Saint Fabian by Giovanni di Paolo (c. 1450)
|Papacy began||10 January 236|
|Papacy ended||20 January 250|
|Died||20 January 250
Rome, Roman Empire
|Feast day||20 January|
Pope Fabian (Latin: Fabianus; c. 200 – 20 January 250) was the head of the Catholic Church from 10 January 236 to his death in 250, succeeding Pope Anterus. He is famous for the miraculous nature of his election, in which a dove is said to have descended on his head to mark him as the Holy Spirit's unexpected choice to become the next pope. He was succeeded by Pope Cornelius.
Most of his papacy was characterized by amicable relations with the imperial government, and Fabian could thus bring back to Rome the bodies of Pope Pontian and the antipope Hippolytus, both of whom had died in exile in the Sardinian mines, for Christian burial. It was also probably during his reign that the schism between the two corresponding Roman congregations of these leaders was ended. He was highly esteemed by Cyprian; Novatian refers to his nobilissima memoriae, and he corresponded with Origen. One authority refers to him as Flavian.
The Liber Pontificalis says that he divided Rome into deaconates and appointed secretaries to collect the records of the martyrs. He is also said, probably without basis, to have baptized the emperor Philip the Arab and his son. More plausible is the report in the Liberian Catalogue that he sent out seven "apostles to the Gauls" as missionaries.
He died a martyr at the beginning of the Decian persecution, and is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. Fabian's feast day is commemorated on January 20, the same as Saint Sebastian, in whose church his sepulcher lies in Rome.
Early life and accession
According to the Liber Pontificalis, Fabian was a Roman by birth, and his father's name was Fabius. Nothing more is known about his background. The legend concerning the circumstances of his election is preserved by the fourth century writer Eusebius of Caesarea (Church History, VI. 29). After the short reign of Pope Anterus, Fabian had come to Rome from the countryside when the new election began. "Although present," says Eusebius, Fabian "was in the mind of none." While the names of several illustrious and noble churchmen were being considered, a dove suddenly descended upon the head of Fabian. To the assembled electors, this strange sight recalled the gospel scene of the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus at the time of his baptism by John the Baptist. The congregation took this as a sign that he was marked out for this dignity, and Fabian was at once proclaimed bishop by acclamation, although there were several famous men amongst the candidates for the vacant position.
During Fabian's reign of 14 years, there was a lull in the storm of persecution which had resulted in the exile of both Anterus' predecessor Pontian and the antipope (and later saint) Hippolytus. Fabian had enough influence at court to effect the return of the bodies of both of these martyrs from Sardinia, where they had died at hard labor in the mines. The report that he baptized the emperor Philip the Arab and his son, however, is probably a legend, although he did seem to enjoy some connections at court, since the bodies of Pontian and Aterus could not have been exhumed without the emperor's approval.
According to "later accounts, more or less trustworthy", Fabian sent out the "apostles to the Gauls" to Christianise Gaul after the persecutions under Emperor Decius had all but dissolved the small Christian communities. Fabian sent seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Gatianus of Tours to Tours, Trophimus of Arles to Arles, Paul of Narbonne to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Clermont, and Saint Martial to Limoges. He also had the bodies of Hippolytus of Rome and Pope Pontian brought from Sardinia to Rome.
The Liber Pontificalis says that Fabian divided Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Eusebius adds that he appointed seven subdeacons to help collect the acta of the martyrs—the reports of the court proceedings on the occasion of their trials (cf. Eusebius, VI.43). There is also a tradition that he instituted the four minor clerical orders: Porter, lector, exorcist, and acolyte. However most scholars believe these offices evolved gradually and were formally instituted at a later date.
His deeds are thus described in the Liber Pontificalis: Hic regiones dividit diaconibus et fecit vii subdiacones, qui vii notariis imminerent, Ut gestas martyrum integro fideliter colligerent, et multas fabricas per cymiteria fieri praecepit. ("He divided these regions into deaconships and made seven sub-deaconships which seven secretaries oversaw, so that they brought together the deeds of the martyrs faithfully made whole, and he brought forth many works in the cemeteries.")
The Liberian Catalogue of the popes adds that Fabian initiated considerable work on the catacombs, where honored Christians were buried, and where he also caused the body of Pope Pontian to be entombed at the catacomb Saint Callixtus. Later accounts attribute to him the consecration (c. 245) of seven bishops as missionaries to Gaul: Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to Clermont, and Martial to Limoges.
With the advent of Emperor Decius, the Roman government's tolerant policy toward Christianity temporarily ended. Decius ordered leading Christians to demonstrate their loyalty to Rome by offering incense to the icons of deities which represented the Roman state. This, of course, was unacceptable to many Christians, who, while no longer holding most of the laws of the Old Testament to apply to them, took the commandment against idolatry with deadly seriousness. Fabian was thus one of the earliest victims of Decius, dying as a martyr on 20 January 250, at the beginning of the Decian persecution, probably in prison rather than by execution.
Fabian was buried in the catacomb of Callixtus. The Greek inscription on his tomb has survived. His remains were later interred at San Sebastiano fuori le mura by Pope Clement XI where the Albani Chapel is dedicated in his honour.
|Catholic Church titles|
|Bishop of Rome
- Meier, Gabriel (1909). "Pope St. Fabian" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fabian, Saint". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Gross, Ernie. This Day in Religion. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 1-55570-045-4
- Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
- "Pope St. Fabian". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- San Fabiano, papa, e martire
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