|Traded as||NASDAQ: TSLA NASDAQ: component 100 Component|
|Headquarters||Palo Alto, California, USA|
|Key people||Elon Musk
(Chairman and CEO)
Tesla Model S
Tesla Model X
|Revenue||US$2.013 billion (2013)|
|Operating income||US$-61.3 million (2013)|
|Net income||US$-74 million (2013)|
|Total assets||US$2.417 billion (2013)|
|Total equity||US$667.1 million (2013)|
|Owner(s)||Elon Musk (27%)
Toyota Group (0.27%)
Daimler AG (0.14%)
|Employees||6000 (Jan 2014)|
Tesla Motors, Inc. is an American company that designs, manufactures and sells electric cars and electric vehicle powertrain components. Tesla Motors is a public company that trades on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the symbol TSLA. In the first quarter of 2013, Tesla posted profits for the first time in its ten year history.
Tesla also markets electric powertrain components, including lithium-ion battery packs, to automakers, including Daimler and Toyota. Tesla's CEO, Elon Musk, has said he envisions Tesla as an independent automaker, aimed at eventually offering electric cars at a price affordable to the average consumer.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Corporate strategy
- 3 Technology
- 4 Competition
- 5 Car models
- 6 History
- 7 Facilities
- 8 Partners
- 9 Lawsuits
- 10 Product issues
- 11 Board of directors
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The Tesla Roadster, the company's first vehicle, is the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production EV with a range greater than 200 miles (320 km) per charge. Between 2008 and March 2012, Tesla sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in 31 countries. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011.
Tesla's strategy was to emulate consumer electronics' products and enter the automotive market with an expensive high-end product targeted at affluent buyers. As the company, its products and consumer acceptance matured, it would move into larger, more competitive markets at lower price points.
Aiming premium products at affluent "thought leaders" is a well known business strategy in Silicon Valley and the global technology industry, where prices for the first versions of cellular phones, laptop computers and flat-screen televisions start high but drop in subsequent product cycles. According to a blog post by Musk, "New technology in any field takes a few versions to optimize before reaching the mass market and in this case it is competing with 150 years and trillions of dollars spent on gasoline cars."
One of Tesla's stated goals is to increase the number and variety of EVs available to mainstream consumers by:
- selling its own vehicles in company-owned showrooms and online;
- selling powertrain components to other automakers
- serving as a catalyst and positive example to other automakers
Tesla focuses on pure electric propulsion technology, even for larger vehicle segments and ranges beyond 200 miles. Musk won the 2010 Automotive Executive of the Year Innovator Award for hastening the development of electric vehicles throughout the global automotive industry.
Tesla operates stores or galleries, both of which are usually located in shopping malls, in 22 U.S. states and Washington DC. Customers cannot purchase vehicles from the stores, customers must order their vehicles on the Tesla Motors website. The stores act as showrooms that allow people to learn more about Tesla Motors and its vehicles. The galleries are located in states with more restrictive dealership protection laws, which prevent discussing prices, finances, test drives, and other restrictions.
Tesla's strategy of direct customer sales and owning its own stores and service centers is a significant departure from the dealership model in the U.S. marketplace. Tesla Motors is the only automaker that sells cars directly to consumers, with all other automakers using independently owned dealerships. 48 states have laws that limit or ban manufacturers from selling vehicles directly to consumers, and even though Tesla Motors has no independent dealerships, dealership associations in multiple states have filed numerous lawsuits against Tesla Motors, trying to block the company from selling cars in some states. North Carolina and New Hampshire sided with Tesla Motors while Virginia and Texas have taken the opposite position. This has not stopped Tesla from operating in both states, as both states have Tesla Galleries.
Texas currently has the most stringent dealership protection laws, which make purchasing a vehicle from Tesla Motors difficult in the state. Texas requires all new cars to be purchased through third party dealerships, effectively blocking Tesla from selling cars in Texas. A resident of Texas may still purchase a vehicle from Tesla Motors, but purchasing the vehicle must be handled as an out-of-state transaction. This may result in loans with higher interest rates,[not in citation given] the inability to include Texas state sales tax in the loan, and new owners cannot take advantage of the personal delivery of their Tesla to a Texas address. New owners must then register the vehicle with the state, pay the sales tax when taxes are filed, and go to a local service center if the new owner wants to learn more about their car. Tesla has lobbied the Texas Legislature to modify Texas law to allow Tesla to sell directly to consumers and specifically allow Tesla employees to discuss "financing, leasing, or purchasing options" at the firm's existing stores in Austin and Houston.
Tesla Motors builds electric powertrain components for vehicles from other automakers, including the lowest-priced car from Daimler, the Smart ForTwo electric drive, the Toyota RAV4 EV, and Freightliner's Custom Chassis Electric Van.
Unlike other automakers, Tesla does not use single-purpose, larger format cells. Tesla uses thousands of lithium-ion 18650 commodity cells. 18650 cells are small, cylindrical battery cells, which are usually found in laptops and other consumer electronics devices. Tesla Motors uses a unique version of these cells, designed to be cheaper to manufacture and to be lighter than the standard cells. The cost and weight savings were made by removing some safety features. According to Tesla Motors, the safety features are redundant because of the advanced thermal management system and a protective intumescent chemical in the battery pack. The chemical is supposed to prevent battery fires. Currently Panasonic, a Tesla Motors investor, is the sole supplier of the battery cells for the car company.
Tesla Motors may have the lowest rates for electric car batteries, the estimated battery costs for Tesla Motors is around US$200 dollars per kWh. Currently, Tesla Motors charges $10,000 dollars more for the 85kWh battery than the 60kWh battery, or $400 per kWh. At $200 per kWh, the battery in the 60kWh Model S would cost $12,000, while the 85kWh battery would cost $17,000 dollars.
In the Model S, Tesla Motors integrated the battery pack into the floor of the vehicle, unlike in the Roadster, which had the battery pack behind the seats. Because the battery is integrated into the floor of the Model S, no interior space is lost for batteries, unlike in other electric vehicles, which often lose trunk space or interior space to batteries. The location of the battery pack and the lower ride of the Model S does put the battery at a higher risk of being damaged by road debris or an impact. To protect the battery pack, the Model S has a quarter inch aluminum-alloy armor plate. The battery pack's location allows for quick battery swapping. A battery swap can take as little as 90 seconds in the Model S. There are currently no public Tesla battery swap locations.
General Motors' then-Vice Chairman Robert Lutz said in 2007 that the Tesla Roadster inspired him to push GM to develop the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid sedan. In an August 2009 edition of The New Yorker, Lutz was quoted as saying, "All the geniuses here at General Motors kept saying lithium-ion technology is 10 years away, and Toyota agreed with us – and boom, along comes Tesla. So I said, 'How come some tiny little California startup, run by guys who know nothing about the car business, can do this, and we can't?' That was the crowbar that helped break up the log jam."
Tesla Motors' first production vehicle, the Tesla Roadster, was an all-electric sports car. The Roadster was the first highway-capable all-electric vehicle in serial production for sale in the United States in the modern era. The Roadster was also the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production BEV to travel more than 200 miles (320 km) per charge.
Prototypes were introduced to the public in July 2006. The Tesla Roadster was featured on the cover of Time in December 2006 as the recipient of the magazine's "Best Inventions 2006—Transportation Invention" award. The first "Signature One Hundred" set of fully equipped Roadsters sold out in less than three weeks, the second hundred sold out by October 2007, and general production began on March 17, 2008.
Tesla began producing its first right-hand-drive Roadsters for the UK and Ireland, then began selling them in mid-2010 in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia. Tesla produced the Roadster until early 2012, when its supply of Lotus Elise gliders ran out, as its contract with Lotus Cars for 2,500 gliders expired at the end of 2011. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011. Featuring new options and enhanced features, the 2012 Tesla Roadster was sold in limited numbers only in Europe, Asia and Australia. The next generation is expected to be introduced in 2014, based on a shortened version of the platform developed for the Tesla Model S. Tesla sold more than 2,400 Roadsters in 31 countries through September 2012. Most of the remaining Roadsters were sold during the fourth quarter of 2012.
The car had an average range of 245 miles (394 km) per charge according to Tesla. On Oct. 27, 2009, the Roadster driven by Simon Hackett drove the entire 313-mile (504 km) segment of Australia's annual Global Green Challenge on a single charge, at an average speed of 25 mph (40 km/h).
The Tesla Roadster can accelerate from zero to 60 mph (97 km/h) in under 4 seconds and has a top speed of 125 mph (201 km/h). The base price of the car is US$109,000 (€84,000 or GB£87,945). The Roadster Sport price started at US$128,500 in the United States and €112,000 (excluding VAT) in Europe. Deliveries began in July 2009.
MotorTrend reported that the Roadster Sport recorded a 0–60 mph of 3.70 seconds and a quarter-mile test at 12.6 sec @ 102.6 mph (165.1 km/h), and stated "Tesla is the first maker to crack the EV legitimacy barrier in a century." 
The Model S was announced in a press release on June 30, 2008. The sedan was originally code-named "Whitestar". Retail deliveries began in the U.S. on June 22, 2012. The first delivery of a Model S to a retail customer in Europe took place on 7 August 2013. Deliveries in China are scheduled to start in the second quarter of 2014. First deliveries of the right-hand-drive model destined for the UK, Australia, Hong Kong and Japan are also scheduled to begin in the second quarter of 2014.
The Model S was to have three battery pack options for a range of up to 265 miles (426 km) per charge, but this was reduced to two, due to lack of demand for the shortest range vehicle. In October 2011, Tesla reached 6,500 reservations for the Model S. Retail deliveries began in June 2012. Tesla expects global sales of 35,000 units in 2014, a 55% increase over 2013, with combined sales in Europe and Asia expected to be almost twice that of North America by the end of 2014.
A total of 2,650 Model S cars were sold in the North American market during 2012, mostly in the United States. Sales in Europe and North America totaled 22,477 units in 2013, surpassing Tesla's annual sales target of 21,500 units. Global sales reached over 25,000 units through December 2013, with the United States as the leading market with about 20,600 units, followed by Norway with 1,986 units, the Netherlands with 1,195 units sold through December 2013, and Canada with 733 units sold through December 2013.
The Tesla Model S was the top selling new car in Norway in September 2013, thus becoming the first electric car to top the sales ranking in any country. The Model S captured a market share of 5.1% of all new car sales that month. In December 2013, and with a 4.9% market share, the Model S topped one more time the best selling new car list in Norway. Sales in the American market during 2013 totaled about 18,000 units, allowing the Model S to rank in 2013 as the third top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. after the Chevrolet Volt (23,094) and the Nissan Leaf (22,610). Also in 2013, the Model S was the top selling car in the full-size luxury sedan category in the U.S., ahead of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (13,303), the top selling car in the category in 2012, and also surpassing the BMW 7 Series (10,932), Lexus LS (10,727), Audi A8 (6,300) and Porsche Panamera (5,421).
Tesla manufactures the Model S in Fremont, California, in an assembly plant formerly operated by NUMMI, a defunct joint venture of Toyota and General Motors, now called Tesla Factory. Tesla purchased a stake in the site in May 2010 for US$42 million, and opened the facility in October 2010.
For the European market, Tesla assembles and distributes the Model S from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg. Tesla chose Tilburg because of its location near the port of Rotterdam, where Models S components arrive from the U.S. The center also serves as a workshop and spare parts warehouse. Cars are built and tested in Fremont. Then, the battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where the cars are reassembled.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency range for the 85 kW·h battery pack model, the first trim launched in the United States market, is 265 mi (426 km), and 208 mi (335 km) for the model with the 60 kW·h battery.
Among other awards, the Model S won the 2013 "Motor Trend Car of the Year", the 2013 "World Green Car", Automobile Magazine's 2013 "Car of the Year", and Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012 award.
The Tesla Model X was unveiled at the company's design studios in Hawthorne, California February 9, 2012. Over a thousand people attended the unveiling, at which Musk said the car would enter production in 2013. In February 2013 Tesla announced that production had been rescheduled to begin by late 2014 in order to focus "on a commitment to bring profitability to the company in 2013" and to achieve their production target of 20,000 Model S cars in 2013. The company began taking reservations for the vehicle in 2013 and says that deliveries would begin in 2014.
In November 2013, Tesla confirmed the company expected to deliver the Model X in small numbers by end of 2014, with high volume production planned for the second quarter of 2015. However, Tesla announced in February 2014 that in order to focus on overseas roll outs of the Model S during 2014, the company expects to have production design Model X prototypes by the end of 2014, to begin high volume deliveries for retail customers in the second quarter of 2015.
Third generation car
The Tesla BlueStar is a codename for a proposed electric car to be manufactured by Tesla Motors. The car is commonly referred to as the Model E by the public, after Tesla Motors trademarked Model E (note that Tesla Motors owns other trademarks it does not currently use), however no name has officially be given to the car. This US$35,000–US$40,000 car with a range of 200 miles (320 km) is expected to begin deliveries by 2017.
The third-generation car, as it is officially called by Tesla, will, according to design chief Franz von Holzhausen, "be an Audi A4, BMW 3-series, Mercedes-Benz C-Class type of vehicle that will offer everything: range, affordability, and performance with a starting price of US$30,000" that is targeted towards the mass-market. Tesla intends the car to have a price under US$40,000 and have a range of about 200 miles (320 km). Technology from Tesla's Model S line may also make its way into the BlueStar line. "It would be quite similar to the Model S but scaled down." Although the Model S is generally a standard looking car, the third generation vehicle will have more distinctive style.
The company had plans for the BlueStar as part of its trickle-down strategy, where the battery and electric drivetrain technology would be developed and paid for through sales of the Tesla Roadster and Tesla Model S vehicles. It will be 20% smaller than the Model S.
Tesla Motors announced in June 2009, along with their loans from the DOE, plans to build electric minivans, crossover SUVs and electric fleet vans for municipal governments. The utility van and cabriolet are expected to be based on the Model S platform, along with the Tesla Model X crossover SUV. Besides the third generation car, other projects under discussion include an electric truck and a self-driving car. Future models may also reach a 400 miles (640 km) range because of a new patented battery system, pairing metal-air and lithium-ion batteries.
Tesla Motors was incorporated in July 2003 by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning, who financed the company until the Series A round of funding. Both men played active roles in the company's early development prior to Elon Musk's involvement. Musk led the Series A round of investment in February 2004, joining Tesla's Board of Directors as its Chairman.
Since college, Musk's primary goal was to commercialize electric vehicles, starting with a premium sports car aimed at early adopters and then moving as rapidly as possible into more mainstream vehicles, including sedans and affordable compacts.
Musk took an active role within the company and oversaw Roadster product design at a detailed level, but was not deeply involved in day to day business operations; Eberhard acknowledged that Musk was the person who insisted from the beginning on a carbon fiber body and he led design of components ranging from the power electronics module to the headlamps and other styling.
In addition to his daily operational roles, Musk was the controlling investor in Tesla from the first financing round, funding the large majority of the Series A capital investment round of US$7.5 million with personal funds.
From the beginning, Musk consistently maintained that Tesla's long-term strategic goal was to create affordable mass market electric vehicles. Musk received the Global Green 2006 product design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by Mikhail Gorbachev, and he received the 2007 Index Design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster.
Musk's Series A round included Compass Technology Partners and SDL Ventures, as well as many private investors. Musk later led Tesla Motors' Series B, US$13 million, investment round that added Valor Equity Partners to the funding team. Musk co-led the third, US$40 million round in May 2006 along with Technology Partners. Tesla's third round included investment from prominent entrepreneurs including Google co-founders Sergey Brin & Larry Page, former eBay President Jeff Skoll, Hyatt heir Nick Pritzker and added the VC firms Draper Fisher Jurvetson, Capricorn Management and The Bay Area Equity Fund managed by JPMorgan Chase. The fourth round in May 2007 added another US$45 million and brought the total investments to over US$105 million through private financing.
In December 2007, Ze'ev Drori became CEO and President. In January 2008, Tesla fired several key personnel who had been involved from the inception after a performance review by the new CEO. According to Musk, Tesla was forced to reduce the company workforce by about 10% to lower its burn rate, which was out of control in 2007.
The fifth round in February 2008 added another US$40 million. Musk had contributed US$70 million of his own money to the company by this time. In October 2008, Musk succeeded Drori as CEO. Drori became Vice Chairman. He left the company in December. By January 2009, Tesla had raised US$187 million and delivered 147 cars.
On May 19, 2009, Germany's Daimler AG, maker of Mercedes-Benz, acquired an equity stake of less than 10% of Tesla for a reported US$50 million. In July 2009, Daimler announced that Abu Dhabi's Aabar Investments bought 40% of Daimler's interest in Tesla.
In June 2009 Tesla was approved to receive US$465 million in interest-bearing loans from the United States Department of Energy. The funding, part of the US$8 billion program (Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program), supports engineering and production of the Model S sedan, as well as the development of commercial powertrain technology. The low-interest loans are not related to the "bailout" funds that GM and Chrysler received, nor are they related to the 2009 economic stimulus package. The loan program was created in 2007 during the George W. Bush administration. Tesla repaid the loan in May 2013. Tesla was the first car company to have fully repaid the government, while Ford, Nissan and Fisker had not.
The company announced in early August 2009 that it had achieved overall corporate profitability for the month of July 2009. The company said it earned approximately US$1 million on revenue of US$20 million. Profitability arose primarily from improved gross margin on the 2010 Roadster, the second iteration of Tesla’s award-winning sports car. Tesla, which like all automakers records revenue when products are delivered, shipped a record 109 vehicles in July and reported a surge in new Roadster purchases.
In September 2009, Tesla announced an US$82.5 million round to accelerate Tesla's retail expansion. Daimler participated in the round to maintain equity ownership from its initial investment.
Tesla Motors signed a production contract on 11 July 2005 with Group Lotus to produce "gliders" (complete cars minus powertrain). The contract ran through March 2011, but the two automakers extended the deal to keep the electric Roadster in production through December 2011 with a minimum number of 2,400 units, when production ended,[dated info] mostly because of tooling changes orchestrated by one of its suppliers.
In June 2010, it was reported that Tesla sold a total of US$12.2 million zero emission vehicle credits to other automakers, including Honda, up to March 31, 2010.
2010 initial public offering
On 29 January 2010, Tesla Motors filed Form S-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, as a preliminary prospectus indicating its intention to file an initial public offering (IPO) underwritten by Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, J. P. Morgan, and Deutsche Bank Securities. On May 21, 2010, Tesla announced a "strategic partnership" with Toyota, which agreed to purchase US$50 million in Tesla common stock issued in a private placement to close immediately after the IPO. Executives at both companies said that they would cooperate on "the development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support." Less than two months later, Toyota and Tesla confirmed that their first platform collaboration would be to build an electric version of the RAV4 EV.
On June 29, 2010 Tesla Motors launched its initial public offering on NASDAQ. The IPO raised US$226 million for the company. It was the first American car maker to go public since the Ford Motor Company had its IPO in 1956.[dated info]
During November 2013, Tesla's stock fell more than 20 percent, following news of a third Model S fire. Despite the drop, Tesla was still the top performer on the Nasdaq 100 index in 2013.
Tesla is seeking to sell 40,000 electric vehicles worldwide in 2014, adding China to its export plans.
Tesla Motors' headquarters are located in Palo Alto, California. As of August 2013[update], Tesla operates over 50 company-owned showrooms worldwide. In July 2010, Tesla hired former Apple and Gap Executive George Blankenship as Vice President of Design and Store Development to build Tesla's retail strategy.
Tesla was founded in San Carlos, California, in Silicon Valley. Tesla opened its first retail store in West Los Angeles, California, in April 2008 and a second in Menlo Park, California, in July 2008. The company opened a display showroom in New York City's Chelsea art district in July 2009. It also opened a Seattle, Washington store in July 2009. Tesla subsequently opened stores in Washington, D.C.; New York City; Chicago; Dania Beach, Florida; Boulder, Colorado; Orange County, California; San Jose, California and Denver, Colorado.
In 2010 Tesla moved its corporate headquarters and opened a powertrain development facility at 3500 Deer Creek Road, in the Stanford Research Park in Palo Alto. Tesla financed the project in part through US$100 million of the federal low-interest loans. The new facility occupies 369,000 sq ft (34,300 m2) on a 23-acre (93,000 m2) parcel previously occupied by Agilent Technologies. About 350 employees were expected to be based at the Stanford site initially, potentially increasing to 650.
In 2012, Tesla Motors began building a network of 480-volt fast charging Supercharger stations to facilitate longer distance journeys in the Model S. As of mid January 2014, there are 65 stations operating in the United States and 14 in Europe.
The initial network was planned to be available in high-traffic corridors across North America, followed by networks in Europe and Asia in the second half of 2013. The first Supercharger corridor in the U.S. opened with free access in October 2012. This corridor included six stations placed along routes connecting San Francisco, Lake Tahoe, Los Angeles and Las Vegas. A second corridor was opened in December 2012 along the Northeast megalopolis, connecting Washington, D.C., New York City and Boston; it includes three stations located in highway rest areas in Delaware and Connecticut.
The Supercharger is a proprietary direct current (DC) rapid-charging station that provides almost 120 kW of power, giving the 85 kWh Model S an additional 150 miles (240 km) of range in about 20 minutes, or 200 miles (320 km) of range in about 30 minutes. The electricity used by the Supercharger in the West Coast corridor comes from a solar carport system provided by SolarCity. Eventually, all Supercharger stations were to be supplied by solar power. The network is exclusive to compatible Model S sedans. Supercharging hardware is standard on Model S vehicles equipped with an 85 kWh battery and optional on Model S vehicles equipped with a 60 kWh battery. The Roadster is not equipped to charge from the Superchargers, but according to the automaker, all future Tesla models will be. According to Musk, “...we expect all of the United States to be covered by the end of next year ”. He also said that Tesla owners’ use of the network would be free forever.
Tesla designed its Model S to allow fast battery swapping. This feature facilitated the assembly process. In June 2013, Tesla announced their goal to deploy a battery swapping station in each of its stations. Musk demonstrated a 90-second battery swap operation.
Each swapping station was expected to cost US$500,000 and will have about 50 batteries available without requiring reservations. The service would be offered for the price of about 15 US gallons (57 l; 12 imp gal) of gasoline at the current local rate, around US$60 to US$80 at June 2013 prices. Owners can pick up their original battery pack fully charged on the return trip, which is included in the swap fee. Tesla would also offer the option to keep the pack received in the swap and would charge only the price difference if the battery received is newer. Tesla would return the original pack for a transport fee.
Tesla opened its first "new design" store in Canada on November 16, 2012 in the Yorkdale Shopping Centre in Toronto, Ontario. The store features interactive displays and design studios allowing customers to customize the Model S and viewing the result on an 85-inch wall.
Tesla opened its first store in Europe in June 2009 in London's Knightsbridge district, followed by Munich in September. The London dealer relocating to the Westfield London shopping centre in October 2013. Tesla has 24 "galleries" and stores around Europe by the start of 2014.
The 62,000 sq ft (5,800 m2) European distribution centre and final assembly facility was established in 2013 in Tilburg in the Netherlands.
Tesla opened its first Japanese showroom in Aoyama on November 2010. Another showroom was subsequently opened in Osaka. Roadsters sold in Japan were either in left- or right-hand drive configurations, although Model S vehicles will only be available in right-hand drive configurations by 2014. According to Kevin Yu, the director of Tesla Motors Asia Pacific, Roadsters in Japan sell at an average price of between ¥12.8 million and ¥20 million.
Tesla Motors established a Hong Kong branch and showroom in 2011. Roadsters were previously sold in Hong Kong for HK$1.2 million. The Hong Kong showroom consists of a "Design Studio" where prospective buyers can design their vehicle on a large touchscreen. The official Hong Kong service center opened in September 2011.
A Tesla branch existed in Singapore from July 2010 to February 2011, but the company ceased its operations in the country due to a lack of tax exemptions. Without tax breaks, the Roadster retailed between SGD$400,000 and SGD500,000 rather than the much lower price of SGD$250,000.
Tesla's Chinese website was launched on December 16, 2013 to sell the Model S and Model X and set a February 2014 date for the distribution of both vehicles in China. The launch followed the opening of a Tesla showroom in Beijing in November 2013.
A Roadster was driven by Country Manager Jay McCormack along the entire eastern seaboard covering a distance of more than 2,500 miles (4,000 km), the longest distance traveled by an electric vehicle in Australia.
Unlike many traditional manufacturers Tesla operates as an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), manufacturing powertrain components for other automakers. Tesla has confirmed partnerships with Daimler and Toyota. Tesla also works closely with Panasonic as a partner in battery research and development. The company also supplies battery packs for Freightliner Trucks' Custom Chassis Electric Van.
Starting in late 2007, Daimler and Tesla began working together. The two companies were expected to collaborate further, including on the Tesla Model S sedan.
On May 19, 2009, Daimler acquired an equity stake of less than 10% in Tesla for a reported US$50 million. As part of the collaboration, Herbert Kohler, Vice President E-Drive and Future Mobility at Daimler, took a seat on Tesla’s board of directors.
On July 13, 2009, Daimler AG sold 40% of their May acquisition to Aabar Investments PJSC. Aabar is an investment company controlled by the International Petroleum Investment Company (IPIC), which is wholly owned by the Government of Abu Dhabi. In March 2009, Aabar purchased a 9% stake in Daimler for €1,95 billion.
Tesla, in collaboration with Mercedes-Benz, is building electric powertrain components for the Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-Cell, an electric car with a range of200 km (124 mi) and 290 N·m (214 ft·lbf) of torque. The 36 kWh battery pack would contain approximately 4,000 individual lithium-ion cells. Daimler was not expected to lease the electric version outside of Europe. The Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-Cell was unveiled at the 2010 Paris Motor Show. Only 500 cars would be built for trial purposes in Europe beginning in September 2011.
On May 20, 2010, Tesla and Toyota announced a partnership to work on electric vehicle development, which included Toyota's US$50 million future conditional investment in Tesla and Tesla's US$42 million purchase of a portion of the former NUMMI factory. Tesla cooperated on the development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support. It was announced that an electric version of the Toyota RAV4 would be mass-produced in 2012 at Toyota's Woodstock, Ontario plant.
Toyota RAV4 EV
Tesla Motors and Toyota announced in July 2010 an agreement to develop a second generation of the compact Toyota RAV4 EV. At the time, Toyota planned to introduce the model into the market by 2012.
A second generation RAV4 EV demonstrator was unveiled at the October 2010 Los Angeles Auto Show. Toyota built 35 of these converted RAV4s (Phase Zero vehicles) for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other powertrain components were supplied by Tesla Motors.
In August 2012, the production version RAV4 EV was unveiled; the battery pack, electronics and powertrain components are similar to those used in the Tesla Model S sedan launched in June 2012, and the Phase Zero vehicles used components from the Tesla Roadster.
Freightliner Electric Van
On January 7, 2010, Tesla and battery cell maker Panasonic announced that they would together develop nickel-based lithium-ion battery cells for electric vehicles. Naoto Noguchi, President of Panasonic’s Energy Company, said the Japanese firm’s cells will be used for Tesla’s “current and next-generation EV battery pack.” The partnership was part of Panasonic's US$1 billion investment over three years in facilities for lithium-ion cell research, development and production. Tesla disclosed that the new cell resulting from its collaboration with Panasonic will allow Tesla to continue using cells from multiple suppliers.
In April 2010, Noguchi presented Tesla Chief Technology Officer J. B. Straubel with the first production cells manufactured at the new facility in Suminoe, Japan. The Suminoe factory produced 3.1Ah battery cells, the highest energy density cells in the market. The facility produces more than 300 million cells per year.
On 5 November 2010, Panasonic invested US$30 million for a multi-year collaboration on next generation cells designed specifically for electric vehicles.
The Roadster sourced parts from multiple countries from dozens of suppliers, including carbon fiber body panels, which are made in France by Sotira. The panels were sent to England, where Tesla contracts with Lotus to build its chassis in Hethel, U.K. The cars were then sent to Menlo Park for final assembly. The battery pack is assembled in Palo Alto, California, using cells from Japan. The single-speed gearbox is built in Michigan by USA-based supplier BorgWarner.
When the company began in 2003, Tesla licensed AC Propulsion's Reductive Charging patent, which integrates charging electronics into the inverter for reduced mass and complexity. Later Tesla went its own way and no longer employs AC Propulsion's intellectual property.
On April 14, 2008, Tesla Motors sued Fisker Automotive, alleging that Henrik Fisker "stole design ideas and confidential information related to the design of hybrid and electric cars" and was using that information to develop the Fisker Karma, which was announced at the North American International Auto Show in January 2008. Tesla had hired Fisker Coachbuild to design the WhiteStar sedan but dropped the design that Musk considered "substandard". On November 3, 2008, Fisker Automotive Inc. issued a press release indicating that an arbiter had issued an interim award finding in Fisker's favor on all claims. Tesla said the ruling was binding and that it would not pursue the case.
The founding of the company was the subject of a lawsuit that was later dropped after an out of court settlement. On May 26, 2009, Eberhard filed suit in San Mateo County, California, against Tesla and Musk (Chairman and CEO of Tesla) for slander, libel and breach of contract. Musk wrote a lengthy blog post that included original source documents, including emails between senior executives and other artifacts demonstrating that Eberhard was unanimously fired by Tesla's board of directors. On July 29, 2009, a judge in San Mateo County, California, Superior Court struck down a claim by former CEO Eberhard, who asked to be declared one of only two company founders. Tesla said in a statement that the ruling is "consistent with Tesla’s belief in a team of founders, including the company’s current CEO and Product Architect Elon Musk, and Chief Technology Officer JB Straubel, who were both fundamental to the creation of Tesla from inception." In early August, Eberhard withdrew the case, and the parties reached a final settlement on September 21. One public provision stated that the parties will consider Eberhard, Musk, Straubel, Tarpenning, and Wright to be the five co-founders. Eberhard also issued a statement about Musk's foundational role in the company: "As a co-founder of the company, Elon's contributions to Tesla have been extraordinary."
Tesla unsuccessfully sued British television show Top Gear for their review of the Roadster in a 2008 episode in which Jeremy Clarkson could be seen driving one around the Top Gear test track, complaining about a range of only 55 miles (89 km), before showing workers pushing it into the garage, supposedly out of charge. Tesla filed a lawsuit against the BBC for libel and malicious falsehood, claiming that two cars were provided and that at any point, at least one was ready to drive. In addition, Tesla claimed that neither car ever dropped below 25% charge, and that the scene was staged. On October 19, 2011, the High Court in London rejected Tesla's libel claim. The falsehood claims were also struck out by February 2012, with Justice Tugendhat describing Tesla's malicious falsehood claim as "so 'gravely deficient' it too could not be allowed to proceed." 
In May 2009, Tesla issued a safety recall for 345 Roadsters manufactured before April 22, 2009. Tesla sent technicians to customers' homes to tighten the rear, inner hub flange bolts. Using wording from the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, Tesla told customers that without this adjustment, the driver could lose control of the car. The problem originated at the Lotus assembly line, where the Roadster glider was built. Lotus also recalled some Elise and Exige vehicles for the same reason.
On October 1, 2010, Tesla issued a second product safety recall in the USA affecting 439 Roadsters. The recall involved the 12V low-voltage auxiliary cable from a redundant back-up system. The recall followed an incident where the low voltage auxiliary cable in a vehicle chafed against the edge of a carbon fiber panel, causing a short, smoke and a possible fire behind the right front headlamp. This issue was limited to the 12V low-voltage auxiliary cable and did not involve the main battery pack or main power system.
Crashes and fire
Since late 2013, Tesla has received criticism debating whether or not their second-generation vehicle, Model S, is safe, after three incidents involving batteries catching fire. Though each investigation, including one done by the German Federal Motor Transport Authority who reported the Model S had no flaws in the car’s design and said the fires were due to collisions at high speeds. Tesla even changed their warranty agreement to say, “Both battery warranties cover damage from improper charging procedures and battery fire, even if the fire results from driver error.”
On October 1, 2013 a Model S caught fire after the vehicle hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington. A Tesla spokeswoman confirmed the fire began in the battery pack and was caused by the “direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 modules within the Model S battery pack.” The company spokeswoman said that, “Because each module within the battery pack is, by design, isolated by fire barriers to limit any potential damage, the fire in the battery pack was contained to a small section in the front of the vehicle.” The car owner was able to exit the highway, stop and leave the vehicle without injury, as instructed by the onboard alert system. Tesla's share price lost about 12% within two days and decreased the company's market capitalization by about US$3 billion. However, the share price increased about 4.5% three days after the crash.
Tesla claimed that a curved section fell off a semi-trailer and impaled the vehicle with a peak force on the order of 25 tons, creating a 3 inch hole through the quarter inch armor plate under the vehicle. A fire began in the front battery module, one of 16 such modules, but was contained within the front section by internal firewalls. Battery pack vents directed the flames down towards the road and away from the vehicle and that the passenger compartment was undamaged.
The company also claimed that conventional gasoline-powered cars were much more vulnerable to such a situation, because they have less underbody protection. It also noted that the battery pack holds only about 10% of the energy contained in a gasoline tank and is spread across 16 firewalled modules, meaning that the combustion potential is only about 1% as much. Based on U.S. statistics from the National Fire Protection Association, Musk claimed that a driver is "5 times more likely to experience a fire in a conventional gasoline car than a Tesla.
A second reported fire occurred on October 18, 2013 in Merida, Mexico. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree. The NHTSA did not investigate this incident because it occurred outside the U.S. On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, caught fire after it struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle. Tesla stated that it would conduct its own investigation, and as a result of these incidents, announced its decision to extend its current vehicle warranty to cover fire damage and to apply a software update on Model S cars to increase the ground clearance of the Model S when driving at highway speed.
On November 19, 2013, NHTSA opened a preliminary evaluation to determine "the potential risks associated with undercarriage strikes on model year 2013 Tesla Model S vehicles." An estimated population of 13,108 Model S cars are part of this initial investigation. Another fire incident took place in Toronto, Canada, in early February 2014. The Model S was parked in a garage and it was not plugged charging when the fire started. The origin of the fire is still unknown. According to Tesla “in this particular case, we don’t yet know the precise cause, but have definitively determined that it did not originate in the battery, the charging system, the adapter or the electrical receptacle, as these components were untouched by the fire.”
Board of directors
- Elon Musk—Chairman of the board of directors, CEO and Product Architect of Tesla; former President of Paypal, founder, CEO and CTO of SpaceX; Chairman of the board, SolarCity
- Brad Buss—CFO, Cypress Semiconductor Corp
- Ira Ehrenpreis—General Partner, Technology Partners
- Antonio J. Gracias—CEO and Chairman of the Investment Committee at Valor Equity Partners
- Steve Jurvetson—Managing Director, Draper Fisher Jurvetson.
- Harold Kroeger—Mercedes-Benz Vice President, responsible for electrics and electronics
- Kimbal Musk—CEO of Medium, Inc., Co-founder Zip2
- Tesla Motors (2014-02-19). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2013 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- Tesla Motors (2014-01-15). "Tesla Motors Investor Presentation". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- "2012 Form 10-K, Tesla Motors, Inc.". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2013-03-07. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- Sager, Rebekah (2013-07-01). "Tesla's Stocks Soar". First to Know. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
- Tesla Motors (2013-05-08). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – First Quarter 2013 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "The World's Only Electric Sports Car: 2010 Tesla Roadster". Sportscarmonitor.com. 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "Tesla and Toyota’s RAV4 EV And Now A Tesla-Daimler Partnership – AltTransport: Your Guide to Smarter Ways of Getting Around". Alttransport.com. 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Howell, Donna. "Tesla Motors Shows Electric Model X SUV; What Next?". investors.com. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
- "Why the Name "Tesla"?". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- Michaels, Daniel (2010-01-14). "Long-Dead Inventor Nikola Tesla Is Electrifying Hip Techies". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Tesla Motors Moving Quickly to Commercialization of an Electric Car". GreenCar Magazine. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- David Shepardson (2012-05-09). "Tesla to deliver first Model S electric by June". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
- Chris Woodyard (2011-08-03). "Tesla boasts about electric car deliveries, plans for sedan". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
- Garthwaite, Josie (2011-05-06). "Tesla Prepares for a Gap as Roadster Winds Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- Dillow, Clay. (2011-06-23) Farewell Roadster: Tesla Will Stop Taking Orders for its Iconic EV in Two Months | Popular Science. Popsci.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-10.
- "Tesla Showroom". Tesla Motors. 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Working for Tesla Motors - Engineering TV". Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Robert Scardino (2009-07-17). "MSNBC Calls EV Drivers "Lunatic Fringe"". AllCarsElectric.com. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- "Abu Dhabi Joins Feds as Tesla Backer". NBC Bay Area. 2009-07-14. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- "Soap Opera". Tesla Motors. 2009-06-22. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-01. "“Tesla Motors, Inc.” consisted of Eberhard, Tarpenning and Wright, plus an unfunded business plan and they were looking for an initial round of funding to create a more advanced prototype than the AC Propulsion Tzero. While there was a basic corporation in place, Tesla hadn’t even registered or obtained the trademark to its name and had no formal offices or assets. To save legal fees, we just copied the SpaceX articles of incorporation and bylaws for Tesla and I invested $6.35M (98%) of the initial closing of $6.5M in Series A funding. Eberhard invested $75k (approximately 1%)."
- "Tesla Current: Maxim Ostapenko Envisions an All Electric S-Class Competitor". 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- Tesla Chairman discusses electric car under $30,000[dead link]
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- Garthwaite, Josie (2009-01-13). "Tesla Has At Least One Smart Deal: Daimler". Earth2tech.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Dynamic list of all Tesla Motors patents and patent applications". Ip.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Borroz, Tony (2010-02-19). "Tesla CEO Honored for ‘Enlightened Vision'". Wired.
- Voelcker, John (2012-10-25). "Auto Dealers' Fight Against Tesla Stores: Elon Musk Weighs In". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- DeMorro, Christopher (2013-07-01). "Tesla Wins Big in North Carolina And New Hampshire". Gas 2. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- Noland, David (2013-10-22). "Tesla Underground: Texas Franchise Rules Make Model S Owners Skirt The Law". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
- White, Ronald D. (2013-04-10). "Tesla CEO takes dealer fight to Texas, says he can sell more cars". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- Fisher, Thomas (2013-06-11). "What Goes Into A Tesla Model S Battery--And What It May Cost". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Ohnsman, Alan (2010-12-30). "Tesla Says Electric Car Battery Plan Means Profit at Low Volume". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Noland, David (2013-11-13). "How Tesla May Beef Up Its Model S Battery Protection System". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Isidore, Chris (2013-06-21). "Tesla unveils 90-second battery-pack swap". CNN Money. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- "Bob Lutz: The Man Who Revived the Electric Car | Newsweek Next 2008". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Friend, Tad (2009-01-07). "Elon Musk and electric cars". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "Tesla Motors Moving Quickly to Commercialization of an Electric Car". GreenCar Magazine. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "TIME Best Inventions 2006". Time. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Tesla Roadster ‘Signature One Hundred’ Series Sells Out". Megawatt Motorworks.
- "We have begun regular production of the Tesla Roadster". Tesla Motors. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
- Premium Electric Vehicles. Tesla Motors. Retrieved on 2013-08-10.
- "A fast food morning with the Tesla Roadster Sport". Boing Boing. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "Tesla Unveils Roadster 2.5 at Newest Stores in Europe and North America" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Tesla will build right-hand-drive Roadsters for the UK". Wired.co.uk. 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- Dillow, Clay (2011-06-23). "Farewell Roadster: Tesla Will Stop Taking Orders for its Iconic EV in Two Months". Popular Science. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- Valdes, Peter (2011-06-22). "Tesla Roadster reaches the end of the line". Autos. Yahoo!. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- King, Danny (2012-01-11). "Tesla continues Roadster sales with tweaks in Europe, Asia and Australia". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (2012-01-12). "Tesla Updates Roadster For 2012. There’s Just One Catch...". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Tisshaw, Mark (2011-10-26). "Tesla plans all-new Roadster". Autocar (UK). Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- Todd Woody (2012-07-25). "Tesla Hits Accelerator Despite Q2 Revenue Miss". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-07-25. More than 2,350 units sold through June 2012.
- Tesla Motors (2012-11-05). "Tesla Q3 report: $50M revenues, $111M GAAP net loss, 253 Model S delivered in Q3". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-11-06.Sales during the 3Q 2012: 68 Roadsters and 253 Model S.
- Tesla Motors (2013-02-20). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2012 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
- "Tesla's Tests Confirm Roadster's 245-Mile Range". Electronic design. 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Posted by tsport100 (2011-01-05). "New World Record: Tesla Roadster Goes 347.2 Miles On One Charge". Electric vehicles: cars, bikes. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- O'Dell, John. "Tesla Roadster Logs New Record of 313 Miles on Single Charge in Oz Green Rally". Edmunds. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "Tesla Roadster Sport Specs". Motor Trend. 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Michael Graham Richard (2008-06-30). "Tesla's Next Electric Car to be Called "Model S", New Factory to Open in North California". TreeHugger.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- Monticello, Mike (2008-10-23). "Tesla Builds a 4-Door - New and Future Cars". Road & Track. Hachette Filipacchi Media, U.S., Inc. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- am Abuelsamid (2008-06-12). "Super-secret photo of Tesla Whitestar leaks out of San Carlos". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- John Boudreau (2012-06-22). "In a Silicon Valley milestone, Tesla Motors begins delivering Model S electric cars". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- Antony Ingram (2013-08-07). "First 2013 Tesla Model S Delivered Outside North America--In Oslo". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Jaclyn Trop (2014-02-19). "Loss Tapers at Tesla as Its Sales Still Climb". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- "Tesla Model S Blows Away the Competition and Wins AUTOMOBILE Magazine’s "Automobile of the Year"". Tesla Motors. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- Monday, January 10, 2011 (2011-01-10). "Tesla exceeds 1,500 Roadster deliveries worldwide" (Press release). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "Tesla Wants NUMMI Operational By 2012". KVTU.com. 2010-05-21. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Ashlee Vance (2014-02-19). "Tesla's Stock Remains Electric on Higher Sales Forecast". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- Jay Cole (2014-02-19). "Tesla Q4 Results Beats Estimates, Expects To Deliver 35,000 Model S Sedans in 2014". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- Jerry Hirsch (2014-02-19). "Tesla Motors ends year with higher sales but still a big loss". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- Alan Ohnsman (2014-01-14). "Tesla Rises After Model S Sales in 2013 Exceed Forecast". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014-01-17.
- Mark Rogowsky (2014-01-16). "Tesla Sales Blow Past Competitors, But With Success Comes Scrutiny". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-01-17. Almost 18,000 units were sold in the U.S. in 2013.
- Ståle Frydenlund (2014-01-02). "7.882 nye elbiler registrert i 2013" [7882 new electric cars registered in 2013] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- Mat Gasnier (2014-01-03). "Netherlands December 2013: Mitsubishi Outlander at 12.7% share, Volvo V40 and V60 on podium". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-01-11. A total of 578 Model S were sold in December 2013, for a year total of 1,195 units.
- Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-02-10). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, Jan 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-13. Model S sales based on Polk data.
- Grønn bil (2013-10-01). "Norges mest solgte bil i september er en elbil" [Norway's best selling car in September is an electric vehicle]. Grønn bil (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Mat Gasnier (2013-10-02). "Norway September 2013: Tesla Model S in pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- John Voelcker (2013-10-01). "Tesla Model S Was Best-Selling Car In Norway For September". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Mark Kane (2014-01-04). "Tesla Model S Again #1 in Overall Sales in Norway in December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- David Shepardson (2014-01-03). "2013 electric vehicle sales jump 84%". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2014-01-11. About 18,800 Model S cars were sold in the U.S. during 2013.
- Lindsay Riddell (2010-05-20). "Tesla to buy NUMMI plant, build cars with Toyota". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- Ricketts, Camille (2010-05-27). "Tesla paid $42M for NUMMI but doesn’t have deal to build cars with Toyota". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "Tesla unveils world’s first mass-produced highway-capable EV" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- Michiel Willebrands (2013-08-22). "Tesla opent assemblagecentrum in Tilburg" [Tesla opens assembly center in Tilburg]. Auto Week Netherlands (in Dutch). Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- "EPA rating for 85 kWh Tesla Model S: 89 MPGe, 265-mile range". Green Car Congress. 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- John Voelcker (2012-12-07). "Tesla Model S 60-kWh Version: EPA Range Rated At 208 Miles". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Model S Motor Trend Car of the Year Award 2013". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
- PRNewswire (2013-03-28). "And Now There Is One.... Tesla Model S Declared 2013 World Green Car". International Business Times. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- Zenlea, David (2012-01). "2013 Automobile of the Year: Tesla Model S". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 2012-11-01.
- TIME Staff (2012-11-01). "Best Inventions of the Year 2012 - $22,000 - $750,000 -The Tesla Model S". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Jerry Garrett (2012-02-09). "Tesla Unveils Model X at Its Southern California Design Studios". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- "Tesla Officially Unveils New Model X, Crossover EV". KeyNoodle. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- Ronald D. White (2013-03-08). "Tesla plans to repay loans early, delays Model X". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
- Jay Cole (2013-03-09). "Tesla Delays Model X Production To "Late" 2014". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
- "Model X". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (2013-08-07). "Record sales, upbeat Q2 earnings for electric car maker Tesla". Gigaom. Retrieved 2013-08-08. "expect to deliver small numbers [of the Model X] at end of 2014, with volume production in 2015."
- Young, Angelo (2013-11-06). "Tesla Model X Release Date: Superficial Production Next Year; Deliveries To Customers In Full Effect Later". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-02-19). "Tesla Posts Strong Q4 Earnings; Projects More Growth This Year". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- King, Danny (2013-04-09). "Elon Musk says next, cheaper Tesla EV coming in 2016 or '17". autobloggreen. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
- Musk, Elon (2013-05-13). "Elon Musk: Half-Priced Tesla Model S in 3-4 Years.". YouTube. Starts 40 seconds into the video. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
- Ohnsman, Alan (2013-05-24). "Tesla Pays Back U.S. Early as Musk Aims for Affordability". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Cole, Jay (2013-06-05). "Elon Musk: $35,000 – 200 Mile Tesla Coming In 3-4 Years. Model S Refresh Around 2015, New Model In 2018 (w/video)". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Cole, Jay (2013-06-05). "Elon Musk: $35,000 – 200 Mile Tesla Coming In 3-4 Years. Model S Refresh Around 2015, New Model In 2018 (w/video)". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "Detroit 2013: Tesla’s Family Will Grow". automobilemag.com. 2013-01-15.
- LaMonica, Martin (2008-09-24). "Tesla's 'Bluestar' to be all-electric family car". cnet. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Q and A: Elon Musk, CEO, Tesla". Automobile magazine. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- McGlaun, Shane (2012-07-13). "Quick Note: Tesla BMW 3-Series Competitor Coming in 2015". Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- Welch, David (2007-07-30). "Tesla: A Carmaker With Silicon Valley Spark". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- Musk, Elon (2006-08-02). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me)". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "12 interesting things we learned from Tesla's Elon Musk this week". The Guardian. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- "With $350M Infusion, Tesla Adds Minivans, Crossovers, and Fleet Vans to Line of EVs". Fastcompany.com. 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- By Diarmuid O'Connell (2009-09-28). "Tesla: Clearing the Air on our DOE Loan". Teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (2010-06-21). "Breaking: Tesla shows future products, liquid cooled motor and electronics in IPO road show — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Tesla CEO Elon Musk Talks Future Plans amid COTY Award". automotive.com. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- DeMorro, Chris (2013-09-19). "New Tesla Patent: 400-Mile Battery Pack Using Metal-Air & Lithium-Ion Batteries". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- Tesla Founder Eberhard Files Lawsuit Against Tesla's Elon Musk
- "Making a Mark with Rockets and Roadsters". NPR. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Musk, Elon (2006-08-02). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) | Blog". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-03.[self-published source]
- Musk, Elon. "CEO Elon Musk". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- Eberhard, Martin (2006-07-25). "Lotus Position | Blog". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-20.[self-published source]
- "Elon Musk Envisions Tesla Electric Car as Low as $20K: Cleantech News «". Gigaom.com. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Tesla Motors team". Tesla Motors.
- "Tesla Roadster". Index. 2007.
- Martin Eberhard (2007-08-07). "Martin Eberhard of Tesla Motors speaks to the Motor Press Guild" (Flash video). Retrieved 2008-06-22.
- Anita Lienert, Correspondent (2008-01-11). ""Stealth Bloodbath" Roils Tesla Motors". Edmund's Inside Line. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- Ohnsman, Alan (2009-01-19). "Detroit Auto No-Shows Put Startups Fisker, Tesla in Spotlight". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- "A New Start: FT:Elon Musk’s ground-breaking electric car". Xinkaishi.typepad.com. 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Crunchbase Tesla Motors". Crunchbase.com. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Arrington, Michael (2009-05-19). "Tesla Worth More Than Half A Billion Dollars After Daimler Investment". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Abu Dhabi takes part of Daimler's Tesla stake". MarketWatch. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- Pacific Business news, 24 June 2009, Tesla gets long-awaited government loan
- "Tesla Motors Bags Federal Cash". Driving Today. 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- Cole, Jay (2013-05-22). "Tesla Repays Entire DoE Loan, Taxpayers MAKE $12 Million On The Deal". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Garthwaite, Josie (2009-08-07). "Tesla Motors Claims $1M July Profit (a First!), Thanks to Roadster 2". Gigaom. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
- Rao, Leena (2009-09-15). "Tesla Puts Another 82.5 Million In The Tank". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Supply agreement for products and services based on Lotus Elise technology". OneCLE. 2005-07-11. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- Bennett; Ahuja (2010-03-22). "Contract Amendment Number 2". EDGAR Online. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "Tesla Extends Production Contract with Lotus". Automobile Magazine. 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
- "Tesla sells ZEV credits to Honda". Automotive World. 2010-06-04. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- "Form S-1, Registration Statement under The Securities Act of 1933: Tesla Motors, Inc.". Securities and Exchange Commission. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- "Toyota investing in Tesla Motors". BBC News. 2010-05-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-06-28.[dead link]
- "Form S-1 Amendment, Registration Statement under The Securities Act of 1933: Tesla Motors, Inc.". Securities and Exchange Commission. 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Previous post Next post (2010-07-16). "Toyota, Tesla Resurrect the Electric RAV4 | Autopia". Wired.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Scholer, Kristen; Spears, Lee (2010-06-29). "Tesla Posts Second-Biggest Rally for 2010 U.S. IPO". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
- Andrejczak, Matt (2010-06-28). "Tesla Motors revs up $244 million IPO". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Park, JeeYeon (12 November 2013). "Tesla's Musk: Stock's high price was a distraction, seems a better deal now". CNBC.
- Li Fangfang and Du Xiaoying (2013-11-05). "Tesla opens doors in Beijing". China Daily USA. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- Stewart, James B. (2013-08-23). "Wondering if Tesla Can Get There From Here". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Dudley, Brier (2009-05-21). "Business & Technology: Tesla announces showroom in Seattle". NW source. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Tesla stores to borrow from Apple's magic". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2010-10-20.[dead link]
- "press releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- "Tesla moving headquarters and powertrain operations to Palo Alto - San Jose Mercury News". Mercurynews.com. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- Yoney, Domenick (2009-04-27). "Tesla Motors buying Long Beach Boeing building?". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Opens Tesla Factory – Home of the Model S" (press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Tesla Press Release (2012-09-25). "Tesla launches first six Supercharger locations; 100 kW charging, with 120 kW in future". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Jeff Cobb (2012-10-12). "First Tesla Superchargers Open October 19". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- The Connecticut stations are two: one for northbound traffic and one for southbound traffic. They are located adjacent to each other, however.
- Jim Motavalli (2012-12-21). "Tesla Begins East Coast Fast-Charging Corridor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Jim Motavalli (2012-11-13). "At Tesla’s Party, Superchargers and Delivery Dates". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Sebastian Blanco (2009-09-27). "REPORT: Tesla Model S was designed with battery swaps in mind". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- Mark Rogowsky (2013-06-21). "Tesla 90-Second Battery Swap Tech Coming This Year". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "Tesla Motors demonstrates battery swap in the Model S". Green Car Congress. 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- Battery Swap. Tesla Motors. Retrieved on 2013-08-10.
- "Tesla Motors opens first Canadian store" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- Leeds, Samson (2009-06-28). "Tesla opens Flagship Euro Store in London". Sablog zone. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- Green Autoblog 10 September 2009
- London Evening Standard 24 October 2013
- "Contact". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Sibley, Lisa (2011-06-17). "Lotus to supply more Tesla Roadster bodies". San Jose Business Journal. Silicon Valley. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Chester Dawson & Yoshio Takahashi (2010-11-15). "Tesla Plans Japan Push". Wall Street Journal Online. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Bertel Schmitt (2013-06-12). "Unhindered, Tesla Opens Second Showroom In Japan". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Opens Tokyo Aoyoma Showroom". Tesla Motors. 2010-11-16. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Chris Bethros (2011-03-31). "Socket to ‘Em". Metropolis Japan. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Motors Opens Showroom and Service Center in Netherlands (TSLA)". The Stock Market Watch. 2011-09-28. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Ben Oliver. "The Future Is Here - the Tesla Roadster, Page 3". Hong Kong Golfer. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "TESLA MOTORS MODEL S MAKES ITS ASIAN DEBUT IN HONG KONG". Tesla Motors. 2013-01-08. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Motors to Open Service Center in Hong Kong". Energy Trend. 2011-09-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Joyce Hooi (2011-02-17). "Tesla pulls the plug on Singapore". Asia One Motoring. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Mihnea Radu (2011-02-16). "Tesla Motors Is Leaving Singapore". Auto Evolution. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Catherine Shu (2013-12-16). "Tesla Launches Chinese Site As It Prepares To Sell Its Electric Cars In China". TechCrunch. Aol Inc. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- Terry Martin (2010-03-18). "Tesla set to launch Roadster EV in Australia this year". Go Auto. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Roadster Approved for Australian Roads". Business Wire. 2011-01-11. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Razagui, Haitham (2011-05-09). "Tesla EV charges from Melbourne to Port Douglas". Go Auto. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- "Tesla Motors to Provide Batteries for Freightliner Custom Chassis Electric Van". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Godske, Bjørn (2010-05-21). "Toyota buys $50mio stake in Tesla". Ing.dk. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- Reuters: UAE'S Aabar buys 40 pct of Daimler's Tesla stake
- Aabar Daimler Press Release, 2009[dead link]
- "Mercedes-Benz Electric Car by Tesla Test Drive –Video Tesla Mercedes-Benz A Class". The Daily Green. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Mercedes-Benz Introduces the Battery-Powered A-Class E-CELL; Production Run of 500". Green Car Congress. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Masson, Laurent J (2011-03-29). "Quick Drive: Electric Mercedes A-Class E-Cell". Plugin Cars. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Squatriglia, Chuck (2009-01-13). "Tesla Motors Joins Daimler On a Smart EV | Autopia". Wired.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Tierney, Christine (2010-05-20). "Toyota invests in Tesla to help reopen Calif. plant". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Batcho-Lino, Stefanie (August 5, 2011). "Toyota, Tesla to Build Rav4 Electric Vehicle at Ontario Plant". Bloomberg.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (2010-07-16). "Breaking: Tesla and Toyota to develop RAV4 EV, hope to launch in 2012 — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- "Toyota unveils RAV4 EV demonstration vehicle; targeting fully-engineered version in 2012 for market". Green Car Congress. 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- Tellem, Tori (2010-11-17). "2012 Toyota RAV4-EV: Take Two". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- "Toyota RAV4 EV key for meeting California ZEV requirements; Tesla powertrain uses Model S components". Green Car Congress. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Garrett, Jerry (2012-08-03). "Toyota and Tesla Trot Out the RAV4 EV". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Gupta, Poornima (2010-01-07). "Tesla, Panasonic partner on electric car batteries". Reuters.
- "Tesla & Panasonic Make It Official, Buddy Up for Batteries: Cleantech News". Gigaom.com. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Panasonic Presents First Electric Vehicle Battery to Tesla" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Panasonic invests $30m in Tesla". Added latest investment in tesla. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- Dan Roth (2008-04-16). "Tables Turned: Tesla Motors Sued By Transmission Supplier Magna". Autoblog.
- Korzeniewski, Jeremy (2008-04-15). "Tesla files suit against Fisker Automotive". Autoblog.
- Migliore, Greg (2008-04-16). "Tesla sues Fisker, alleges theft of trade secrets". AutoWeek: News & Views. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- LaMonica, Martin (2008-11-04). "Tesla Motors loses trade secrets case against Fisker". CNET News. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
- Eberhard v. Musk, Case No.: CIV-484400 (Superior Court of the State of California County of San Mateo 2009-07-29) (“From defendandt's filing: "During a conversation with Musk in 2003, JB Straubel ("Straubel"), who later became Tesla's Chief Technology Officer, learned of Musk's interest in the development of an all-electric automobile. Following this conversation, he introduced Musk to Tom Gage and Al Ciccone at AC Propulsion, a company that had built an all-electric concept sports car call the Tzero. Musk was enthusiastic and encouraged Gage and Ciccone to put the Tzero concept into production. Though Musk was unable to persuade AC Propulsion to mass produce the Tzero, Gage offered to give Musk's contact information to two groups who did have such an interest, one of which included Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning ("Tarpenning"), and Ian Write ("Wright").”).
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (2009-06-14). "Tesla Lawsuit: The Incredible Importance of Being a Founder". Earth2tech. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Martin Eberhard lawsuit (PDF), San Mateo County, CA (146 pages)[dead link]
- "Superior Court of California". County of San Mateo. 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Judge Strikes Claim on Who Can Be Declared a Founder of Tesla Motors". Business wire. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Squatriglia, Chuck (2009-08-19). "Eberhard Says ‘Uncle’ in Tesla Lawsuit". Wired.com. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five". CNet. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- "Tesla sues Top Gear for libel, New Stig unavailable for comment (update: BBC responds)". Engadget. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Wilman, Andy (2011-04-02). "Tesla vs Top Gear: Andy Wilman on our current legal action". Top Gear. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "BBC denies rigging Top Gear Tesla Roadster car race". Newsbeat. BBC. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Vaughan, Adam (2011-03-30). "Tesla sues Top Gear over 'faked' electric car race". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "Tesla losing Top Gear court challenge". The Independent. 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- Plunkett, John (2012-02-23). "Top Gear libel case over Tesla electric sports car struck out". The Guardian (London).
- Ashe, Suzanne (2009-05-28). "Tesla Motors recalls electric Roadster". CNET. Retrieved 2013-01-11.
- "2009 Lotus Elise Recalls - 2009 Lotus Elise Recall Reports - Motor Trend Magazine". Motortrend.com. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Tesla Initiates Voluntary Recall After Single Customer Incident" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- Christopher Jensen (2013-10-02). "Tesla Says Car Fire Started in Battery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- Steven Russolillo (2013-10-04). "Musk Explains Why Tesla Model S Caught on Fire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Jensen, Christopher (2013-10-02). "Forbes: The Tesla Fire Is A Textbook PR Problem - And They Should Fix It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "Tesla Motors Inc: NASDAQ:TSLA". Google Finance. 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- Jaclyn Trop (2013-11-07). "Another Fire Raises Questions for Tesla". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- John Voelcker (2013-11-19). "Tesla Fires: NHTSA Will Probe, Warranty To Cover Fire Damage, Ride-Height Tweak". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Eric Loveday (2013-11-19). "NHTSA Opens Formal Investigation Into 13,108 Model Year 2013 Tesla Model S Sedans Sold in US (Update)". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Bill Vlasic and Jaclyn Trop (2013-11-19). "After 3 Fires, Safety Agency Opens Inquiry Into Tesla Model S". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Linette Lopez (2014-02-13). "Another Tesla Caught On Fire While Sitting In A Toronto Garage This Month". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
- Alan Ohnsman (2014-02-14). "Tesla Investigating Cause of Fire in Toronto With Model S". Boomberg. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
- "Board of Directors". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tesla Motors.|
- Official website
- Official blog
- Tesla Motors official Vimeo page
- Tesla Motors Club fan based website
- Teslarati - Tesla news, tips and reviews website