List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles

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For plug-in vehicles and cars powered exclusively on electricity, see list of production battery electric vehicles and currently available electric cars.
Three plug-in all-electric cars, a Th!nk City, a REVAi, and a Tesla Roadster, recharging from an on-street public charger.

This is a list of modern mass production highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and also includes those plug-ins at an advanced stage of development or being tested in demonstration programs. A PEV is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, and a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes all-electric or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles, (PHEVs), and plug-in conversions of hybrid electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range.[1][2] Conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included.

Modern plug-in electric cars commercially produced[edit]

Models out of production (1970–2014)[edit]

List of modern PEV automobiles, pickups, vans and SUVs
commercially produced from 1970
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
Models out of production
Enfield 8000
BEV GB£2,808 ~35 mi (56 km) British city car produced from 1973 to 1977 on the Isle of Wight. 120 units produced.[3]
Zagato Zele.jpg
Zagato Zele
BEV US$2,995 (1000 Series)
US$3,395 (2000 Series)
50 mi (80 km) Italian microcar produced from 1974 to 1976. Sold in Europe as well as the United States as the Zagato Elcar. Approximately 500 units produced.[4]
BEV US$2,690 ~50 mi (80 km) American microcar produced from 1974 to 1977. An upgrade version was later produced as the Comuta-Car until 1979.[4]

Accounting all variants, a total of 4,444 units were produced, the most since 1945 from an American manufacturer until surpassed by the Tesla Model S.[5]

Volkswagen Golf Mk2 citySTROMer BEV 45,000DM (~US$34,000) 31 mi (50 km) Sold in Europe from 1984 to 1985. Around 100 production units were produced.[6]
Volkswagen Jetta citySTROMer BEV 50,000DM (~US$37,000) 118 mi (190 km) (Lead-acid batteries)
155 mi (249 km) (Sodium-sulfur batteries)
Sold in Europe in from 1984 to at least 1987.[7]
Lada Oka Electro.jpg
BEV - ~62 mi (100 km) Built on order in the Soviet Union (later Russia) from 1989 to 1998.[8]
Fiat Panda Elettra 1990.JPG
Fiat Panda Elettra
BEV €16,850 (~US$25,000) 62 mi (100 km) Sold in Europe in 1990.[9]
Fiat Cinquecento Elettra BEV 140,000 francs (~US$159,000) 62 mi (100 km) (Lead-acid batteries)
93 mi (150 km)
(NiCd batteries)
Produced from 1992 to 1996, popular in Italy, France and Switzerland.[10]
Renault Clio Electrique BEV 3,750,000 pesetas (~US$30,800)[11] 85 km (53 mi)[12] Approximately 1000 units sold from 1992 to 1996, mostly in Sweden.[13][14]
Škoda Favorit Eltra 151 & 151L BEV 25,000DM (~US$20,000)[15] 50 mi (80 km)[15] Produced from 1992–1993; sold in Western Europe.[16]
TEVan 425a.jpg
Chrysler TEVan
BEV US$120,000 50 mi (80 km) Only 56 units produced between 1993 and 1995.
Sold primarily to electric utilities in the U.S.
Citroën AX Electrique BEV - 62 mi (100 km) Around 300 units produced from 1995 to 1996.[17]
Volkswagen Golf Mk3 citySTROMer BEV 49,500DM (~US$37,000) 56 mi (90 km) Sold in Europe in from 1995 to 1998 with around 300 produced.[18]
Fiat Seicento Elettra BEV €21,000 (~US$29,000)[19] 56 mi (90 km) Produced from 1995 to 2005, sold throughout Western Europe.[20]
Peugeot 106 electric.JPG
Citroën Saxo Electrique/Peugeot 106 Electrique
BEV - 68 mi (109 km) Produced from 1996 to 2003 and sold only in Europe, with approximately 12,000 units made.[21][22]
EV1 (6).jpg
General Motors EV1
BEV Leasing only
US$349 to 499[23]
75 mi (121 km) A total of 1,117 units leased in the U.S. from 1996 to 2003.[24]
All cars were repossessed and most were crushed.
About 40 units were delivered to museums and educational
institutes with their electric powertrains deactivated.
The only intact EV1 was donated to the Smithsonian Institution.[25]
Toyota RAV 4 EV.jpg
Toyota RAV4 EV
BEV Leasing only
100 mi (160 km) A total of 1,484 units in the U.S. leased from 1997 to 2003. As of mid-2012, there were almost 500 units still in use.[26]
Nissan R'nessa EV 001.JPG
Nissan Altra
BEV Leasing only
140 mi (230 km) Produced from 1998 to 2001. A total of 81 units were leased in the U.S.[23]
Dodge Caravan EPIC BEV Leasing only
80 mi (130 km) Produced from 1999 to 2001. Only 207 vans were produced for the U.S. market.[23]
1997-1999 Honda EV Plus 02.jpg
Honda EV Plus
BEV Leasing only
100 mi (160 km) Around 276 units leased in the U.S. Production ended in 1999.[23][24]
Ford TH!NK City
BEV Leasing only ~50 mi (80 km)[27] Leased 440 units in the U.S. from 1999 until 2003.[24]
Nissan Hypermini
BEV 4,000,000 yen
71 mi (114 km)[28] Sold and leased 219 units in Japan and the U.S. from 1999 to 2001.
Think City 2007.jpg
Th!nk City
BEV US$36,495(3) 100 mi (160 km) First launched in December 2008 but production was halted due to financial difficulties.[29] Production restarted in Finland in December 2009.[30] Sold in several European countries and the U.S.[31][32] In June 2011 Think Global filed for bankruptcy and production was halted.[33] The new owner scheduled to restart production in early 2012 with a refined Think City.[34]
Worldwide sales reached 1,045 units by March 2011.[35] During 2010 and 2011 a total of 121 units were sold in France,[36][37] and 767 units have been sold in Norway between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013.[38][39][40][41]
Mini E @ TUB with charging station.jpg
Mini E
BEV Leasing only
reduced to
US$600 for 2nd year[42]
100 mi (160 km) Field testing with 500 units began in the U.S. in June 2009 and ended on December 2011.[43][44] Testing in the U.K. began in December 2009 and ended in March 2011.[45] and Munich in September 2010.[46]
Tesla Roadster electric car DSC 0160.jpg
Tesla Roadster
BEV US$109,500 245 mi (394 km)[47] Production began in March 2008 and ended in January 2012.[48][49] More than 2,418 units were sold worldwide through September 2012. Most of the remaining Tesla Roadsters were sold in Europe and Asia during the fourth quarter of 2012.[50][51][52]
A total of 575 units had been sold in Europe through October 2012.[53]
Reva charging.jpg
REVAi / G-Wiz
REVA L-ion
BEV US$12,500[54] to
GB£15,795 (L-Ion)[55]
48 mi (77 km)
75 mi (121 km) (L-ion)
Launched in 2001, it was followed in January 2009 by the REVA L-ion. The car was available in 26 countries including India, the UK, Norway, France, Germany, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Philippines.[56][57] Production ended in 2012 and was replaced in 2013 by the Mahindra e2o.[58]

About 4,600 vehicles were sold worldwide by late 2013, with India as its main market with 55% of global sales.[59] Sales in the UK, one of its main markets, ended by late 2011.[60]

Bilbao 05 2012 BYD F3DM 2438.JPG
PHEV 149,800 yuan
US market: US$28,800
60 mi (97 km)[61] Launched in December 2008 for the Chinese market for fleet customers and in March 2010 to the general public in Shenzhen.[62][63] Sales in Spain began in August 2011.[64] Sales in the U.S. were scheduled for 2012 but never took place.[61][65]

Since 2008 a total of 3,284 F3DMs had been sold in China through October 2013.[66][67][68][69] Due to low sales, the F3DM will be replaced by the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid.[70] As of May 2013, the F3DM was no longer in production, but the remaining stock was still on sale as of October 2013.[71]

CODA sedan WAS 2012 0835.JPG
BEV US$37,250 [72]
(basic model)
88 mi (142 km)[73] After rescheduling the market launch several times, deliveries to retail customers in the United States began in March 2012.[74] The car was sold only in California and 117 units were delivered through April 2013.[75]
By September 2013, a total of 50 cars left in stock and 100 gliders were available for sale at a discounted price in the U.S. and abroad.[76]
Fisker at speed in the fog trimmed.jpg
Fisker Karma
PHEV US$102,000
(basic model)
(top model)[77]
32 mi (51 km) The first deliveries in the United States took place in late July 2011,[78] but deliveries to retail customers began in November 2011.[79]
Production was suspended in November 2012 due to financial difficulties.[80]
Fisker Automotive filed for bankruptcy in November 2013.[81]

Around 2,100 units were sold in North America and Europe through December 2013, led by the United States with over 1,600 units sold.[82][83][84] The Netherlands was the top selling European market for the Karma, with 188 units,[85] followed by Switzerland with 67 units,[86] and Belgium with 65 units sold through December 2013.[87][88] Sales in Canada totaled 90 units through December 2013.[89][90]

Lumeneo Neoma - Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2012 - 003.jpg
Lumeneo Neoma
BEV €21,700
a monthly fee for the battery[91]
140 km (87 mi)[91] Sales began in France in May 2013. The battery was leased for €145 per month.[91]
Only 3 units were sold during its first month in the market.[92]

After selling only 10 units Lumeneo filed for bankruptcy in November 2013.[93]

Mia EV-11-09-04-iaa-by-RalfR-281 trimmed.jpg
Mia electric
BEV €19,500
130 km (81 mi)[94] Production began in June 2011 and sales were limited to fleet customers in France and Germany. Sales to the public started in 2012.[95] A total of 660 passenger cars were sold in Europe through October 2012.[53] Also, 123 units of the Mia U box van were sold in Europe through October 2012.[53] France was the leading market with 843 units registered since 2011 through March 2014.[92]

Production stopped in December 2013 due to financial problems.[96] The Tribunal de Commerce de Niort placed the company in judicial liquidation on March 2014.[97]

Models available for retail customers (2007–2014)[edit]

List of modern PEV automobiles, pickups, vans and SUVs
commercially available for sale or leasing
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
Models currently available in some markets
Buddy black.jpg
BEV 144,900 kroner
(~US$24,000) to
186,850 kroner
50 mi (80 km)(Lead-acid battery)
75 mi (121 km) (NiMH battery)
Produced in Norway since 2007 as a successor to the Kewet. Deliveries of an enhanced model began in January 2010.[99]

A total of 754 units have been sold in Norway between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013.[38][39][40][41] Since its inception in 1991, combined sales of the Kewet and Buddy totaled about 1,500 units through October 2013, mainly in Norway.[100]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV
(rebadged also as
Peugeot iOn and
Citroën C-ZERO )
BEV 4 million yen
to US$29,125 (US)[101]
100 mi (160 km) Fleet leasing began in July 2009,[102] and sales to the public began in Japan in April 2010, followed by Hong Kong and Australia in 2010, and several European countries, Costa Rica, Chile, Canada and the U.S. in 2011.[103][104]

As of July 2014, about 32,000 i-MiEV family vehicles have been sold worldwide since July 2009.[105] with Sales led by Japan with 8,047 i-MiEVs sold through March 2013.[106] The i-MiEV family has sold in France 4,236 units through March 2013, including 2,134 iOns, 2,028 C-Zeros, and 74 i-MiEVs.[92] A total of 3,364 units have been sold in Norway through March 2013, including 1,853 i-MiEVs, 812 C-Zeros, and 699 iOns.[39][40][107] A total of 2,164 units sold in Germany through March 2013, including 770 i-MiEVs, 914 C-Zeros and 480 iOns.[108][109][110] In the U.S. a total of 1,697 Mitsubishi i's have been sold through December 2013.[111] A total of 825 units registered in the UK through March 2013, including 389 iOns, 260 i MiEVs, and 176 C-Zeros.[112][113]

Chery QQ3 EV BEV CN¥ 40,000
after incentives
100 km (62 mi) Deliveries began in China in March 2010.[114] Sales during 2012 totaled 5,305 units, making the QQ3 EV the best selling all-electric car in China in 2012, with a market share of 44% of total electric cars sales that year.[115] Cumulative sales since January 2012 reached 9,512 units through October 2013.[69][115]
JAC J3 iEV Santiago Chile.jpg
BEV CN¥ 158,000
130 km (81 mi) Launched in China in 2010. Cumulative sales reached 4,068 units through December 2012.[116][117]
A third generation model, called JAC J3 iev, was launched in September 2012.[117]
Girona 048.JPG
Tazzari Zero
BEV €20,300
140 km (87 mi) Sales began in several European countries in 2010.[118][119]
A total of 34 units were sold in Norway in 2011.[39]
2011 Nissan Leaf SL -- 10-28-2011.jpg
Nissan Leaf
BEV US$32,780(4)
(MY 2011)[120]

(MY 2012)[121]

(MY 2013)[122]
MY 2011/12
73 mi (117 km)[123]

MY 2013
75 mi (121 km)[123]

MY 2014/15
84 mi (135 km)[123]
Retail deliveries began in the U.S. and Japan, and fleet customers in Portugal in December 2010.[124][125][126] As of February 2013, the Leaf is also available in Australia, Canada, 17 European countries and other international markets.[127]

Beginning in June 2013 the 2013 model built in the UK has a battery leasing option that varies from GB£70 (US$108) to GB£129 (US$198) per month depending on the miles driven per year and length of the lease. This option reduces the purchase price by GB£5,000 (US$7,680) compared with buying the car with the battery included.[128] A similar option will be available in most European countries.[129]

By July 2014, over 125,000 Leafs have been sold worldwide since December 2010, making the Nissan Leaf the world's best-selling highway-capable electric car in history.[130] The United States is the top selling market with 57,877 units sold up to July 2014,[131][132] followed by Japan with 41,266 units sold through June 2014,[133][134] Norway with 10,253 new Leafs sold through July 2014,[135][136][137] followed by the UK, with 5,175 units up to July 2014.[112][138][139]

DCA 06 2012 Chevy Volt 4035.JPG
Chevrolet Volt
PHEV US$41,000
(MY 2011)[140]

(MY 2012)[141]

(MY 2014)[142]
35 mi (56 km)[143] Volt deliveries in the U.S. began in December 2010[144] and in September 2011 in Canada.[145] European customer deliveries of the Opel Ampera began in February 2012.[146]

As of June 2014, the Volt and Ampera models have combined global sales of about 77,000 units.[147] Volt sales are led by the United States with 63,167 units sold through June 2014,[148] followed by Canada with 3,262 units,[149] and the Netherlands with 1,060.[150] A total of 9,189 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas have been sold in Europe through June 2014,[151][152][153] with the Netherlands as the leading market with 4,942 Amperas registered,[150] followed by Germany with 1,450 Amperas sold through June 2014.[108][109][154][155]

Car2Go Charging Station Stuttgart 2013 02.jpg
Smart electric drive
BEV 2nd generation
Leasing only
GB£375/month (UK)[156]
US$599/mo (US)[157]
3rd generation
US$25,750[158] (US)
2nd generation
63 mi (101 km)
3rd generation
90 mi (140 km)[158]
Field testing began in London with 100 units in 2007. The second generation was introduced in 2009 and leasing in the U.S. began in January 2011, limited to 250 units.[157][159][160] Deliveries of the third generation model began in the U.S. in May 2013,[161] and are scheduled to begin in Europe during the second quarter of 2013, and will be available in more than 30 markets worldwide.[158][162]

More than 8,800 units have been sold in North America and Europe through June 2014. This figure includes over 2,300 units of the second generation models leased in 18 markets around the world between 2009 and October 2012.[163] Of these, 1,721 units were registered in Europe through October 2012,[53] and 527 units in the U.S. through December 2012.[164][165] During 2013 a total of 4,130 units of the third generation were sold worldwide.[166] Over 6,500 units of the third generation have been sold through June 2014.[166][167] As of June 2014, combined sales of both generations reached 3,959 units in Germany,[168][169][170][171][172] 2,542 units in the U.S.[82][164][148] and 865 units in France.[92]

Wheego Whip all electric WAS 2010 9052.JPG
Wheego Whip LiFe
BEV US$32,995 100 mi (160 km) U.S. sales began in April 2011.[173] A total of 34 units have been sold by March 2012.[174]
Volvo C30 EV facelift 01 China 2012-05-26.JPG
Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric
BEV €1,500/mo
Leasing only[175]
93 mi (150 km) Field testing with 50 units took place in Göteborg, Sweden in 2010. Limited production began in June 2011 and leasing to fleet customers in Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway began in the third quarter of 2011.[176]

A total of 209 units have been leased in Europe through October 2012.[53] Since 2011 a total of 149 units have been delivered in Sweden through March 2013.[177][178]

BYD Electric Taxi.jpg
BYD e6
BEV 369,800 RMB
190 mi (310 km) Sales to the general public began in October, 2011, in Shenzhen, China.[179] A total of 33 units were sold in 2010, 401 during 2011, and cumulative sales in China reached 4,802 units through May 2014.[67][68][180][181][182]
Paris Autolib 06 2012 Bluecar 2907.JPG
Bolloré Bluecar
BEV €19,000 (US$24,850) +
€80/mo (US$105)
fee for the battery
(VAT not included)[183]
250 km (160 mi) The Bluecar was deployed in December 2011 as part of the Autolib' carsharing in Paris.[184] Leasing to individual and corporate customers began in October 2012 limited to the Île-de-France area.[185] Retail sales began in February 2013. Owners can access the Autolib' network of charging stations around Paris for an optional monthly fee of €15 (US$20).[183]

A total of 3,302 units have been registered in France through July 2014, [92][186] with over 2,000 units deployed for the Autolib' carsharing program.[187] The Bolloré Bluecar was the top selling highway-capable electric car in the French market in 2012.[188]

Ford Focus Electric WAS 2011 924.JPG
Ford Focus Electric
BEV US$39,995[189] 76 mi (122 km)[190] U.S. Deliveries for fleet customers began in December 2011 and to retail customers in May 2012. Initially sales are limited to New York, New Jersey and California.[191][192] A total of 3,525 units have been delivered in the U.S. through July 2014.[164][193][194][195]
BMW Concept ActiveE -- 2010 DC.jpg
BMW ActiveE
BEV Leasing only
US$499/month for 24 months + US$2,250 downpayment[196]
94 mi (151 km)[197] Field testing in the U.S. began in January 2012, after the Mini E trial ended.[44] Available only in Los Angeles, New York, San Diego, San Francisco, Sacramento, Boston, and select markets in Connecticut.[198] This is a demonstration program only with no plans for a production version. The ActiveE was followed by mass-production of the BMW i3 electric car. A total of 671 units were leased in the U.S. through September 2013.[164][199]
Renault Fluence Z.E. – Frontansicht, 25. Februar 2012, Düsseldorf.jpg
Renault Fluence Z.E.
BEV 205,000 DKK (€27,496) +
a monthly fee
for the battery[200]
100 mi (160 km) Since 2010 a total of 3,459 units have been sold worldwide through May 2013,[201] with 2,068 registered in Europe.[92][201] In France, 725 units have been registered through June 2014.[92] The battery leasing service is provided by Renault.

The Fluence Z.E. was the only electric car deployed within the Better Place network in Israel and Denmark. Less than 1,000 units were deployed in Israel and around 400 units in Denmark through May 2013, when the company filed for bankruptcy.[202][203]

Prius Plug-in Hybrid WAS 2012 0662.JPG
Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid
PHEV US$32,000 (base) to
US$39,525 (advanced)[204]
11 mi (18 km)[205] Launched in Japan in late January 2012,[206] and released in the U.S. in late February 2012.[207] Deliveries in Europe started in June 2012 and sales in Canada began in September 2012.[208][209]

As of June 2014, about 60,000 units have been sold worldwide,[147] with 24,838 units sold in the U.S.,[82][164] 15,400 in Japan,[210] and over 7,800 units in Europe.[211][212] The European market is led by the Netherlands with 3,891 units through December 2013.[213]

Tesla Model S 02 2013.jpg
Tesla Model S
BEV US$95,400 to US$105,400
US$57,400 to US$77,400
265 mi (426 km)
(model with
85 kWh pack)[214]
208 mi (335 km)
(model with
60 kWh pack)[215]
Deliveries of the 85 kW·h premium limited edition model in the U.S. began in June 2012.[216] Base models with 60 kW·h and 85 kW·h. packs were released during the first quarter of 2013.[217] Retail deliveries started in Europe in August 2013.[218] Deliveries in China began in April 2014.[219] First deliveries of the right-hand-drive model destined for the UK, Australia, Hong Kong and Japan are also scheduled to start in the second quarter of 2014.[220]

A total of 39,163 units have been delivered to retail customers in North America, Europe and China through June 2014.[221][222][223][224][225][226] Sales are led by the United States with about 23,800 units delivered through March 2014,[52][227][228] followed by the European market with about 6,900 units,[212][229] led by Norway with 4,039 units,[136][230] and the Netherlands with 1,399 units registered through March 2014;[213][231] and Canada with 891 units sold through March 2014.[232][233]

Honda Fit EV 2011 LA Auto Show.jpg
Honda Fit EV
BEV Leasing only
for 3 years [234]
82 mi (132 km)[235] Production will be limited to only 1,100 units over the first three years. Deliveries to retail customers in the U.S. began in July 2012 with availability limited to California and Oregon.[234] Sales were scheduled to begin in selected markets in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland, New York, and New Jersey by late February 2013.[236] A total of 925 units have been leased in the U.S. through July 2014.[132][164][193] In July 2014 Honda announced the end of production of the Fit EV for the 2015 model, together with the Honda Insight hybrid and the Honda FCX Clarity hydrogen fuel-cell car.[237]

The Fit EV was released through leasing to local government and corporate customers in Japan in August 2012. Availability in Japan is limited to 200 units during its first two years.[238]

Toyota RAV4 EV WAS 2012 0791.JPG
RAV4 EV second generation
BEV US$49,800[239] 103 mi (166 km)[240] A demonstration program took place in 2011 with 35 converted RAV4s.[241] U.S. sales began in late September 2012.[242] Produced jointly by Toyota and Tesla Motors.[243][244] Initial production will be limited to 2,600 units through 2014 and is available only in California.[239][245] The battery supply deal between Toyota and Tesla is set to conclude by the end of 2014.[246]

A total of 1,902 units have been sold in the U.S. through July 2014.[132][164][193]

Ford C-Max Energi WAS 2012 0592.JPG
Ford C-Max Energi
PHEV US$33,745[247] 20 mi (32 km)[248] Released in the U.S. by mid October 2012.[249]

About 14,500 units have been sold in North America through July 2014, with 14,287 units delivered in the U.S. through July 2014[164][193][195] and 199 units in Canada through December 2013.[232]

Renault Zoe Geneva 2012.jpg
Renault Zoe
BEV €20,700
(US$27,250) +
a monthly fee for the battery
210 km (130 mi) Retail customer deliveries began in France in limited number in December 2012, and availability was increased in France and the rest of Europe during the first quarter of 2013.[250][251] The cost of leasing the battery for 36 months starts from €79/month (US$104/month).[252]

Global sales passed the 10,000 unit milestone in February 2014.[253] As of June 2014, sales are led by France with 7,637 units,[92] followed by Germany with 1,532 units,[154][155] and the Netherlands with 632 units.[254][255] Cumulative global sales reached 12,631 units through June 2014.[256]

Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (front quarter 2).jpg
Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid
PHEV ~ €50,000
~ GB£40,000[257]
50 km (31 mi)[258] Deliveries began in Sweden in late 2012 and in the UK in June 2013.[259][260] According to Volvo, the first 1,000 units were sold before deliveries had begun, and production was ramp up to 5,000 units for 2013. The V60 PHEV is the world's first diesel plug-in hybrid. The car is not expected to be available in the U.S.[258]

Over 9,000 units have sold in Europe through March 2014.[229][261] As of March 2014, sales are led by the Netherlands with 7,475 units sold,[231][262] followed by Sweden with 864 units,[177][263][264][264] and France with 293 units.[265][266]

2014 Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid Sedan trimmed.jpg
Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid
PHEV US$39,780[267] 13 mi (21 km)[267] Sales began in the U.S. available only in California and New York in January 2013.[268]
A total of 747 units have been sold in the U.S. through July 2014.[132][82]

The Accord PHEV was introduced in Japan in June 2013 and it is available only for leasing, primarily to corporations and government agencies.[269] As of December 2013, the Accord PHEV ranks as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the Japanese market.[270]

Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Rear 0329.JPG
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
PHEV ¥3,324,000 US$36,650
to ¥4,297,000 (US$47,380)
60 km (37 mi)[271] The P-HEV was released in the Japanese market in January 2013. The Outlander P-HEV is the first SUV plug-in hybrid in the market.[272] The European launched was originally scheduled for July 2013,[273] but retail sales began in the Netherlands until October 2013 due to battery problems in the initial production batch.[274] The introduction in the United States was delayed until 2015.[275]

As of June 2014, about 33,000 units have been sold worldwide,[276] led by the European market with over 17,235 units,[277] followed by Japan with 15,361 units sold,[278][279] The Netherlands is the top European market with 13,129 units registered,[150] followed by Sweden with 1,290 units through June 2014.[263][264] the Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in Europe during the first half of 2014.[280][281]

Hannover-Messe 2012 by-RaBoe 011.jpg
Roewe E50
BEV CN¥ 234,900 (US$37,589)[282] 180 km (110 mi)[283] Available only in China, with 238 units sold in 2012 and 7 units during the first half of 2013.[116][284] Deliveries began in Shanghai in January 2013.[285]
Ford Fusion Energi SEL WAS 2012 0583.JPG
Ford Fusion Energi
PHEV US$39,495[286]
(Feb 2013)

(Jan 2014)[287]
20 mi (32 km)[248] Released in the U.S. in February 2013.

Over 13,600 units have been sold in North America through July 2014, with 13,550 units delivered in the U.S. through July 2014[193][195] and 116 units in Canada through December 2013.[232]

Red NXR Intercity REVA model.jpg
Mahindra e2o
BEV Rs 7.0 lakh
Rs 8.5 lakh
100 km (62 mi)[289] Market release was re-scheduled several times. Previously known as the REVA NXR, it was launched in India in March 2013. Sales in Europe are planned for late 2013.[289][290]

About 400 units have been sold in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka by mid November 2013.[291]

2013-03-05 Geneva Motor Show 7861.JPG
Chevrolet Spark EV
BEV US$27,495[292] 82 mi (132 km)[293] The first all-electric car from General Motors after the GM EV1 was released in limited quantities in the U.S. in selected markets in California and Oregon in June 2013.[294] The Spark EV was released in South Korea in October 2013.[295]
1,303 units have been sold in the U.S. market through July 2014.[82][195]
SLS AMG Electric Drive.JPG
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Electric Drive
BEV €416,500
in Germany[296]
250 km (160 mi)[297] Limited production. Sales began in Europe in June 2013.[298]
2013-03-05 Geneva Motor Show 8283 Fiat 500e.jpg
Fiat 500e
BEV US$32,500[299] 87 mi (140 km)[300] Launched in July 2013, the 500e is initially available only in California.[301]

About 1,490 units sold in the U.S. through July 2014.[82][195]

2013-03-05 Geneva Motor Show 7846.JPG
McLaren P1
PHEV GB£866,000[302]
(~ US$1,350,000)
20 km (12 mi)[303] Deliveries to retail customers started in the UK in October 2013.[304] Production will be limited to 375 units to maintain exclusivity.[305]
The entire production was sold out by mid November 2013.[306]
VW e-up! at Hannover Messe.jpg
Volkswagen e-Up!
BEV €26,900[307]
160 km (99 mi)[307] Retail sales in Germany and other European countries began in October 2013.[308]

A total of 4,952 e-Up! cars have been sold in Europe through June 2014.[212][281] The market leader is Norway, with 921 units registered through February 2014,[136][309][310] followed by the Netherlands with 588 units sold through December 2013.[311]

BMW i3 – Frontansicht, 14. September 2013, Frankfurt.jpg
BMW i3
BEV and
PHEV option
€34,950 (US$46,400)
in Germany
US$42,275 in the U.S.
plus US$3,850
for range-extender option.[312][313]
130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi)
with range extender
240 to 300 km (150 to 190 mi)[314]
A “REx” range extender option is available.[312] The first i3 deliveries to retail customers in Europe took place at a the official market launch ceremony held in Munich on 15 November 2013.[315] The i3 was also launched in the UK in November 2013.[316] The release in the American market took place in May 2014.[317]

A total of 8,097 units have been sold in Europe and the United States through July 2014.[318][319] Germany is the leading market, with 2,148 units registered through July 2014,[154][320] followed by Norway with 1,334 units registered through July 2014,[136][137] and the U.S. with 1,057 units delivered up to July 2014.[132]

IAA 2013 Porsche Panamera S e-hybrid (9834184944).jpg
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid
PHEV €110,409
in Germany[321]
in the U.S.[322]
32 km (20 mi)[322] Released in the U.S. in October 2013,[82][323][324] and during the fourth quarter of 2013 in several European countries.

As of December 2013, a total of 90 units had been delivered in France,[265] 59 units in the Netherlands,[311] and about 12 in Germany.[171] Cumulative sales in the U.S. reached 630 units through July 2014.[132][193]

Kandi EV BEV Leasing only
US$130 to US$160
per month[325]
120 km (75 mi)[325] The Kandi EV city car was deployed in 2013 in China as part of the Kandi EV CarShare, an electric car vending machine-like carsharing program in the city of Hangzhou.[325] The car is also available for leasing of between 1 to 3 years.[325] Sales totaled 5,239 units in the first half of 2014.[326]
BYD Qin (Auto Shanghai 2013).JPG
PHEV 189,800 rmb[327]
70 km (43 mi)[328] Retails sales of the Qin began in Costa Rica in November 2013, and sales in other Latin American countries are scheduled to begin in 2014.[329][330][331] Retail sales were initially scheduled to begin in Shenzhen in August 2013,[332] and after being rescheduled several times,[328][333] deliveries began in China in mid December 2013.[327]

Since December 2013 cumulative sales in China totaled 4,444 units through May 2014.[180][181][182]

2014 Cadillac ELR coupe.jpg
Cadillac ELR
PHEV US$75,995[334] 35 mi (56 km)[334] Deliveries to retail customers in the U.S. began in December 2013, with 6 units sold.[335]

Cumulative sales in North America reached 606 units up to July 2014, with 584 units sold in the U.S.[132][193] and 22 units in Canada.[232][336]

2014-03-04 Geneva Motor Show 1101.JPG
Kia Soul EV
BEV 42 million won
( ~US$39,400)[337]
80 to 120 mi (130 to 190 km)[338] Deliveries began in South Korea in May 2014, with 38 units sold.[339][340] European sales are slated to begin in the second half of 2014.[341] Sales are scheduled to start in the U.S. in the third quarter of 2014, initially it will be sold only in California and Oregon, and several Eastern states with the largest EV markets and infrastructure including New York, New Jersey and Maryland.[337]
BMW i8 NY Auto Show 2014.jpg
BMW i8
PHEV US$135,925
(~ €103,000
37 km (23 mi)(NEDC)[343]
15 mi (24 km) (EPA)[344]
Retail deliveries began in Germany in June 2014.[345] Deliveries to retail customers in the U.S. started in August 2014.[346]

A total of 60 units were delivered in Europe up to June 2014.[281] As of July 2014, registrations in the German market totaled 109 units.[320]

Porsche 918 Spyder at 2014 NY Auto Show.jpg
Porsche 918 Spyder
PHEV US$845,000[347] 12 mi (19 km)[348] Production will be limited to 918 units to be sold as a 2014 model year. Car is capable of reaching100 mph (160 km/h) in all-electric mode.[347] Retail deliveries began in Europe in May 2014.[citation needed] Deliveries in the United States began in June 2014.[349]

A total of 4 units have been delivered in the U.S. through July 2014;[350] 3 in the Netherlands up to June 2014;[255] and 2 in Sweden through July 2014.[351]

Volkswagen XL driver side.JPG
Volkswagen XL1
PHEV €111,000
50 km (31 mi)[353] Production began by mid 2013 and it will be limited to 250 units,[352] of which, only 200 will be sold to retail customers.[354] Retail deliveries began in Germany in June 2014.[355]

VW expects its diesel-powered PHEV to achieved 0.9 l/100 km (260 mpg-US), becoming the most fuel-efficient car in the world.[353]

VW e-Golf LA Auto Show 2013.jpg
Volkswagen e-Golf
BEV €34,900[356]
in Europe
in the U.S.[357]
130 to 190 km (81 to 118 mi)[356] Field testing planned with 500 units.[358] The first 10 units began field testing in Wolfsburg in May 2011.[359] A second batch of 80 test cars began testing in mid-2011 in Berlin, Hannover and Wolfsburg.[360] In February 2012, field testing began in California, and a total of 20 eGolfs will be allocated to the U.S. test program.[361]

Retail deliveries began in Europe in May 2014, with 343 units sold through June 2014.[281] U.S sales are slated to start on selected markets in November 2014.[357]

Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive (front quarter).JPG
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive
BEV US$41,450[362] 87 mi (140 km)[363] Deliveries began in the U.S. in July 2014.[364] A total of 41 units were sold during its first month in the market.[132]
Notes: PHEV: Plug-in hybrid vehicle, BEV: Battery electric vehicle or electric car. (1) Plug-in conversions are not included. (2) Sales price does not reflect any government incentives or tax credits, except where noted. (3) U.S. price (4) US$32,780 is U.S. price, ¥3.76 million (US$40,500) in Japan, €32,839 (US$40,800) in the Netherlands and €34,955 (US$43,400) in Portugal, all before any government incentive and exchange rate as of May 18, 2010.

Plug-in electric cars in pre-production and testing[edit]

List of modern PEV automobiles, pickups, vans and SUVs
in field testing and pre-production
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
PEVs currently undergoing field testing or demonstration programs
Escape E85 Flex Fuel Plug-in Hybrid WAS 2010 8939.JPG
Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid
PHEV Not available 30 mi (48 km) Field testing with 20 units began in 2009 with utility company fleets in the U.S. and Canada.[365]
Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrid PHEV Not available 20 to 30 km (12 to 19 mi) Field testing with two demonstrators in Göteborg, Sweden since December 2009.[366] Sales of a series production diesel-electric plug-in hybrid scheduled as early as 2012.[367]
Suzuki Swift Plug-in Hybrid in Tokyo Motor Show 2009 rear.jpg
Suzuki Swift Range Extender
PHEV Not available 25.5 km (15.8 mi)[368] Field testing with 60 units in Japan was scheduled for late 2010.[369] Initially sales were slated for 2013.[370] In March 2014 Maruti Suzuki announced that it will provide several copies of the production version, renamed Swift Range Extender, as part of a pilot project to be conducted in partnership with the Indian government during 2014-15.[368]
Audi A1 e-tron PHEV Not available 31 mi (50 km) Field testing planned for late 2010 with 20 units in Munich.[371]
20110402 hyundai blueon 2.jpg
Hyundai BlueOn
BEV Not available 86 mi (138 km) Field testing with 30 units in South Korea by late 2010. Sales scheduled by late 2012 limited to domestic market.[372]
Tata Indica EV (MIAS).JPG
Tata Indica Vista EV
BEV GB£29,000[373] 110 mi (180 km) Field testing in the West Midlands began in April 2011 with 25 units. Market launch in the UK was scheduled for mid-2011 and postponed. Demonstration program in the UK will continue with Tata employees.[374][375]
Ram Pickup plug-in hybrid rear -- 2011 DC.jpg
Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid
PHEV Not available 20 mi (32 km) Field testing in the United States with 140 units began in 2011 with local and state governments, utility companies, and a U.S. Army base. This is a demonstration program only, and Chrysler has no plans for a production version.[376][377]

In September 2012 Chrysler halted the program and recalled all 109 units deployed at the time due to damage sustained by three separate pickup trucks when their 12.9-kilowatt-hour battery packs overheated. The carmaker plans to upgrade the battery packs with cells that use a different lithium-ion chemistry before the vehicles go back on service.[378]

Mercedes A-Class E-Cell BEV Leasing only
(pricing not available)
124.3 mi (200 km) Demonstration program with 500 cars was scheduled to begin in September 2011 in several European countries, including Germany, France, and the Netherlands.[379][380]
Volkswagen Golf Variant Twin Drive PHEV Not available 57 km (35 mi) Field testing with 20 research vehicles began in early 2011.[381] Production is expected for 2015.[382]
Chrysler Town & Country plug-in hybrid PHEV Not available 30 mi (48 km) A two-year demonstration program with 25 E85 flexible-fuel plug-in minivans began in April 2012. The first units were delivered in Auburn Hills, Michigan and Charlotte, North Carolina.[383][384]

The demonstration program was halted in September 2012, and Chrysler recalled the 23 units deployed at the time due to damage sustained by three separate Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrids participating in a parallel program when their battery packs overheated. The carmaker plans to upgrade the battery packs shared by both vehicles with cells that use a different lithium-ion chemistry before the vehicles go back on service. No minivans were involved in any incidents.[378]

Saab 9-3 ePower BEV Not available 200 km (124 mi) Field testing with 70 ePower demonstrators in Sweden was scheduled for late 2011.[385] It is unknown how many cars were built before the carmaker went bankrupt.[386] The new owners, NEV Sweden, stated that they intend to start producing the all-electric 9-3 ePower to be launched in China in 2015. The production version is slated to be unveiled at the 2014 Frankfurt Motor Show.[387][388]

In April 2014 NEV began production of a batch of 200 units to be tested in Qingdao, China by mid 2014. After the test, sales are scheduled to begin in Sweden in 2015.[389]

KIA Ray EV on MIAS 2012.JPG
Kia Ray EV
BEV Not available 138 km (86 mi)[390] Production limited to 2,500 units to be delivered in 2012 for South Korea's government agencies use.[390] In May 2013 a carsharing service was rolled out in Seoul with 184 Kia Ray EVs. The service has 15,000 registered customers.[391] The Ray EV is a predecessor to an all-electric crossover that Kia is expected to launch globally in 2014.[392]
Toyota eQ in Japan EV Festival 2012.jpg
Scion iQ EV (U.S.)
Toyota eQ (Japan)
BEV ¥3.6 million
(~ US$$45,000)[393]
80 km (50 mi)[394] Initially Toyota announced that production would be limited to 600 units, with 400 staying in Japan, 100 units destined to the U.S. and another 100 for Europe.[395] In September 2012 Toyota announced that the iQ EV/eQ production would be still more limited, to about 100 units for special fleet use in Japan and the U.S. only.[393]

The first 30 units were delivered to the University of California, Irvine in March 2013 for use in its Zero Emission Vehicle-Network Enabled Transport (ZEV-NET) carsharing fleet. Toyota announced that 90 out of the 100 vehicles produced globally will be placed in American carsharing demonstration projects.[394] In September 2013, another 30 units were allocated to City Carshare to operate Dash, a three-year pilot carsharing program in Hacienda Business Park, in Pleasanton, California.[396]

Sail Springo EV BEV RMB 258,000
130 km (81 mi)[397] 11 units were deployed in 2012.[116] A limited number of cars are scheduled to be sold in Shanghai in 2013 as part of a trial program.[397]
Venucia e30 BEV Not available Not available Dongfeng Nissan started pilot projects in 15 Chinese cities to promote the Venucia e30 with local governments in 2013. The car is scheduled for production in China by 2015, and the e30 shares many features of the Nissan Leaf, including bodywork, dimensions, and electric-drive specifications.[398][399] A total of 216 units were delivered through December 2013. These units are being marketed as Venucia Morning Wind and they are badged Leafs since local production has not began.[400]
PEVs with market launch scheduled between 2014–2015
Denza NEV 2013.JPG
BEV CN¥ 369,000
(~ US$59,000)[401]
300 km (190 mi)[401] Deliveries to retail customers are scheduled to begin in September 2014. The Denza will be available initially only in Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen.[401]
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid PHEV €82,087
(~ US$110,000)[402]
18 to 36 km (11 to 22 mi)[403] Deliveries in Germany are scheduled to begin in October 2014.[402] Market launch in the U.S. slated for November 2014.[403]
2013-03-05 Geneva Motor Show 7917.JPG
Audi A3 Sportback e-tron
PHEV €37,000
50 km (31 mi)[405] Field testing in the U.S. began by mid-2012 with a fleet of 17 all-electric A3s. The testing was conducted among Audi's engineers and company employees only.[406][407] Audi decided to produced only a plug-in hybrid version.[408]

Retail sales in Europe are scheduled to begin during the fourth quarter of 2014 and in the U.S. in early 2015.[409]

Volkswagen Golf GTE PHEV Not available 50 km (31 mi)[410] Market launch is scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2014.[410]
Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid WAS 2011 1237.JPG
Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid
PHEV Not available 30 km (19 mi)[411] Market launch is scheduled for late 2014 in Europe and early 2015 in the U.S.[411]
Volvo XC90 Plug-in Hybrid PHEV Not available 40 km (25 mi)[412] Deliveries are scheduled to start in April 2015.[412]
Tesla Model X Geneva 2012 trimmed.jpg
Tesla Model X
BEV From
US$50,000 (€40,000)
up to
US$90,000 (€72,000)[413]
Up to 270 mi (430 km)[413] Production was initially scheduled to start by the end of 2013, and later postponed several times in order to achieve Model S production targets and to focus on overseas roll outs.[414][415][416] Tesla expects to have production design Model X prototypes by the end of 2014, to begin high volume deliveries for retail customers in the second quarter of 2015.[417]
Detroit Electric SP.01 BEV US$135,000[418] 180 mi (290 km)[418] Sales in the United States were scheduled to begin in August 2013.[418][419] Production was delayed because, as of August 2013, the company had not been able to secure an agreement for a manufacturing facility.[420]
Volvo S60L PPHEV PHEV Not available 50 km (31 mi)[421] The S60L PPHEV (Petrol Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) is scheduled to be launched in China early 2015.[421]
Rimac Concept One
BEV ~€740,500[422] 310 mi (500 km)[423] The car is capable of reaching 308 km/h (191 mph). Production was scheduled for late 2013.[422] Production will be limited to 88 units and sales were rescheduled to begin in 2015.[424]
Notes: PHEV: Plug-in hybrid vehicle, BEV: Battery electric vehicle or electric car. (1) Plug-in conversions are not included. (2) Sales price does not reflect any government incentives or tax credits.

Modern plug-in electric motorcycles commercially produced[edit]

List of modern PEV motorcycles
commercially produced
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
Models out of production
Peugeot Scoot'Elec BEV unknown 25 mi (40 km)[425] Electric scooter with over 3,500 units sold from 1996 to 2006.[426]
Yamaha Passol BEV ¥200,000 (1,625 USD)[427] 32 km (20 mi)[427] 2002–2007; production halted after Li-ion battery recall
YAMAHA EC-02.jpg
Yamaha EC-02
BEV ~US$2,000[428] 40 mi (64 km)[428] Light electric motorcycle released in 2005 and discontinued in 2007. It glows in the dark and comes with iPod connectivity.
Models currently available in some markets
Brammo Enertia
BEV US$7,995[429] 40 mi (64 km)[430] Sales began in July 2009,[431] and sales began at select Best Buy stores in August 2009.[432]
Piaggio MP3 Hybrid PHEV €9,000
12.5 mi (20.1 km)[433] Plug-in hybrid three-wheel scooter sold in Europe.[433]
Zero Z-Force.jpg
Zero S
BEV US$9,995[434] 50 mi (80 km)[434] High speed motorcycle. Began shipping in 2009.
Zero DS BEV US$9,995[435] 50 mi (80 km)[435] High speed motorcycle.
Zero X BEV US$7,495[436] 40 mi (64 km)[436] Electric dirtbike, intended to be driven both on and offroad.
Zero MX BEV US$8,295[437] 40 mi (64 km)[437] Electric dirtbike, intended to be driven both on and offroad.
Vectrix blue.jpg
Vectrix VX-1
BEV US$10,495[438] 55 mi (89 km)[439] American electric heavy-duty scooter.
Yamaha EC-03 BEV ~US$2,915[440] 43 km (27 mi)[440] Light electric motorcycle, released in July 2010 as a 2011 model.[440]
Brammo Enertia Plus BEV US$10,995[441] 75 mi (121 km) EPA city[441] Light electric motorcycle. Deliveries commenced in late 2012.
Brammo Empulse
BEV Empulse US$16,995
Empulse R US$18,995[442]
121 mi (195 km) EPA city
56 mi (90 km) constant 70 mph (110 km/h)
Electric sportbike with six-speed gearbox. Deliveries commenced in late 2012.

Plug-in electric motorcycles in pre-production and testing[edit]

List of modern PEV motorcycles
in field testing and pre-production
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
PEVs currently undergoing field testing or demonstration programs
Suzuki e-Let's
19 mi (31 km)[444]
Currently testing on Japanese roads. Based on the Suzuki Let’s4 basket.[445]
PEVs with market launch scheduled between 2010–2012
Smart eScooter
62 mi (100 km)
4 kW scooter that currently exists as a concept vehicle but is likely to enter production. It features solar cells on the windscreen to trickle charge the batteries.[446][447][448]

Modern plug-in electric utility vehicles commercially produced[edit]

List of modern PEV utility vehicles
commercially produced
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
Models out of production
Citroën C15 Electrique BEV - 62 mi (100 km) Electric pickup truck produced in 1989, with production totaling 400 units.[449]
Citroën C25 Electrique/Peugeot J5 Electrique BEV 150,000 (~US$32,500) 62 mi (100 km)[428] Large, heavy duty van sold mostly to government administrations. Produced from 1989 to 1991.[450]
Electric Chevy S-10.jpg
Chevrolet S-10 EV
BEV Sales and leasing
100 mi (160 km) Electric pickup truck produced between 1997 and 1998.
Out of 492 units produced about 60 were sold to fleet customers in the U.S.[23]
Ford Ranger EV
BEV Sales and leasing
US$349 to 450[23]
65 mi (105 km) Electric pickup truck leased with 205 units to individuals and 1,500 units to fleets in the U.S. from 1998 to 2002.[23][24]
Renault Kangoo Electrique BEV - 62 mi (100 km)[451] Electric van sold in Europe from 1998 to 2004, with an optional petrol range extender.[452]
Citroën Berlingo Electrique/Peugeot Partner Electrique
BEV GB£15,895 (~US$25,500) 60 mi (97 km)[453] Electric van sold in Europe from 1998 to 2005.[454]
Mercedes-Benz Vito 108E BEV - 81 mi (130 km)[455] Large van designed for use by postal services.[456]
Modec VHC Carhar Amsterdam Electrisch.jpg
Modec EV
BEV - 100 mi (160 km) Around 400 units were produced between 2007 and 2010.[457] The technology was licensed to Navistar International in 2009 through a joint venture, and later Navistar bought the intellectual property rights from the bankruptcy administrators.[458] The Modec EV was produced in three version: a chassis cab, box van and a dropside.
Transit Connect EV EDTA DC 04 2011 1806.jpg
Azure Transit Connect Electric
BEV US$57,400 56 mi (90 km) Deliveries for fleet customers in the U.S. and Canada began in December 2010.[459] Production of the electric van was stopped in March 2012 as a result of the company's bankruptcy protection filing. Ford continues to provide servicing.[460]
Around 500 units were sold before Azure stopped production.[461]
Models currently available in some markets
Autotec 2010 - 74.JPG
Smith Newton
BEV Starts at
55 to 110 mi (89 to 177 km)[463] First deliveries took place in the UK in 2006 and is sold worldwide. The Newton is available with three different payload capacities from 6,100 to 16,200 lb (2,800 to 7,300 kg).[463]
Smith Edison BEV Starts at
40 to 120 mi (64 to 193 km)[463] The Newton is available as a chassis cab, delivery van and minibus, with payload capacities from 1,600 to 5,100 lb (730 to 2,310 kg). Sold worldwide except in the U.S.[463]
Vito E-Cell trimmed.jpg
Mercedes-Benz Vito E-Cell
BEV Not available 80 mi (130 km) Serial production began with 100 vehicles by late 2010 and 2,000 vehicles planned to be produced in 2011. Based on the Ford Transit chassis, is available for fleet rentals in Europe on a trial basis.[464][465] A total of 172 units have been registered in Europe through October 2012.[53]
Coca Cola eStar EV DC 04 2012 3743.JPG
Navistar eStar
BEV US$150,000[466] 100 mi (160 km) Production of the all-electric van began in the U.S. in March 2010 under license from Modec and first deliveries began two months later.[467] Navistar bought the intellectual property rights in 2011.[458] Around 100 units were built during 2011.[468]
Mitsubishi Motors Minicab MiEV Van (Prototype) demo-car.jpg
Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV
BEV ¥2,400,000 to ¥2,971,000 (~US$31,131 to US$38,538) depending on battery size[469] 62 mi (100 km) (10.5 kWh model)
93 mi (150 km) (16.0 kWh model)[469]
Testing began on Japanese roads in October 2010 and was released in the domestic market in December 2011.[470][471]

A total of 4,984 units have been sold in Japan through April 2014.[472] A utility truck version of the Minicab MiEV was launched in January 2013,[473] with sales totaling 625 units through April 2014.[472]

Boulder EV delivery truck WAS 2010 8913.JPG
Boulder DV-500
BEV US$100,000[474] 120 mi (190 km) First deliveries of the all-electric van in the U.S. took place in January 2012.[475] The EV is available in four configurations: delivery van, 15 passenger shuttle, service body and flat bed.[476]
Messe i-Mobility 2012-by-RaBoe-104.jpg
Renault Kangoo Z.E.
BEV €20,000 +
a €72/month fee
for the battery
(France) [477]
GB££21,038 + a GB£78/month fee
for the battery
170 km (110 mi)[477] Available for sale in several European countries. Monthly battery fees vary depending on annual mileage.

The Kangoo Z.E. is the market leader of the small all-electric van segment. Global cumulative sales passed the 10,000 mark in early September 2013.[479] The Kangoo Z.E. is also the best selling all-electric vehicle in France, with 7,826 units sold through December 2013.[36][480][481] Global sales reached 12,490 units through December 2013.[482]

Nissan eNV200 1 9-June-2014 - picture by Bertel Schmitt 03.JPG
Nissan e-NV200
BEV €25,058[483]
in Germany
170 km (110 mi)
Trials with Japan Post Service began in July 2011, followed by trials with FedEx in London starting in December 2011.[484][485][486] More testing with a more advanced pre-production version took place in Singapore, the UK, the U.S. and Brazil.[487][488][489] A more extensive 6-month trial with 28 units delivered to British Gas began in the UK in November 2013.[490]

The production version was unveiled at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show. The e-NV200 was released in Europe in June 2014, and it will be followed by Japan in October 2014.[491]

Notes: PHEV: Plug-in hybrid vehicle, BEV: Battery electric vehicle or electric car. (1) Plug-in conversions are not included. (2) Sales price does not reflect any government incentives or tax credits.

Plug-in electric utility vehicles in pre-production and testing[edit]

PEVs with market launch scheduled between 2014–2015
Model Type
Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)
(EV mode
for PHEVs)
PEVs currently undergoing field testing or demonstration programs
VIA Motors Vtrux Plug-in Hybrid PHEV expected US$79,000 up to 40 mi (64 km) [492] Fleet Deliveries expected in 2014. Private Customer Deliveries expected in 2015.[493]
BYD M3 DM 01 Auto China 2014-04-23.jpg
PHEV - - Plug-in hybrid van featuring a 1.5L turbo engine coupled with a 110kW electric motor. It is based on the Nissan e-NV200.[494]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ David B. Sandalow, ed. (2009). Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington? (1st. ed.). The Brookings Institution. pp. 2–5. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. See definition on pp. 2.
  2. ^ "PEV Frequently Asked Questions". Duke Energy. Retrieved 2010-03-31. [dead link]
  3. ^ Adams, Keith. "The Rivals: Enfield Automotive 8000". AROnline. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  4. ^ a b Shuldiner, Herbert (June 1975). "Battery-powered cars". Popular Science 206: 61–63. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  5. ^ "Electric car for the average Joe not far away". 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  6. ^ "Elektromobil Volkswagen GOLF II citySTROMer". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
  7. ^ "Elektromobil Volkswagen JETTA citySTROMer". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
  8. ^ "Elektromobil LADA". Retrieved 2011-10-23. (Czech)
  9. ^ "Toen al groen: Fiat Panda Elettra". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Dutch)
  10. ^ "Elektromobil FIAT Cinquecento Elettra". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
  11. ^ Piccione, Sergio. "Renault Clio Electrique". Motor y Viajes. El Mundo. Retrieved 23 December 2013. (Spanish)
  12. ^ Piccione, Sergio. "Renault Clio Electrique". Motor y Viajes. El Mundo. Retrieved 23 December 2013. (Spanish)
  13. ^ Dvohaper, Đ. "Elektromobil RENAULT Clio Electrique". Retrieved 23 December 2013. (Czech)
  14. ^ Dvohaper, Đ. "ELEKTROMOBILY vyráběné SERIOVĚ". Retrieved 23 December 2013. (Czech)
  15. ^ a b "Skoda Favority Eltra". Elweb. (German)
  16. ^ "Elektromobily ŠKODA". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
  17. ^ "Elektromobil CITROËN AX Electrique". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
  18. ^ "Elektromobil Volkswagen GOLF III citySTROMer". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
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  20. ^ "Elektromobil FIAT Seicento Elettra". Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Czech)
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  107. ^ "Stabilt hoeyt elbilsalg ogsaa i mars" [Strong and stable electric car sales also in March] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-04-04. Retrieved 2013-04-06.  A total of 1,049 Leafs were registered during the first quarter of 2013, of which, 19% were used imports. Total cumulative sales do not include the 199 used imports registered in 2013
  108. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2011 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2011 by segment and model lines] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2012-10-15. A total of 241 Amperas and 25 Volts were sold through December 2011.
  109. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2013). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2012 nach Marken und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2012 by make and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  110. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (September 2013). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im August 2013 nach Marken und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in August 2013 by make and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
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  112. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-02-01). "UK Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 All-models ranking!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  113. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-05-07). "UK January-March 2013: Discover the Top 328 best-sellers!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
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  116. ^ a b c China Auto Web (2013-03-25). "Chinese EV Sales Ranking for 2012". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2013-04-19.  5,305 QQ3 EVs and 2,485 JAC J3 EVs were sold in 2012.
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  118. ^ Lem Bingley (2010-09-01). "Tazzari Zero electric car comes to the UK". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
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  122. ^ John Voelcker (2013-01-14). "2013 Nissan Leaf Prices To Start At $28,800 For Electric Car". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-01-26.  The new base-level 2013 Nissan Leaf S will start at $28,800 plus a mandatory $850 destination fee.
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  126. ^ "Portuguese Consortium MOBI.E Receives 100% Electric NISSAN LEAF Fleet". Nissan Europe. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  127. ^ Nissan (2013-02-14). "Nissan LEAF Smashes 50,000 Global Sales Milestone". Nissan Media Room. Retrieved 2013-02-15. 
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  129. ^ Nissan (2013-04-19). "New Nissan Leaf Customers in Europe Now Have Option to Lease Vehicle Battery". Nissan Newsroom Europe. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  130. ^ Nissan USA News Release (2014-07-23). "Nissan offers free charging for new LEAF buyers in Los Angeles". Nissan News. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
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  132. ^ a b c d e f g h Cole, Jay (2014-08-01). "July 2014 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card". Retrieved 2014-08-01. 
  133. ^ Mark Kane (2014-01-30). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Up 17% in 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-31. 
  134. ^ Mark Kane (2014-07-31). "Nissan LEAF Sales Up 20% This Year In Japan; On Track For Over 50,000 Worldwide". Retrieved 2014-08-07.  A total of 6,801 units were sold in Japan during the first six months of 2014.
  135. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-01-09). "Norway Full Year 2012: VW Tiguan and Nissan Leaf impress". Retrieved 2013-02-15.  A total of 373 new units were sold in 2011 and 2,298 units in 2012.
  136. ^ a b c d Ståle Frydenlund (2014-01-02). "7.882 nye elbiler registrert i 2013" [7882 new electric cars registered in 2013] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-01-20.  Sales during 2013 totaled 4,604 new Leafs.
  137. ^ a b Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (August 2014). "Bilsalget i juli" [Car sales in July] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2014-08-08.  Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway.
  138. ^ Fleet News (2014-01-23). "Nissan set a new UK sales record in 2013". Fleet News. Retrieved 2014-01-24. 
  139. ^ Faye Sunderland (2014-08-08). "Nissan LEAF still EV king in the UK as sales surpass 2013’s result". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  140. ^ "Chevrolet Volt MSRP Starts at $41,000, $33,500 Net of Full Federal Credit; 3-year Lease Program with Option to Buy". Green Car Congress. 2010-07-27. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  141. ^ "Chevrolet begins taking orders in all 50 US states for 2012 Volt; $1K drop in starting price". Green Car Congress. 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
  142. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2013-06-08). "2014 Volt Drops Price By $5,000 to $34,995". Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  143. ^ David Bailey and Kevin Krolicki (2010-11-24). "Chevy Volt tops Prius in fuel economy rating". Reuter. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  144. ^ "First Chevy Volts Reach Customers, Will Out-Deliver Nissan in December". 2010-12-16. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
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  146. ^ Opel Media (2012-02-21). "Opel Ampera: First Customers Take Delivery". Opel Europe. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
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  148. ^ a b Antony Ingram (2014-07-02). "Plug-In Electric Car Sales In June: Leaf's Best-Ever June, Volt Up On May (FINAL UPDATE)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  149. ^ Timothy Cain (July 2014). "Chevrolet Volt Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2014-08-07. 
  150. ^ a b c Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (July 2014). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (30-06-2014) - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (30-06-2014)" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands, Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (30-06-2014) and Top 5 registered all-electric vehicle models (31-06-2014)] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-07-30.  See under the headings 31-12-2013 and 30-06-2014 for registrations figures for 2013 and through June 2014.
  151. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-02-10). "Europe Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 models & Top 60 brands". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-13.  A total of 1,728 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2011 and 5,210 in 2012. Ampera sales in Europe totaled 5,268 units in 2012 and 304 in 2011.
  152. ^ Mike Colias (2014-07-21). "Opel will discontinue weak-selling Ampera, sources say". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2014-07-23.  Ampera sales in Europe totaled 3,184 units in 2013.
  153. ^ Mat Gasnier (2014-08-05). "Europe June 2014: Discover the Top 340 models and Top 55 brands". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-08-07.  Ampera sales in Europe totaled 433 units during the first half of 2014.
  154. ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2014). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2013 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2013 by segment and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  155. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (July 2014). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Juni 2014 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Juni" [New registrations of passenger cars in June 2014 by segment and model] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  156. ^ Andrew Anthony (2009-03-21). "Smart Fortwo Ed: Is the future a Smart one?". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  157. ^ a b "250 Smart EDs coming to U.S. this fall with $599/month leases attached". AutoblogGreen. 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 
  158. ^ a b c Karla Sanchez (2012-10-04). "Smarter Car: 2013 Smart Fortwo Electric Drive Starts at $25,750 – Photos Galore". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  159. ^ "smart fortwo electric drive Debuts in the US". Green Car Congress. 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  160. ^ Nick Chambers (2011-01-27). "Smart USA Delivers First ForTwo Electric Car—Also Available as a Convertible". Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  161. ^ Jay Cole (2013-05-05). "Another EV Hits US Shores, As Smart Sells 60 ForTwo Electric Drive Mini-Cars In May". Retrieved 2013-06-06. 
  162. ^ "Third-generation smart fortwo electric drive to launch worldwide in spring 2012; first use of battery packs from Daimler JV Deutsche Accumotive and motor from JV EM-motive". Green Car Congress. 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  163. ^ Jeffrey N. Ross (2012-10-03). "Smart ForTwo Electric Drive will be cheapest EV at $25,000*". Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  164. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeff Cobb (2013-01-08). "December 2012 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-02-09.  See the section: December 2012 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers
  165. ^ "December 2011 Dashboard: Sales Still Climbing". 2012-01-09. Retrieved 2012-01-10. 
  166. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2014-01-30). "World Top 20 December 2013 (Special Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  167. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-07-30). "World Top 20 June 2014 (Special Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  A total of 2,384 Smart EDs were sold worldwide in the first half of 2014.
  168. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Allemagne à fin Oct. (2010-2012) 2012" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Germany through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  A total of 106 Smart EVs were registered in Germany in 2010.
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  172. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-07-14). "Germany June 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  A total of 645 Smart EDs were sold in Germany in the first half of 2014.
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  174. ^ Jim Motavalli (2012-03-14). "Can The Tiny Wheego Win The Electric Car Race?". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  175. ^ John O'Dell (2011-03-25). "Volvo C30 EV-Is a $2,100 Monthly Lease Crazy, or Just Honest?". Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  176. ^ "Volvo Car Corporation begins production of the Volvo C30 Electric for leasing customers in Europe". Green Car Congress. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
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  179. ^ "First Pure-Electric Vehicle now available for Consumers in China". BYD Energy. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  180. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2014-01-14). "China December 2013: Focus on the all-new models". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-01-16.  During 2013 BYD e6 sales totaled 1,544 units and Qin sales totaled 142 units.
  181. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2014-04-16). "China First Quarter 2014: VW Santana, Haval H6 & ChangAn Honor biggest gainers in Top 30". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-04-26.  Qin sales totaled 2,384 units and e6 totaled 619 during 1Q 2014.
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  184. ^ Richard Lord (2011-12-05). "Autolib’ electric car sharing service launches in Paris, France". Sustainable Guernsey. Retrieved 2011-12-20. 
  185. ^ Laurent Lepsch (2012-10-08). "Louez une Bluecarpour 500 € par mois" [Lease a Bluecar for €500 per month] (in French). Auto News. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  186. ^ AVERE-France (2014-08-01). "Ventes de véhicules électriques – les chiffres de juillet 2014" [Electric vehicle sales - July 2014 Figures] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-08-03. 
  187. ^ Anthony Buttriss (2013-02-01). "Bluecar: La Voiture Électrique La Plus Immatriculée de France" [Bluecar: Top electric cars registrations in France] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
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  189. ^ Jonathan Schultz (2011-11-02). "Ford Focus Electric to Be Priced at $39,995". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  190. ^ Keith Naughton (2012-03-02). "Ford Says Focus Electric Car Rated at 105 MPG Equivalent by EPA". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  191. ^ John Voelcker (2012-03-09). "2012 Ford Focus Electric: 105 MPGe, 76-Mile Range...10 Sales". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-03-16. 
  192. ^ Eric Loveday (2012-05-21). "It's Official: Ford Now Shipping Focus Electric to US Dealerships". Retrieved 2012-05-21. 
  193. ^ a b c d e f g Jeff Cobb (2014-01-06). "December 2013 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-01-07. 
  194. ^ "Chevy Volt continues to lead plug-in sales in US in July". Green Car Congress. 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2012-08-04.  8 unites were delivered in December 2011.
  195. ^ a b c d e Jeff Cobb (2014-08-04). "July 2014 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  196. ^ Damon Lavrinc (2011-04-18). "BMW ActiveE leasing priced at $499 a month, $2,250 down payment". Autoblog. Retrieved 2011-04-18. 
  197. ^ John Voelcker (2012-01-18). "BMW ActiveE Electric Car First Drive: What's It Really Like?". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  198. ^ Jim Motavalli (2010-09-27). "BMW ActiveE Electric Car Headed for U.S. Trial". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 
  199. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-10-03). "September 2013 Dashboard". and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-10-30.  See the section: September 2013 Hybrid Car Sales Numbers
  200. ^ Eric Loveday (2011-03-03). "Renault, Better Place launch "unlimited mileage" electric car in Copenhagen for $38,000-plus". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-05-06. 
  201. ^ a b Renault (2013-04-17). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-18. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)" and Ventes mensuelles (mai 2013) (xlsx, 199 Ko)" to download the files for 2012 and 2013 sales, and open the tab "Sales by Model".
  202. ^ Isabel Kershner (2013-05-26). "Israeli Venture Meant to Serve Electric Cars Is Ending Its Run". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-05-27. 
  203. ^ Niv Elis (2013-05-26). "Death of Better Place: Electric car co. to dissolve". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  204. ^ Sebastian Blanco (2011-09-16). "Toyota Plug-in Prius priced at $32,000* and Prius V from $26,400*". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  205. ^ Toyota News Release (2012-02-28). "Prius Plug-In eligibile for a $1,500 California consumer incentive plus $2,500 Federal tax credit". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  206. ^ Stephen Munday (2011-09-30). "Prius Plug-In Hybrid On Sale January in Japan – Charging Stations at 5,500 Dealerships and Car Rental Locations". Integrity Exports. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  207. ^ "Toyota introduces 2012 Prius Plug-in Hybrid". Green Car Congress. 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  208. ^ Toyota Motor Europe (2012-07-13). "Solid 13% Q2 sales increase for Toyota and Lexus vehicles in Europe". Toyota Media Press Release. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  209. ^ Philippe Crowe (2012-09-07). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Now Available In Canada". Retrieved 2012-09-11. 
  210. ^ Toyota News (2014-01-15). "トヨタ自動車、 ハイブリッド車のグローバル累計販売台数が600万台を突破" [Toyota cumulative global sales of hybrid vehicles exceeded 6 million] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  As of December 2013, cumulative sales in Japan totaled 15,400 units and global sales reached 48,600 units.
  211. ^ Toyota Europe Press Release (2013-01-09). "Toyota Motor Europe 2012 Sales Up 2% (+15,583 Units) In A Sharply Declining Market". Toyota Europe. Retrieved 2013-04-14.  3,496 units sold in 2012.
  212. ^ a b c Jose Pontes (2014-01-26). "Europe December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-01-26.  A total of 1,465 e-ups! and 4,164 Prius PHEVs were sold in 2013..
  213. ^ a b author=Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2014). "Cijfers elektrich vervoer - Aantal per type voertuig (31-12-2013) and Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen elektrische auto" [Figures electric transport- Number per type of vehicle (30-12-2013) and Top 5 models registered electric vehicle] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  214. ^ "EPA rating for 85 kWh Tesla Model S: 89 MPGe, 265-mile range". Green Car Congress. 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  215. ^ "EPA rating for 60 kWh Tesla Model S: 95 MPGe, 208-mile range". 2012-12-10. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
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  218. ^ Tesla Motors (2013-08-07). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Second Quarter 2013 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  219. ^ Julie Makinen (2014-04-22). "Tesla delivers its first electric cars in China; delays upset some". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  220. ^ Jaclyn Trop (2014-02-19). "Loss Tapers at Tesla as Its Sales Still Climb". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  221. ^ Alan Ohnsman (2013-05-08). "Tesla Posts First Quarterly Profit on Model S Deliveries". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2013-05-11.  During Q1 2013 a total of 4,900 Model S cars were delivered in North America (mostly in the U.S. with a few units delivered in Canada).
  222. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-08-07). "Tesla Announces Q2 Financial Results". Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  223. ^ Ucilia Wang (2013-11-05). "Tesla Makes Record Delivery Of Model S, Promises A 'Pioneering Approach' To Servicing Its Cars". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-11-30.  Over 5,500 units delivered during 3Q 2013.
  224. ^ Jay Cole (2014-02-19). "Tesla Q4 Results Beats Estimates, Expects To Deliver 35,000 Model S Sedans in 2014". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  Sales during 4Q 2013 totaled 6,892 units and total global sales during 2013 reached 22,477 units.
  225. ^ Ben Klayman (2014-05-07). "Tesla outlook disappoints some on Wall St, shares drop 7 percent". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-05-07.  Global sales totaled 6,457 units during 1Q 2014.
  226. ^ Tesla Motors (2014-07-31). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Second Quarter 2014 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-08-06.  Global sales during 2Q 2014 Totaled 7,579 units.
  227. ^ Jay Cole (2014-05-07). "Monthly Plug-In Sales Scorecard - 2014". Retrieved 2014-05-08.  Out of 6,457 units delivered globally during 1Q 2014, about 3,000 were sold in Europe, leaving around 3,500 units sold in North America. Of these, 158 units were sold in Canada.
  228. ^ Mark Rogowsky (2014-01-16). "Tesla Sales Blow Past Competitors, But With Success Comes Scrutiny". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-01-17.  Almost 18,000 units were sold in the U.S. in 2013.
  229. ^ a b Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2014-05-02). "Battle mounts for Europe’s electric car sales crown". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  About 3,000 Model S sold in Europe during the first quarter of 2014 representing 24% of the pure electric car segment sales during this quarter .
  230. ^ Ståle Frydenlund (2014-04-02). "Tesla knuste 28 år gammel rekord" [Tesla broke 28 year-old record] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-04-03.  A total of 2,056 Model S cars were sold during the first quarter of 2014.
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  233. ^ Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-05-05). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, Apr 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-05-05.  Model S sales based on Polk data.
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  235. ^ Honda Media Room (2012-06-06). "2013 Honda Fit EV receives EPA fuel economy rating of 118 MPGe; highest yet". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  236. ^ Philippe Crowe (2013-02-12). "Fit EV Heading East". Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  237. ^ John Voelcker (2014-07-29). "Honda Ends Three Green Models For 2015: Insight, Fit EV, FCX Clarity". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  238. ^ Honda News (2012-08-31). "Honda begins lease sales of Fit EV in Japan". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-09-11. 
  239. ^ a b Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. (2012-05-07). "Toyota introduces new RAV4 EV; 41.8 kWh pack, 100-mile range". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  240. ^ Karla Sanchez (2012-09-14). "2012 Toyota RAV4 EV Gets EPA-Rated 103-Mile Range, 76 MPGe Combined". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  241. ^ Tori Tellem (2010-11-17). "2012 Toyota RAV4-EV: Take Two". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
  242. ^ Eric Rogell (2012-10-01). "First Drive: Toyota RAV4 EV, the First Ever All-Electric SUV, Rolls Into California". Discovery Channel. Retrieved 2012-10-01. 
  243. ^ "Tesla and Toyota Formalize Agreement to Develop Electric Version of RAV4; Targeting US Sales in 2012". Green Car Congress. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  244. ^ "Tesla and Toyota to develop RAV4 EV, hope to launch in 2012". Autoblog. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  245. ^ Brad Berman (2012-01-16). "Toyota Confirms Limited Production of Electric RAV4 and Scion iQ in 2012". Retrieved 2012-01-22. 
  246. ^ Alan Ohnsman (2014-05-10). "Tesla Says Battery-Supply Deal for Toyota RAV4 EV to End". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  247. ^ Sebastian Blanco (2012-07-25). "Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid priced at $33,745; or $29,995 after tax credit *UPDATED". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 
  248. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-12). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2013/14 Ford C-Max Plug-in Hybrid and 2013/14 Ford Fusion Plug-in Hybrid". Retrieved 2014-06-13. 
  249. ^ and Baum & Associates (2012-11-04). "October 2012 Dashboard". Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  250. ^ Antony Ingram (2012-12-17). "First Renault Zoe Electric Car Delivered In France". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  251. ^ Renault Press Release (2012-12-17). "Renault delivers first ZOE EV". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  252. ^ Renault Media (2012-03-09). "Renault features production version of ZOE, Twizy EV at Geneva". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  253. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-29). "Voiture électrique – La Renault Zoé souffle sa première bougie" [Electric car - the Renault Zoe celebrates its first birthday] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  254. ^ RAI (2014-01-24). "Verkoopstatistieken - nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2014-02-08.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201312").
  255. ^ a b RAI (2014-07-25). "Actuele verkoopcijfers" [Current sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2014-08-10.  Download the pdf file for detailed sales by model during the first half of 2014: "nieuwverkoop personenautos 201406".
  256. ^ Groupe Renault (July 2014). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Retrieved 2014-08-10.  Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "Ventes mensuelles (juin 2014) (xls, 217 Ko)" to download the files for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 sales, and open the tab "Sales by Model".
  257. ^ Piers Ward (November 2011). "Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid driven". Top Gear (magazine). Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  258. ^ a b Sebastian Blanco (2012-09-28). "First 1,000 Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrids already sold out". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  259. ^ Geraldine Ashton Green (2012-12-03). "Volvo increase production of new V60 Plug-in Hybrid". Motoring UK. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  260. ^ Fleet News (2013-06-12). "First UK delivery of V60 Plug-in Hybrid to Surrey eco business". Fleet News. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  261. ^ Volvo Cars Press Release (2014-04-24). "Volvo Cars adds R-Design version of V60 diesel Plug-in Hybrid". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-04-27.  Almost 8,000 units were sold in 2013.
  262. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (March 2014). "Cijfers elektrich vervoer -Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland and Top 5 geregistreerde modellen elektrische auto (28-02-2014)" [Figures electric transport- Number per type of vehicle and Top 5 models registered electric vehicle (02-28-2014)] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-04-27.  See under the heading 28-02-2014 for registrations figures through February 2014.
  263. ^ a b Bil Sweden (2014-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel" [New registrations in December 2013 prel] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-01-03.  Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel.pdf" see table "NYREGISTRERADE SUPERMILJÖBILAR DECEMBER 2013" with summary of PEV sales by model for 2013 and 2012.
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  265. ^ a b Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  266. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-04-09). "France March 2014". Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  267. ^ a b Antony Ingram (2012-11-30). "2014 Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid Priced Sub-$41K, 115 MPGe". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-11-30. 
  268. ^ Pete Brissette (2013-01-21). "2014 Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Now Available in Calif. And New York". Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  269. ^ Honda News (2013-06-21). "Honda introduces Accord hybrid and plug-in in Japan; hybrid in US in October". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-22. 
  270. ^ Naoki Watanabe (2014-02-12). "Plug-in hybrids quickly becoming Japan's favorite way to drive green". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  271. ^ Jay Cole (2013-01-24). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV On Sale In Japan Today, Extended Promotional Video Released". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  272. ^ Seyth Miersma (2012-09-28). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is world's first production plug-in hybrid CUV [w/video]". Autoblog. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  273. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-29). "Mitsubishi présentera la version européenne de l’Outlander PHEV à Genève" [Mitsubishi will present the European version of the Outlander PHEV in Geneva] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  274. ^ Philippe Crowe (2013-10-22). "Outlander PHEV Now On Sale In Europe". Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  275. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-09-24). "US-Market Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Delayed Until 2015". Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  276. ^ Sebastian Blanco (2014-07-30). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV sales reach 33,000 worldwide". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  277. ^ Mark Kane (2014-07-141). "Outlander PHEV Drives Up Mitsubishi Sales In Europe". Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  278. ^ "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2014年5月度 販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV sales results for May 2014] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2014-07-30. Cumulative Outlander P-HEVs sales in Japan through through May 2014 totaled 14,061 units. .
  279. ^ "三菱自動車 2014年6月度、2014年1~6月 生産・販売・輸出実績" [June 2014 Mitsubishi Motors, production, sales and export results January-June 2014] (in Japanese). Mitsubishi Motros. 2014-07-30. Retrieved 2014-07-30.  A total of 1,300 Outlander P-HEVs, 41 i-MiEV sales and 17 Minicabs were sold in Japan in June 2014. .
  280. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-08-04). "Europe – Plus de 40.000 véhicules rechargeables vendus au premier semestre 2014" [Europe - Over 40,000 plug-in vehicles sold in the first half of 2014] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  281. ^ a b c d Jose Pontes (2014-07-28). "Europe June 2014". Retrieved 2014-07-29.  A total of 3,487 e-Up! were sold in Europe during the first hald of 2014.
  282. ^ "All-Electric SAIC Roewe E50 Hits the Market at US$37,589". ChinaAuto Web. 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  283. ^ Roewe Press Release (2012-11-04). "SAIC introducing Roewe E50 electric vehicle in China". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  284. ^ "Sales of Plug-in EVs Up 42.7% to 5,889 in H1 2013". ChinaAutoWeb. 2013-07-11. Retrieved 2013-07-14.  A total of 658 F3DMs and 730 e6s were sold during first half of 2013.
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  286. ^ Justin Berkowitz (2012-11-20). "2013 Ford Fusion Energi (You Know, the Plug-In Hybrid) Priced at $39,495". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2012-11-22. 
  287. ^ Jay Cole (2014-01-07). "Breaking: Ford Fusion Energi Gets A $4,000 Price Reduction To $34,700". Retrieved 2014-01-07. 
  288. ^ Sagar Patel (2013-03-01). "Mahindra Reva e2o price ranges from Rs 7 to 8.5 lakhs in states with no subsidy". Rushlane Daily Auto News. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  289. ^ a b "Mahindra launches electric car 'e20' priced at Rs 5.96 lakh". The Indian Express. 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
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  293. ^ "London to introduce new Ulta Low Emission Discount for Congestion Charge scheme; countering dieselization". Green Car Congress. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 
  294. ^ John Voelcker (2013-06-20). "First 2014 Chevrolet Spark EVs Now At CA, Oregon Dealers". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  295. ^ Mark Kane (2013-10-30). "Sales of Chevy Spark EV Now Officially Underway in South Korea". Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  296. ^ David Szondy (2012-09-28). "Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Coupé Electric Drive – the world's fastest production electric supercar". Gizmag. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
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  298. ^ Daimler Media. "Daimler Outlook". Daimler. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  299. ^ Chrysler Media (2013-04-13). "Fiat 500e priced at $32,500; 500e Pass program". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  300. ^ Edward A. Sanchez (2013-02-05). "Fiat 500e Rated at 108 MPGe Highway, 87 Mile Range by EPA". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  301. ^ Brent Snavely (2013-07-18). "Chrysler electric vehicle chief: Fiat 500e is 'just the first step'". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2013-07-28. 
  302. ^ Arman Barari. "McLaren P1: Official Specs and Details". Motorward. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  303. ^ "More Images Of McLaren P1 Plug-In Hybrid Supercar". Electric Cars Report. 2013-04-18. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  304. ^ Noah Joseph (2013-10-21). "McLaren P1 hits 62 mph in 2.8 seconds, 186 in 16.5". Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
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  307. ^ a b Volkswagen Media Services (2013-07-05). "XL1 and e-up! electrify the Silvretta E-Car Rally". Volkswagen. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
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