Transliterations of Manchu

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There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by Paul Georg von Möllendorff, BabelPad transliteration, the transliteration of the New Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (NMCD), and Abkai Transliteration (former: Daicing Transliteration). There is also a system of Cyrillization by Ivan Zakharov for transcribing Manchu into Cyrillic.

Möllendorff BabelPad NMCD Abkai Manchu & Unicode Xibe & Unicode
a a a a 1820 1820
e e e e 185D 185D
i [1] i i [1] i 1873 185E
y [2] y y i’ 185F 185F
o o o o 1823 1823
u u u u 1860 1860
ū uu uu u’ 1861 1861
n n n n 1828 1828
ng ng ng ng 1829 1862
k k k k 1874 1863
g g g g 1864 1864
h h h h 1865 1865
b b b b 182A 182A
p p p p 1866 1866
s s s s 1830 1830
š x sh x 1867 1867
t t t t 1868 1868
d d d d 1869 1869
l l l l 182F 182F
m m m m 182E 182E
c c ch q 1834 1834
j j zh j 1835 186A
y y y y 1836 1836
r r r r 1875 1837
f f f f 1876 186B
w w w w 1838 1838
k' kh kk k’ 183A 183A
g' gh gg g’ 186C 186C
h' hh hh h’ 186D 186D
ts' [2] ts c c 186E 186E
ts tsy cy ci’ ᡮᡟ ᡮᡟ 186E 185F ᡮᡟ ᡮᡟ 186E 185F
dz dz z z 186F 186F
ž z rr r’ 1870 1870
sy sy sy si’ ᠰᡟ ᠰᡟ 1830 185F ᠰᡟ ᠰᡟ 1830 185F
c' ch ch q’ 1871 1871
c'y chi chy q’i ᡱᡳ ᡱᡳ 1871 1873 ᡱᡞ ᡱᡞ 1871 185E
j zh zh j’ 1877 1872
jy zhi zhy j’i ᡷᡳ ᡷᡳ 1877 1873 ᡲᡞ ᡲᡞ 1872 185E
  1. ^ a b Excluding ᡱᡳ(Xibe ᡱᡞ) and ᡷᡳ(Xibe ᡲᡞ
  2. ^ a b Excluding ᡮᡟ

In the transliteration of the New Manchu-Chinese Dictionary, separate s and h are written as s’h to avoid the confusion with sh.