kohler (2005), Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 18, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1
- Forester, Tom (1988). High-tech society: the story of the information technology revolution (1st MIT Press paperback ed. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-262-56044-5.
- "The Video Game Invasion: What Is It Doing To Children?". The Herald Journal. December 18, 1981. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- "30 Great Gaming World Records". Computer and Video Games. ComputerAndVideoGames.com. February 14, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- "Electronic and Computer Games: The History of an Interactive Medium". Screen 29 (2): 53 Extra
|at=(help). 1988. doi:10.1093/screen/29.2.52. Retrieved January 25, 2012. "In the UK, the Labour MP George Foulkes led a campaign in 1981 to curb the 'menace' of video games, maintaining that they had addictive properties. His 'Control of Space Invaders (and other Electronic Games) Bill' was put to the Commons and only narrowly defeated."
- Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, May 20, 1981, columns 287–291.
- "Custard". Danger Mouse. Season 2. Episode 12. 1982-01-04. ITV.
- "Donna's Story". That '70s Show. Episode 84. 2001-11-20. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- "My Bad Too". Scrubs. Season 7. Episode 7. 2008-04-10. NBC.
- "Spy to you". Chuck. Season 3. Episode 11. 2009-03-03. NBC.
- "Suck It". Robot Chicken. Season 2. Episode 1. 2006-04-02. Cartoon Network (US).
- "Anthology of Interest II". Futurama. Season 3. Episode 18. 2002-01-06. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- Baker, Chris (December 17, 2007). "Videogames & Futurama, Part 1: Raiders of the Lost Arcade". Wired News. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
- Paige, Earl (September 25, 1982). "Children's Video Promotions Help Boost Volume". Billboard 94 (38): 19. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
- Microsoft (August 28, 2007). "Microsoft Brings Video Games Live to London". GameSpot. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- "The Wire, Issues 221–226", The Wire, 2002: 44, retrieved May 25, 2011
- "Computer rock music gaining fans". Sarasota Journal: 8. August 18, 1980. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Lovelace, Craven (August 27 2010). "Take a waka-waka-waka on the wild side". Grand Junction Free Press. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Playback – Space Invaders at Discogs
- "Jesse Saunders – On And On". Discogs. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- Church, Terry (February 9, 2010). "Black History Month: Jesse Saunders and house music". BeatPortal. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- Bracelin, Jason (May 22, 2007). "House music finds a home". Las Vegas Review-Journal. p. 1E. Retrieved May 23, 2012. "A native of Chicago, where house was first popularized, Saunders is credited for producing and releasing the first house single, "On and On," on his own Jes Say Records label."
- "Permanent Waves liner notes". Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- "I-f – Space Invaders Are Smoking Grass". Discogs. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- D. Lynskey (March 22, 2002), "Out with the old, in with the older", Guardian.co.uk, archived from the original on February 16, 2011
- "30周年記念 スペシャルコンピレーションアルバム発売！" (in Japanese). Taito Corporation. 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
- 弓削 (October 21, 2008). "ź�舗限定で配信中のアニメーションPVを大公開しちゃいます！" (in Japanese). Retrieved April 6, 2009.
- Wyman, Walt (October 4, 2006). "Japan honors NES, PS2, Mario". GameSpot. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "Ɨ�本のメディア芸術100選" (in Japanese). Japan Media Arts Plaza. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- Boyes, Emma (October 9, 2006). "London museum showcases games". GameSpot. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "Barbicon: Game on". Barbicon International Enterprises. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
- "Space Invaders—Guillaume Reymond—video performance". NOTsoNOISY. 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Remo, Chris (August 25, 2008). "Creator of Space Invaders-Based 9/11 Art Piece Pulls Exhibit". Gamasutra. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Fairey, Shepard. "Space Invader". Swindle Magazine. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Space Invaders|
- Official website
- Space Invaders 30th anniversary portal (Japanese)
- Space Invaders at the Arcade History database
- Space Invaders at the Killer List of Videogames
- Space Invaders guide at StrategyWiki