The title Confessor, the short form of Confessor of the Faith, is a title given by the Christian Church to a type of saint.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the title is given to male saints and blesseds who were not martyred. Historically, the title Confessor was given to those who had suffered persecution and torture for the faith but not to the point of martyrdom. As Christianity emerged as the dominant religion in Europe by the fifth century, persecutions became rare, and the title was given to male saints who lived a holy life and died in peace. Perhaps the most well known example is the English king St. Edward the Confessor. It is possible for Confessors to have another title or even two other titles, for example, Bishop and Confessor; Pope and Confessor; or Bishop, Confessor, and Doctor of the Church, among others: St Jerome is known as Priest, Confessor, Theologian, Historian and Doctor of the Church.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the title Confessor refers to a saint (male or female) who has suffered for the faith (usually torture, but also other types of loss), but not to the point of death, and thus is distinguished from a martyr. A confessor who is also a priest or bishop is referred to as hiero-confessor.