Thai highway network
The Thai highway network follows the left-hand traffic rule of the road. The network is the twin responsibility of the Department of Highways (DOH, Thai: กรมทางหลวง, Krom Thang Luang), and the Department of Rural Roads (DORR, กรมทางหลวงชนบท, Krom Thang Luang Chonnabot), under the oversight of the Transportation ministry of Thailand. Public highways (ทางหลวง, thang luang) are also called public roads (ถนนหลวง, thanon luang), especially when part of urban streets. The network spans over 70,000 kilometers across all regions of Thailand. Most are single carriageways. Dual carriageways have frequent u-turn lanes and intersections slowing down traffic. Coupled with the increase in the number of vehicles and the demand for a limited-access motorway, the Thai Government issued a Cabinet resolution in 1997 detailing the motorway construction master plan. Some upgraded sections of highway are being turned into a "motorway", while other motorways are not being built from highway sections. See Thai motorway network.
- 1 Types of highways
- 2 Highway numbering
- 3 Highways by region
- 4 Department of Highway signage
- 5 Department of Rural Roads
- 6 Kilometre stones
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Types of highways
A special highway (Thai: ทางหลวงพิเศษ) or motorway is a high capacity highway designed for high speed traffic, for which the Department of Highways carries out construction, expansion, upkeep and repairs, and is registered as such. Motorway entrances and exits have controlled access, and controlled by the DOH. Registration of motorways is overseen by the Director General of the DOH.
A national highway (Thai: ทางหลวงแผ่นดิน) is a primary highway, part of the network connecting regions, provinces, districts, and other important destinations, for which the DOH carries out construction, expansion, upkeep and repairs. Registration of national highways is overseen by the Director General of the DOH.
A rural highway (Thai: ทางหลวงชนบท) or rural road is a highway for which the Department of Rural Roads carries out construction, expansion, upkeep and repairs. Registration of rural highways is overseen by the Director General of the DORR.
A local highway (Thai: ทางหลวงท้องถิ่น) or local route is a highway for which the local administrative organization carries out construction, expansion, upkeep and repairs. Registration of rural highways is overseen by the provincial governor.
A concession highway (Thai: ทางหลวงสัมปทาน) is a highway for which a legal government concession has been granted. Registration of concession highways is overseen by the Director General of the DOH.
- Northern Thailand.
- Northeastern Thailand.
- Central and Eastern, including the upper South.
- Southern Thailand, except the upper South.
- Route 1 (Phahonyothin Road) to Northern Thailand
- Route 2 (Mittraphap Road) to Northeastern Thailand
- Route 3 (Sukhumvit Road) to Eastern Thailand
- Route 4 (Phetkasem Road) to Southern Thailand
Three digits indicate a regional secondary highway, such as northeastern Route 202 between Chaiyaphum and Khemarat, and central Route 314 between Bang Pakong and Cha Choeng Sao.
Four digits indicate an intra-province highway connecting a provincial capital to its districts, or between important sites, such as northern Route 1001 between Route 11 Intersection and Amphoe Phrao, and southern Route 4006 between Route 4 Intersection (Ratchakrut) and Lang Suan.
Highways by region
- Route 1 (Phahon Yothin Road) : Bangkok – Chiang Rai and continuing to Tachilek, Burma as
- Route 11 : In Buri, Sing Buri – Chiang Mai
- Route 12 : Tak – Khon Kaen as and continues into northeastern Thailand superseding Route 2042 : Somdet, Kalasin-Mukdahan
- Route 101 : Kamphaeng Phet – Nan
- Route 102 : Si Satchanalai, Sukhothai – Uttaradit
- Route 103 : Rong Kwang, Phrae – Ngao, Lampang
- Route 104 : Kosamphi Nakhon, Kamphaeng Phet – Tak
- Route 105 : Tak – Mae Sariang, Mae Hong Son
- Route 106 : Thoen, Lampang – Chiang Mai
- Route 107 : Chiang Mai – Mae Ai, Chiang Mai
- Route 108 : Chiang Mai – Mae Hong Son
- Route 109 : Fang, Chiang Mai – Mae Suai, Chiang Rai
- Route 110 : Chiang Rai – Mae Sai, Chiang Rai (now superseded by Route 1)
- Route 111 : Phichit – Sak Lek, Phichit
- Route 112 (now superseded by Route 11)
- Route 113 : Phichit – Phetchabun
- Route 114 : Lamphun town route
- Route 115 : Kamphaeng Phet - Phichit
- Route 116
- Route 117 : Nakhon Sawan – Phitsanulok
- Route 118 : Chiang Mai – Chiang Rai
- Route 119 : Uttaradit town route
- Route 120
- Route 121 : Chiang Mai Outer Ring Road
- Route 122 : Nakhon Sawan Bypass Road
- Route 123
- Route 125 : Sukhothai Bypass Road
- Route 126 : Phitsanulok Bypass Road
- Route 2 (Mittraphap Road, Thai: ถนนมิตรภาพ) : Saraburi–Nong Khai as .
- Route 21 (Khotchaseni Road, Thai: ถนนคชเสนีย์) : Saraburi–Phetchabun.
- Route 22 (Nittayo Road, ถนนนิตโย) : Udon Thani–Nakhon Phanom as .
- Route 23 (Chaeng Sanit Road, ถนนแจ้งสนิท) : Ban Phai, Khon Kaen–Ubon Ratchathani.
- Route 24 (Sathonlamak Road, ถนนสถลมารค) : Nakhon Ratchasima–Ubon Ratchathani.
- Route 201 : Sikhio, Nakhon Ratchasima–Chiang Khan, Loei
- Route 202 (Arunprasert Road, Thai: ถนนอรุณประเสริฐ) : Chaiyaphum–Khemarat, Ubon Ratchathani
- Route 203 : Lom Sak, Phetchabun–Loei
- Route 205 (Suranarai Road, Thai: ถนนสุรนารายณ์) : Lopburi–Nakhon Ratchasima
- Route 207 : Phon, Khon Kaen-Non Daeng, Nakhon Ratchasima via Ban Mai Chaiyaphot, Buriram
- Route 208 : Maha Sarakham-Khon Kaen (Tambon Tha Phra)
- Route 209 : Khon Kaen-Yang Talat, Kalasin (now superseded by Route 12)
- Route 210 : Wang Saphung, Loei–Udon Thani
- Route 211 : Chiang Khan, Loei–Nong Khai
- Route 212 (Chayanggoon, Thai: ถนนชยางกูร) : Nong Khai–Ubon Ratchathani
- Route 213 (Thinanon Road, Thai: ถนนถีนานนท์) : Maha Sarakham–Sakon Nakhon (now superseded by Route 12 only Yang Talat-Somdet)
- Route 214 : Kalasin–Chong Chom, Kap Choeng, Surin
- Route 215 : Roi Et–Tha Tum, Surin
- Route 217 : Warin Chamrap-Sirindhorn (Ubon Ratchatani)
- Route 218 : Mueang Buriram-Nang Rong (Buriram)
- Route 219 : Borabue, Maha Sarakham-Ban Kruat, Buriram
- Route 221, Sisaket (town) - Khao Phra Wihan National Park
- Route 222 : Phang Khon, Sakon Nakhon-Bueng Kan
- Route 223 : Sakon Nakhon-That Phanom, Nakhon Phanom
- Route 224 : Nakhon Ratchasima–Kap Choeng, Surin
- Route 225 : Chaiyaphum-Phetchabun-Nakhon Sawan
- Route 226 : Nakhon Ratchasima–Ubon Ratchathani
- Route 227 : Kalasin-Phang Khon, Sakon Nakhon
- Route 228 : Chum Phae, Khon Kaen–Mueang Nong Bua Lamphu
- Route 229 : Kaeng Khro, Chaiyaphum–Mancha Khiri, Khon Kaen
- Route 230 (Mueang Khon Kaen Ring Road)
- Route 231 (Mueang Ubon Ratchathani Ring Road)
- Route 232 (Mueang Roi Et Ring Road)
- Route 288 (Mueang Buriram Ring Road)
- Route 290 (Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima Ring Road)
- Route 2042 : Somdet, Kalasin-Mukdahan (now superseded by Route 12)
- Route 2169 (Warirachadet Road ถนนวารีราชเดช): Yasothon Route 23-Bypass north to Amphoe Sai Mun–Kut Chum–Thai Charoen–Loeng Nok Tha–Route 2047, thence east 5 km to NS Route 212.
Central Thailand including eastern region
- Route 3 (Sukhumvit Road) : Bangkok–Trat as .
- Route 31 (Vibhavadi Rangsit Road) : Bangkok–Pathum Thani.
- Route 32 Ayutthaya–Nakhon Sawan as .
- Route 33 (Suwannason Road, Thai: ถนนสุวรรณศร) : Saraburi–Sa Kaeo as .
- Route 34 (Bang Na Expressway) : part of the Bang Na-Trat highway, Bangkok–Chachoengsao as .
- Route 35 (Rama II Road, Thai: ถนนพระราม 2) : Bangkok–Phetchaburi as .
- Route 304 : Pak Kret, Nonthaburi–Nakhon Ratchasima as .
- Route 305 : Rangsit–Nakhon Nayok.
- Route 306
- Route 307
- Route 308
- Route 309 : Sing Buri–Ang Thong–Rojana Road, Ayutthaya, following the Chao Phraya river
- Route 310
- Route 311
- Route 314
- Route 315
- Route 316
- Route 317
- Route 318
- Route 319
- Route 320
- Route 321
- Route 322
- Route 323, (Thanon Saeng Thu To): Ban Pong District (Ratchaburi Province) - Three Pagodas Pass Sangkhla Buri District (Kanchanaburi Province)
- Route 324
- Route 325
- Route 326
- Route 327
- Route 329
- Route 330
- Route 331
- Route 332
- Route 333
- Route 334
- Route 335
- Route 336
- Route 338
- Route 340
- Route 341
- Route 343
- Route 344
- Route 345
- Route 346
- Route 347
- Route 348
- Route 349
- Route 350
- Route 351
- Route 352
- Route 356
- Route 357
- Route 359
- Route 361
- Route 362
- Route 364
- Route 3278 (Seri Thai Road, Thai: ถนนเสรีไทย) : Min Buri-Bang Kapi (Bangkok).
- Route 3312 (Lam Luk Ka Road, Thai: ถนนลำลูกกา) : Rangsit-Lam Luk Ka (Pathum Thani).
- Route 4 (Phetkasem Road) : Bangkok–Sadao via Hat Yai.
- Route 41 : Chumphon–Phattalung.
- Route 42 : Songkhla–Narathiwat.
- Route 43 : Songkhla–Pattani.
- Route 44 : Krabi–Surat Thani.
- Route 401 : Phang Nga–Nakhon Si Thammarat.
- Route 402
- Route 403
- Route 404
- Route 406
- Route 407
- Route 408
- Route 409
- Route 410
- Route 411
- Route 412
- Route 414
- Route 415
- Route 417
- Route 418
- Route 4012 : a short route between Ban Tha Pae and Nakhon Si Thammarat Town.
- Route 4054 (Padang Besar-Sadao Highway) : Padang Besar–Songkhla.
- Route 4106 (Pattani-Betong Highway) : Pattani–Betong.
- Route 4184 (Wang Prachan Road) (Sadao).
Department of Highway signage
Route number signs
DOH signs for public highways (ทางหลวง, thang luang) are white squares with a black garuda (ครุฑ khrut) centered above the route number.
Signs near the beginning of a route may display the highway's name on a white rectangle above or below the square.
Highways bypassing city centres bear the principal route number marked "Bypass" in Thai (เลี่ยงเมือง), and sometimes also in English.
Department of Rural Roads
DORR rural roads do not follow the regional numbering scheme, above.
Signs may be black-on-white or gold-on-blue, with a two-letter province designation prefixed to the road number. Depicted is YS.4011, for a rural road in Yasothon Province. The rural road network measures some 35,000 km, about 82 percent of which is paved. The Department of Rural Roads of the Ministry of Transport takes care of the maintenance of all the rural roads in Thailand.
Lak or Lakh kilomet (หลักกิโลเมตร) single-carriageway kilometre stone facings display the route number on the outline of a garuda. Some kilometre stones also display the route number on top. Those located to the left of the carriageway display kilometres remaining to the road's beginning at kilometre 0. As seen on the right from the opposite lane, the kilometre stones ascend in value as one proceeds away from kilometre 0. On edges facing traffic, DOH kilometre stones usually show distances remaining to the next two towns, (amphoe seats, or provincial capitals.) Some edges, such as the one depicted to the left, have retroreflector panels. Dual carriageway kilometre stones or posts in the median strip show only the kilometre number.
DORR milestones show the kilometre number, and the edges may show distances remaining to the next two villages.
Older roads built by the Ministry of the Interior Public Works Department (กรมโยธาธิการ กระทรวงมหาดไทย) have only departmental insignia and kilometre number, and do not show distances on their edges.
This type of kilometre stone is sometimes found on older rural highways built during a period of rural development several decades ago. They are marked with the Thai characters รพชan abbreviation for Rengrat Pattana Chonabot (เร่งรัดพัฒนาชนบท) which, roughly translated, means Rapid Rural Development.
- Thai motorway network
- Road signs in Thailand
- List of motor vehicle deaths in Thailand by year
- List of names of Thai highways (in Thai)
- Thailand Public Relations Department Transport and Communication. Retrieved October 14, 2008.[dead link]
- Paper "Privatization of Highway Infrastructure in Thailand" Bureau of Planning, Department of Highways, Thailand. Retrieved 2008-10-19.[dead link]
- DOH website, ประเภททางหลวง, retrieved on November 13, 2008[dead link]
- "ระบบหมายเลขทางหลวง". Department of Highways website. Department of Highways. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- World Bank, Transport in Thailand. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- Asian / ASEAN Highway Route Marker (21MB) Department of Highways Thai-language 18-page file, with 1 index and 8 regional maps of AH system overlaid on existing Thai national highways, plus diagrams of AH route markers. Retrieved 2008-10-14.[dead link]