Uganda Martyrs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the university often referred to as "Uganda Martyrs", see Uganda Martyrs University.
Charles Lwanga
and Companions
Karoli Lwanga and his followers.jpg
Died 1885–1887,Uganda
Martyred by Mwanga II
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
Beatified

1920

by Pope Benedict XV
Canonized

18 October 1964

by Pope Paul VI
Major shrine Basilica Church of the Uganda Martyrs, Namugongo
Feast 3 June
Notable martyrs Charles Lwanga
Kizito
Andrew Kaggwa

The Uganda Martyrs are a group of 23 Anglican and 22 Catholic converts to Christianity in the historical kingdom of Buganda, now part of Uganda, who were executed between November 1885 and January 1887.[1][2]

They were killed on orders of Mwanga II, the Kabaka (King) of Buganda. The deaths took place at a time when there was a three-way religious struggle for political influence at the Buganda royal court.

A few years later, the English Church Missionary Society used the deaths to enlist wider public support for the British acquisition of Uganda for the Empire.[3] The Catholic Church beatified the martyrs of its faith in 1920 and canonized them in 1964.

Context[edit]

Publication in Britain of an 1875 letter purporting to be an invitation from the king of Buganda, Muteesa I, to send missionaries, resulted in the arrival of missionaries of the Anglican Church Missionary Society to Buganda in 1877. A group of French Catholic White Fathers appeared two years later. This was followed by a Zanzibar-based Arab attempt to introduce Islam.[4] This effectively led to a three-way religious struggle for political influence at the Buganda royal court. By the mid-1880s, many had been converted by each of the three groups, and some of the converts held important posts at the king's court.[5] Mutesa himself sympathized with Islam, but many prominent chiefs had become Christians.[6]

Kabaka Mwanga II succeeded to the throne in 1884. He was concerned at the growing influence of Christianity and the rise of a new class of officials, distinct from the traditional territorial chiefs, who were educated, had a religious orientation, and wished to reform society. The German annexation of what is now Tanzania sparked further alarm.[7] However, Mwanga decided on a more direct approach, expelling missionaries and insisting that Christian converts abandon their faith or face death. A year after becoming king he ordered the execution of Yusufu Rugarama, Makko Kakumba, and Nuwa Serwanga, who had converted to Christianity.[2] Encouraged by his prime minister, on 29 October 1885 he had the incoming Anglican archbishop James Hannington assassinated on the eastern border of his kingdom. Nevertheless, Mwanga did go on to appoint several Christians to important military positions to help control the peasants.[7]

Martyrdom[edit]

Mwanga ordered the execution of the Christian converts among his pages who, in line with the teaching of their new faith, resisted his homosexual advances.[2][8] His anger was provoked by this refusal of obedience to the wishes of the king, who by tradition had the power of life and death over his subjects.[2] This was the immediate cause of the killings.[9]

Joseph Mukasa, a convert to Christianity who had deplored the assassination of Harrington, and had tried to protect the court pages, was the first to be executed on 15 November 1885.[10] Then, between 25 May and 3 June 1886, a wider series of executions were carried out.[2][11] Mwanga instructed the killing of all the young men who disobeyed him - partly to satisfy the demands of the older chiefs. In total at least forty-five Catholic and Protestant neophytes went to their deaths; although the actual number may have been higher.[12] Twenty-two of the men, who had converted to Catholicism, were burned alive at Namugongo in 1886. Among those executed were two Christians who held the court position of Master of the Pages, Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe and Charles Lwanga. They had repeatedly defied the king by protecting the royal pages from sexual exploitation.[12]

The young men who were killed were considered martyrs because of their determination to die rather than allow themselves to be used for the king's pleasure in a way that their faith classified as immoral.[8] As well as impressing their compatriots, their martyrdom, particularly that of the Anglicans among them, was the inspiration for a campaign in England for intervention by that country in the area.[13] While Catholics too considered those who had been killed as martyrs, official recognition by beatification and canonization was granted only after careful examination of the circumstances.[14]

Aftermath[edit]

In 1888, the Imperial British East Africa Company was authorized to administer the territory assigned to Britain in its 1886 treaty with Germany. With support from the company, a rebellion by Christian and Muslim groups who supported Mwanga's half brother defeated Mwanga at Mengo in 1888. Mwanga's brother, Kiweewa Nnyonyintono was elevated to the throne. He lasted exactly one month and was replaced on the throne by another brother, Kabaka Kalema Muguluma. However, Mwanga escaped and negotiated with the company, with which he signed a treaty granting the company certain powers over revenue, trade and the administration of justice. In exchange for this loss of some of his sovereignty, he obtained the company's backing and swiftly removed Kalema from the throne in 1889. He also received the support of the Christian faction in regaining the throne, and appointed the leader, Apolo Kagwa, as his new prime minister.[15]

Frederick Lugard was Military Administrator of Uganda for the Imperial British East Africa Company from December 1890 to May 1892. He stepped in to support the Protestants against the stronger Catholic side in the 1892 Battle of Mengo. With the aid of the Church Missionary Society, which used the deaths of their martyrs to win broad public support in Britain for acquiring Uganda, he successfully dissuaded Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and his cabinet from abandoning Uganda.[3] The powers of the company were transferred to the British Crown on 1 April 1893 and on 27 August 1894 Mwanga accepted Buganda being made a British protectorate. However, on 6 July 1897 he declared war on the British. Defeated on 20 July in Buddu (in today's Masaka District), he fled to German East Africa. He was declared deposed on 9 August. After a failed attempt to recover his kingdom, he was exiled in 1899 to the Seychelles, where he was received into the Anglican Church. He died in 1903, aged 35.[16]

Catholic recognition[edit]

Pope Benedict XV beatified the Charles Lwanga and his companions on 6 June 1920, and Pope Paul VI canonized them on 18 October 1964.[17]In the ceremony of canonization of the Catholic martyrs, Pope Paul mentioned also the Anglican, saying: "Nor, indeed, do we wish to forget the others who, belonging to the Anglican confession, confronted death in the name of Christ."[18] Their 3 June feast day is included in the General Roman Calendar.

They were:[19]

  1. Achileo Kiwanuka
  2. Adolphus Ludigo-Mukasa
  3. Ambrosius Kibuuka
  4. Anatoli Kiriggwajjo
  5. Andrew Kaggwa
  6. Antanansio Bazzekuketta
  7. Bruno Sserunkuuma
  8. Charles Lwanga
  9. Denis Ssebuggwawo Wasswa
  10. Gonzaga Gonza
  11. Gyavira Musoke
  12. James Buuzaabalyaawo
  13. John Maria Muzeeyi
  14. Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe
  15. Kizito
  16. Lukka Baanabakintu
  17. Matiya Mulumba
  18. Mbaga Tuzinde
  19. Mugagga Lubowa
  20. Mukasa Kiriwawanvu
  21. Nowa Mawaggali
  22. Ponsiano Ngondwe

The Ugandan Martyrs were featured in the film Millions.

The two martyrs of Paimol[edit]

Daudi Okelo and Jildo Irwa
Born c.1900 (Daudi); 1906 (Jildo)
Died 18 October 1918,Paimol, Uganda
Means of martyrdom pierced with spears
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Beatified

20 October 2002

by Pope John Paul II
Feast October 18

There were also two Ugandan martyrs of a later period, who died at Paimol in 1918 and were beatified in 2002.[20] These have not been canonized.

The martyrs, Blessed Daudi Okelo and Blessed Jildo Irwa, were two young catechists from Uganda. They belonged to the Acholi tribe, a subdivision of the large Luo group. They lived and were martyred in the years immediately following the foundation of the mission of Kitgum by the Comboni Missionaries in 1915.[21]

Anglican martyrs[edit]

When commemorating the martyrs of Uganda, the Church of England includes Archbishop Janani Luwum, who was murdered in 1977 by Idi Amin's henchmen; they also commemorate Luwum separately on 17 February.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martyrs of Uganda. "Encyclopaedia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2014. Retrieved 3 Jun 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "The Christian Martyrs of Uganda". The Buganda Home Page. 
  3. ^ a b Apter, David (1961). The Political Kingdom in Uganda: A Study of Bureaucratic Nationalism. Princeton University. p. 77. ISBN 9781136307645. 
  4. ^ Leggett, Ian (2001). Uganda. Oxfam. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-85598454-0. 
  5. ^ "Long-Distance Trade and Foreign Contact". Uganda. Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1990. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  6. ^ Mark R. Lipschutz, R. Kent Rasmussen, Dictionary of African Historical Biography (University of California Press 1989 ISBN 978-0-52006611-3), p. 164
  7. ^ a b Mark R. Lipshutz, R. Kent Rasmussen, Dictionary of African Historical Biography, University of California, 1986, p. 165
  8. ^ a b "It is documented that King Mwanga II had many young men in his palace and was sodomizing them at his will. On their conversion to Christianity, they started denying Mwanga the usual 'pleasure' he used to get from them. He instructed the killing of all the young men who disobeyed him. The murdered young men were considered martyrs because they resolved to die for their new religion rather than surrendering their bodies to the king." (Morgan, Joe (28 February 2014). "Pope will fly to Uganda to worship martyrs who rejected gay sex". Gay Star News. ).
  9. ^ Kevin Ward, "A History of Christianity in Uganda" in Dictionary of African Christian Biography
  10. ^ Bob French, "The Uganda Martyrs: Their Countercultural Witness Still Speaks Today" in The Word among Us" (August 2008)
  11. ^ Dictionary of African Christian Biography: Charles Lwanga
  12. ^ a b "Kabaka Mwanga Ordered the Killings of the Uganda Martyrs". [dead link]
  13. ^ Cedric Pulford, Eating Uganda (Ituri Publications 1999 ISBN 978-0-95364300-4)
  14. ^ Robert Mugagga, "How the Uganda martyrs passed caononization test" in The Observer (Kampala), 1 June 2014
  15. ^ Ed. Mark Lipshutz, Dictionary of African Historical Biography, University of California, 1986
  16. ^ Buyers, Christopher (2001). "The History and Life of Kabaka Mwanga II". 
  17. ^ "Saint Charles Lwanga and Companions, Martyrs of Uganda". Catholic News Agency. 
  18. ^ "Pope Paul VI's homily at the canonization of the martyrs of Uganda" (in Latin). 18 October 1964. 
  19. ^ "Martyrs of Uganda". Saints.SPQN.com. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  20. ^ ZENIT News Agency, "Ugandan Martyrs to Be beatified This Sunday"
  21. ^ "Daudi Okelo (1902 ca.-1918) and Jildo Irwa (1906 ca.-1918)". the Holy See. 

External links[edit]