Take-out

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"Take away" redirects here. For the song by Missy Elliott, Ginuwine and Tweet, see Take Away (song). For the film of the same name, see Take Away.
"Take Out" and "Takeout" redirect here. For other uses, see Take Out (disambiguation).
"Carryout" redirects here. For the song by Timbaland and Justin Timberlake, see Carry Out.
Upper left: A Meat Feast Parmo from Stockton-on-Tees, UK. Upper right: Fish and chips. Lower left: Pizza delivery. Lower right: Döner kebab

Take-out or takeout (in North American and Philippine English), carry-out (in U.S. and Scottish English),[1] take-away (in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong, and Ireland),[1] or parcel (in Indian English and Pakistani English)[2] refers to prepared meals or other food items, purchased at a restaurant, that the purchaser intends to eat elsewhere.

History[edit]

Thermopolium in Herculanum

The concept of prepared meals to be eaten elsewhere dates back to antiquity. Market and roadside stalls selling food were common in both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.[3] In Pompeii, archaeologists have found a number of thermopolium. These were service counters, opening onto the street, which provided food to be taken away and eaten elsewhere. There is a distinct lack of formal dining and kitchen area in Pompeian homes, which may suggest that eating, or at least cooking, at home was unusual. Over 200 thermopolium have been found in the ruins of Pompeii.[4]

In the cities of medieval Europe there were a number of street vendors selling take-out food. In medieval London, street vendors sold hot meat pies, geese, sheep's feet and French wine, while in Paris roasted meats, squab, tarts and flans, cheeses and eggs were available. A large strata of society would have purchased food from these vendors, but they were especially popular amongst the urban poor, who would have lacked kitchen facilities in which to prepare their own food.[5] However, these vendors often had a bad reputation, often being in trouble with civic authorities reprimanding them for selling infected meat or reheated food. The cooks of Norwich often defended themselves in court against selling such things as "pokky pies" and "stynkyng mackerelles".[6] In 10th and 11th century China, citizens of cities like Kaifeng and Hangzhou were able to buy pastries such as yuebing and congyoubing to take away. By the early 13th century, the two most successful such shops in Kaifeng has "upwards of fifty ovens".[7] A traveling Florentine reported in the late 1300s that in Cairo, people carried picnic cloths made of raw hide to spread on the streets and eat their meals of lamb kebabs, rice and fritters that they had purchased from street vendors.[8] In Renaissance Turkey, many crossroads saw vendors selling "fragrant bites of hot meat", including chicken and lamb that had been spit roasted.[9]

Aztec marketplaces had vendors that sold beverages such as atolli ("a gruel made from maize dough"), almost 50 types of tamales (with ingredients that ranged from the meat of turkey, rabbit, gopher, frog, and fish to fruits, eggs, and maize flowers),[10] as well as insects and stews.[11] After Spanish colonization of Peru and importation of European food stocks like wheat, sugarcane and livestock, most commoners continued primarily to eat their traditional diets, but did add grilled beef hearts sold by street vendors.[12] Some of Lima's 19th century street vendors such as "Erasmo, the 'negro' sango vendor" and Na Aguedita are still remembered today.[13]

During the American Colonial period, street vendors sold "pepper pot soup" (tripe) "oysters, roasted corn ears, fruit and sweets," with oysters being a low-priced commodity until the 1910s when overfishing caused prices to rise.[14] As of 1707, after previous restrictions that had limited their operating hours, street food vendors had been banned in New York City.[15] Many women of African descent made their living selling street foods in America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; with products ranging from fruit, cakes and nuts in Savannah, to coffee, biscuits, pralines and other sweets in New Orleans.[16] In the 1800s street food vendors in Transylvania sold gingerbread-nuts, cream mixed with corn, and bacon and other meat fried on tops of ceramic vessels with hot coals inside.[17]

The Industrial Revolution saw an increase in the availability of take-out food. By the early 20th Century, fish and chips was considered an "established institution" in Britain. The hamburger was introduced to America around this time. The diets of industrial workers were often poor, and these meals provided an "important component" to their nutrition.[18] In India, local businesses and cooperatives, had begun to supply workers in the city of Mumbai with tiffin boxes by the end of the 19th century.[19]

Service[edit]

Take-out food can be purchased from restaurants that also provide sit-down table service or from establishments specialising in food to be taken away.[20]

Although once popular in Europe and America,[5] street food has declined in popularity. In part, this can be attributed to a combination of the proliferation of specialised takeaway restaurants and leglislation relating to health and safety.[5] Vendors selling street food are still common in parts of Asia, Africa and the Middle East[21], with the annual turnover of street food vendors in Bangladesh and Thailand being described as particularly important to the local economy.[22]

When dining in, a gratuity to the table server of around 10-15% would normally be expected (but not required, in most cases), depending on the customer's perception of service quality. Such a gratuity would not typically be required at all for a pickup order.

Some restaurants involved in making food for eating elsewhere may also deliver the food to the customer, such as pizza delivery. In the United States and Canada, the order can further specify for pickup, if the customer intends to stop by the restaurant, or for delivery, to indicate that delivery to the customer is expected.

Presentation[edit]

A bacon cheeseburger with fries in a to-go, from Brooklyn, New York.

Take-out food is packaged in paper, cardboard, plastic, or foam food containers.

Disposable serviceware waste[edit]

In 2002, Taiwan began taking action to reduce the use of disposable tableware at institutions and businesses, and to reduce the use of plastic bags. Yearly, the nation of 17.7 million people was producing 59,000 tons of disposable tableware waste and 105,000 tons of waste plastic bags, and increasing measures have been taken in the years since then to reduce the amount of waste.[23] In 2013 Twaiwan's Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) banned outright the use of disposable tableware in the nation's 968 schools, government agencies and hospitals. The ban is expected to eliminate 2,600 metric tons of waste yearly.[24]

In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, laws banning use of disposable food and drink containers at large scale events have been enacted. Such a ban has been in place in Munich, Germany since 1991, applying to all city facilities and events. This includes events of all sizes, including very large ones (Christmas market, Auer-Dult Faire, Oktoberfest and Munich City Marathon). For small events of a few hundred people, the city has arranged for a corporation offer rental of crockery and dishwasher equipment. In part through this regulation, Munich reduced the waste generated by Oktoberfest, which attracts tens of thousands of people, from 11,000 metric tons in 1990 to 550 tons in 1999.[25]

China produces about 57 billion pairs of single-use chopsticks yearly, of which half are exported. About 45 percent are made from trees – about 3.8 million of them – mainly cotton wood, birch, and spruce, the remainder being made from bamboo. Japan uses about 24 billion pairs of these disposables per year, and globally the use is about 80 billion pairs are thrown away by about 1.4 million people. Reusable chopsticks in restaurants have a lifespan of 130 meals. In Japan, with disposable ones costing about 2 cents and reusable ones costing typically $1.17, the reusables better the $2.60 breakeven cost. Campaigns in several countries to reduce this waste are beginning to have some effect.[26][27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "take•away". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  2. ^ "Sunday Levity: Paradise Secured". The Acorn. Retrieved 2008-09-01. "But we’re only here for a take-away (or parcel, in local parlance)." 
  3. ^ Smith, Andrew F., ed. (2007). The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 580. ISBN 9780195307962. 
  4. ^ Weiss Adamson, Melitta; Segan, Francine (eds.). Entertaining from Ancient Rome to the Super Bowl: An Encyclopedia. CT, USA: Greenwood Press. pp. 252–253. ISBN 9780313086892. 
  5. ^ a b c Harris, Stephen; Grigsby, Bryon L., eds. (2007). Misconceptions about the Middle Ages. London, UK: Routledge. p. 166. ISBN 9781135986674. 
  6. ^ Harper-Bill, Christopher (ed.). Medieval East Anglia. Sussex, UK: The Boydell Press. p. 134. ISBN 9781843831518. 
  7. ^ Fredman Cernea, Ruth, ed. (2005). The Great Latke-Hamantash Debate. London, UK: University of Chicago Press. p. 181. ISBN 9780226100234. 
  8. ^ Mary Snodgrass - (2004-09-27). Encyclopedia of Kitchen History. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  9. ^ Mary Snodgrass (2004-09-27). Encyclopedia of Kitchen History. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  10. ^ Susan Evans. Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America: An Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  11. ^ Long Towell Long, Luis Alberto Vargas. Food Culture In Mexico. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  12. ^ J. Pilcher (2005-12-20). Food In World History. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  13. ^ Ken Albala (2011-05-25). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. Boo. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  14. ^ Katherine Leonard Turner. Good Food for Little Money: Food and Cooking Among Urban Working-class .... Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  15. ^ Artemis P. Simopoulos. Street Foods. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  16. ^ African American Foodways: Explorations of History and Culture -. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  17. ^ Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1991: Public Eating : Proceedings. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  18. ^ Harbottle, Lynn (2004). Food for Health, Food for Wealth: Ethnic and Gender Identities in British Iranian Community. New York, USA: Berghahn Books. p. 72. ISBN 9781571816344. 
  19. ^ Roncaglia, Sara (2013). Feeding the City: Work and Food Culture of the Mumbai Dabbawalas. London, UK: Open Book Publishers. pp. xvi. ISBN 9781909254008. 
  20. ^ Mason, Laura (2004). Food Culture in Great Britain. CT, USA: Greenwood Press. p. 170. ISBN 9780313327988. 
  21. ^ Heine, Peter (2004). Food Culture in the Near East, Middle East, and North Africa. CT, USA: Greenwood Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780313329562. 
  22. ^ Sethuraman, S. V., ed. (1992). The Urban Informal Sector in Asia: An Annotated Bibliography. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organisation. p. 192. ISBN 9789221082590. 
  23. ^ Env. Research Foundation (undated). Taiwan’s Plastics Ban.
  24. ^ China Post. June 5, 2013. EPA to ban disposable cups from June 1.
  25. ^ Pre-Waste EU. (undated). Ban on disposable food and drink containers at events in Munich, Germany (Pre-waste factsheet 99)
  26. ^ New York Times. Reus Oct. 24, 2011. Disposable Chopsticks Strip Asian Forests. By Rachel Nuwer.
  27. ^ Ecopedia. 2013. How Wooden Chopsticks Are Killing Nature. By Alastair Shaw.

External links[edit]