Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from TIMSS)
Jump to: navigation, search
TIMSS 2011 8th grade average Mathematics scores
TIMSS 2011 8th grade average Science scores

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world. The participating students come from a diverse set of educational systems (countries or regional jurisdictions of countries) in terms of economic development, geographical location, and population size. In each of the participating educational systems, a minimum of 4,500 to 5,000 students are evaluated. Furthermore, for each student, contextual data on the learning conditions in mathematics and science are collected from the participating students, their teachers and their principals via separate questionnaires.[1]

TIMSS is one of the studies established by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) aimed at allowing educational systems to compare students' educational achievement and learn from the experiences of others in designing effective education policy. This study was first conducted in 1995, and has been performed every 4 years thereafter. In most of the cycles the study assesses 4th and 8th grade students. Therefore, some of the participating educational systems have trend data across assessments from 1995 to 2011.[2]

Another worldwide study that evaluates students’ math and science performance is the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and is conducted by OECD.

History[edit]

TIMSS was first performed in 1995 as the largest international student assessment study of its time and evaluated students in 5 grades. In the second cycle (1999) only eighth-grade students were tested. In the next cycles (2003, 2007 and 2011) both 4th and 8th grade students were assessed. The latest cycle (2011) was performed in the same year as PIRLS, offering a comprehensive assessment of math, science and reading for the countries attended both studies. The sixth cycle will be conducted in 2015, the results will be ready in 2016 and the data set will be published in February 2017. TIMSS 2015 will include the data collected from parents for the first time.[3] Moreover, TIMSS Advanced will be conducted along with the TIMSS 2015. TIMSS Advanced, conducted in 1995 and 2008 as well, will assess final-year secondary students' achievement in advanced mathematics and physics. Policy-relevant data about curriculum emphasis, technology use, and teacher preparation and training will accompany TIMSS Advanced results.

Method, Data and Documentation[edit]

Along with the overall students’ achievement data, TIMSS comprehensive assessments include data on student performance in different mathematics and science domains (algebra, geometry, biology, chemistry, etc.) and on performance in the problem solving challenges in each of these contexts. In addition, TIMSS provides contextual data on crucial curricular, instructional, and resource-related factors that can impact the teaching and learning process. These data are gathered using student, teacher, school, and curriculum (National) questionnaires filled out respectively by students, teachers, school principals and National Research Coordinators.

According to TIMSS 2011 international result in Math “The TIMSS mathematics achievement scales were established in TIMSS 1995 based on the achievement distribution across all participating countries, treating each country equally. At each grade level, the scale center point of 500 was set to correspond to the mean of the overall achievement distribution, and 100 points on the scale was set to correspond to the standard deviation. Achievement data from subsequent TIMSS assessment cycles were linked to these scales so that increases or decreases in average achievement may be monitored across assessments. TIMSS uses the scale center point as a point of reference that remains constant from assessment to assessment”.[4]

Due to the fact that TIMSS studies are done in 4-year cycles, it opens the opportunity for participating counties to use the results between the fourth and the eighth grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 can be compared with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS 1999 as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study.[5]

The collected information is presented in different formats. For example for TIMSS 2011, the results are presented in "TIMSS International Results in Science". , and "TIMSS International Results in Mathematics". . Also, "TIMSS Encyclopedia".  provides an overview of the national contexts for mathematics and science education in the participating countries. Besides, "Methods and procedures in TIMSS and PIRLS".  documents the development of the TIMSS and PIRLS assessments and questionnaires and describes the methods used. Moreover, "TIMSS user guide".  describes the content and format of the data in the TIMSS 2011 International Database. The fully documented TIMSS 2011 international database can be downloaded from the "TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center’s website". .

The IEA DPC has developed a facilitating application for working with TIMSS and other IEA's large-scale assessments called the "IEA International Database (IDB) Analyzer". . This application assists in combining data files and helps with conducting some types of statistical analysis (such as computing means, percentages, percentiles, correlations, and estimating single level multiple linear regression). The application takes into account the complex sample structure of the databases in the computation of statistics and their standard errors. In addition it facilitates the estimating achievement scores and their standard errors .

Also for overviewing of the IEA study results and interpretation of information, IEA "Data Visualizer".  can come in handy.

Cycles[edit]

In TIMSS 1995 study, there were 41 educational systems in five grades (third, fourth, seventh, eighth, and the final year of secondary school).[6] In 1999, TIMSS only focused on the eighth grade in 38 educational systems. There was no study done for the fourth grade in that year. In TIMSS 2003, there were 26 educational systems in the study for the fourth grade and 48 for the eighth grade. In TIMSS 2007, 44 educational systems participated in the fourth grade and 57 educational systems in the eighth grade. TIMSS 2011 had 52 participating educational systems for the fourth grade and 45 for the eighth grade.[7]

In TIMSS 2011, nationally representative samples of students in 63 countries and 14 benchmarking entities participated in the fourth grade assessment, the eighth grade assessment, or both. And in each country, almost 4,000 students from 150–200 schools participated at each grade. In some of the participating educational systems where the assessment was too difficult for fourth and eighth grade students, the assessments were administered to 6th and 9th grade students.[8]

Cooperative Partners[edit]

TIMSS project depends on the collaboration of a large number of individuals and organizations around the world including the IEA Data Processing and Research Center, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center at Boston College, the IEA Secretariat, Statistics Canada, and Educational Testing Service (ETS). In the United States, TIMSS is conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics of the U.S. Department of Education. Data for US students is further tracked for ethnic and racial groups. TIMSS is mainly funded by the participating countries. Also, US National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education and the World Bank provide major support funding of the studies.[9]

Top 10 countries by subject and year[edit]

In TIMSS 1995 study, there were 25 participating countries for the fourth grade[10] and 41 counties for the eighth grade.[11] In 1999, TIMSS-R only focused on the eighth grade in 38 countries. There was no study done for the fourth grade in that year.[12] In TIMSS 2003, there were 25 participating countries in the study for the fourth grade and 46 countries for the eighth grade.[13][14] TIMSS 2007 had 36 participating counties for the fourth grade and 49 counties for the eighth grade.[15][16] TIMSS 2011 had 52 participating countries for the fourth grade and 45 countries for the eighth grade.[17][18]

Due to the fact that TIMSS studies are done in 4-year cycle, it opens the opportunity for participating counties to use the results between the fourth and the eight grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 are used to compare with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS-R 1999 as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study.[5]

Maths[edit]

Fourth grade[edit]

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1.  Singapore 625
2.  South Korea 611
3.  Japan 597
4.  Hong Kong 587
5.  Netherlands 577
6.  Czech Republic 567
7.  Austria 559
8.  Slovenia 552
9.  Ireland 550
10.  Hungary 548
1.  Singapore 594
2.  Hong Kong 575
3.  Japan 565
4.  Taiwan 564
5.  Flanders (Belgium) 551
6.  Netherlands 540
7.  Latvia 536
8.  Lithuania 534
9.  Russia 532
10.  England (and Wales) 531
1.  Hong Kong 607
2.  Singapore 599
3.  Taiwan 576
4.  Japan 568
5.  Kazakhstan 549
6.  Russia 544
7.  England (and Wales) 541
8.  Latvia 537
9.  Netherlands 535
10.  Lithuania 530
1.  Singapore 606
2.  South Korea 605
3.  Hong Kong 602
4.  Taiwan 591
5.  Japan 585
6.  Northern Ireland 562
7.  Flanders (Belgium) 549
8.  Finland 545
9.  England (and Wales) 542
10.  Russia 542

Eighth grade[edit]

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS-R(1999) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1.  Singapore 643
2.  South Korea 607
3.  Japan 605
4.  Hong Kong 588
5.  Flanders (Belgium) 565
6.  Czech Republic 564
7.  Slovakia 547
8.   Switzerland 545
9.  Netherlands 541
10.  Slovenia 541
1.  Singapore 604
2.  South Korea 587
3.  Taiwan 585
4.  Hong Kong 582
5.  Japan 579
6.  Flanders (Belgium) 558
7.  Netherlands 540
8.  Slovakia 534
9.  Hungary 532
10.  Canada 531
1.  Singapore 605
2.  South Korea 589
3.  Hong Kong 586
4.  Taiwan 585
5.  Japan 570
6.  Flanders (Belgium) 537
7.  Netherlands 536
8.  Estonia 531
9.  Hungary 529
10.  Malaysia 508
1.  Taiwan 598
2.  South Korea 597
3.  Singapore 593
4.  Hong Kong 572
5.  Japan 570
6.  Hungary 517
7.  England (and Wales) 513
8.  Russia 512
9.  United States 508
10.  Lithuania 506
1.  South Korea 613
2.  Singapore 611
3.  Taiwan 609
4.  Hong Kong 586
5.  Japan 570
6.  Russia 539
7.  Israel 516
8.  Finland 514
9.  United States 509
10.  England (and Wales) 507

Science[edit]

Fourth grade[edit]

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1.  South Korea 597
2.  Japan 574
3.  United States 565
4.  Austria 565
5.  Australia 562
6.  Netherlands 557
7.  Czech Republic 557
8.  England 551
9.  Canada 549
10.  Singapore 547
1.  Singapore 565
2.  Taiwan 551
3.  Japan 543
4.  Hong Kong 542
5.  England (and Wales) 540
6.  United States 536
7.  Latvia 532
8.  Hungary 530
9.  Russia 526
10.  Netherlands 525
1.  Singapore 587
2.  Taiwan 557
3.  Hong Kong 554
4.  Japan 548
5.  Russia 546
6.  Latvia 542
7.  England (and Wales) 542
8.  United States 539
9.  Hungary 536
10.  Italy 535
1.  South Korea 587
2.  Singapore 583
3.  Finland 570
4.  Japan 559
5.  Russia 552
6.  Taiwan 552
7.  United States 544
8.  Czech Republic 536
9.  Hong Kong 535
10.  Hungary 534

Eighth grade[edit]

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS-R(1999) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1.  Singapore 607
2.  Czech Republic 574
3.  Japan 571
4.  South Korea 565
5.  Bulgaria 565
6.  Netherlands 560
7.  Slovenia 560
8.  Australia 558
9.  Hungary 554
10.  England (and Wales) 552
1.  Taiwan 569
2.  Singapore 568
3.  Hungary 552
4.  Japan 550
5.  South Korea 549
6.  Netherlands 545
7.  Australia 540
8.  Czech Republic 539
9.  England (and Wales) 538
10.  Finland 535
1.  Singapore 578
2.  Taiwan 571
3.  South Korea 558
4.  Hong Kong 556
5.  Estonia 552
6.  Japan 552
7.  Hungary 543
8.  Netherlands 536
9.  United States 527
10.  Australia 527
1.  Singapore 567
2.  Taiwan 561
3.  Japan 554
4.  South Korea 553
5.  England (and Wales) 542
6.  Hungary 539
7.  Czech Republic 539
8.  Slovenia 538
9.  Hong Kong 530
10.  Russia 530
1.  Singapore 590
2.  Taiwan 564
3.  South Korea 560
4.  Japan 558
5.  Finland 552
6.  Slovenia 543
7.  Russia 542
8.  Hong Kong 535
9.  England (and Wales) 533
10.  United States 525

All average country scores[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics". TIMSS International Study Center. p. 29. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  4. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics". TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. p. 36. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Pursuing Excellence: Comparisons of International Eighth-Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement from a U.S. Perspective, 1995 and 1999". U.S. Department of Education. December 2000. p. 2. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  7. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  8. ^ "TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "Highlights of Results - The Primary School Years". TIMSS 1995. TIMSS International Study Center. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  11. ^ "Highlights of Results - The Middle School Years". TIMSS 1995. TIMSS International Study Center. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat – TIMSS 1999". TIMSS 1999. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. 
  13. ^ "TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report". TIMSS & PIIRLS International Study Center. pp. 15,34–35. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "TIMSS 2003 International Science Report". TIMSS & PIIRLS International Study Center. pp. 34,36–37. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  15. ^ "TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report". TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 31,34–35. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "TIMSS 2007 International Science Report". TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 31,34–35. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics". TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 36, 40, 42. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  18. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science". TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 34, 38, 40. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 

External links[edit]