V-12 Navy College Training Program

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The V-12 Navy College Training Program was designed to supplement the force of commissioned officers in the United States Navy during World War II. Between July 1, 1943, and June 30, 1946, more than 125,000 participants were enrolled in 131 colleges and universities in the United States.

The V-12 program's goal was to produce officers, unlike the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP), which sought to turn out more than 200,000 technically trained personnel in such fields as engineering, foreign languages, and medicine.[citation needed] Running from 1942 to 1944, its recruits were expected but not required to become officers at the end of their training.

History[edit]

The purpose of the V-12 program was to generate a large number of officers for both the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps to meet the demands of World War II, far beyond that turned out annually by the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis and standing U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School to that point. Once enrollees completed their V-12 subsidized Bachelor's degree programs, their next step toward obtaining a commission depended on service branch:[1]

Navy

  • Navy officer candidates were required to complete the Naval Reserve Midshipman's school's V-7 program, a short course of four months, including one spent in indoctrination school. Graduates were commissioned as ensigns in the U.S. Naval Reserve and the majority entered into active duty with the U.S. fleet.[2]

Marines

Inception[edit]

When the United States entered the Second World War in the early 1940s, American colleges and universities suffered huge enrollment declines because men who would have normally gone to college were either drafted or volunteered for service. As a result, some colleges worried they would have to close their doors. Helping offset this, the federal government backed U.S. Navy run V-12 Program paid tuition to participating colleges and universities for college courses that were taught to qualified candidates. Those eligible included naval enlisted personnel who were recommended by their commanding officers, Navy and Marine Corps ROTC members, and high school seniors who passed a qualifying exam.[1]After the V-12 Program was established on July 1, 1943, public and private college enrollment increased by 100,000 participants, helping reverse the sharp wartime downward trend.[1]

Depending on the V-12 enrollees' past college curriculum, they were enrolled in three school terms, or semesters, which lasted four months each. Students were paid $50 per month, required to wear service uniforms, and engaged in rigorous physical training.[1]

Captain Arthur S. Adams, from the Training Division of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, was the officer-in-charge of the V-12 program.[1] Richard Barrett Lowe, future Governor of Guam and American Samoa, was one of its early commanding officers.[3]

Scope[edit]

The primary purpose of the program was to "give prospective Naval officers the benefits of a college education in those areas most needed by the Navy." The Navy did not want to interrupt the "normal pattern of college life," but instead, the goal was for the participants to complete a degree in their field of study; while supplementing their course work with Navy classes, for which the colleges awarded regular academic credits.[1]

The Navy's plan was to contract not only classroom, mess hall, and dormitory space for a "stipulated amount of instruction," but also plans were made to make use of each campus' instructors and administration; a much needed infrastructure that was already in place. The students were expected to "have the benefits of faculty counseling, of extracurricular activities -- in short, the best undergraduate education the colleges can offer."[1]

Vice Admiral Randall Jacobs, USN, the Chief of Naval Personnel, announced plans for the joint venture between the Navy and the colleges and universities during a national conference which was held at Columbia University on May 14 and 15, 1943. Administrators from 131 colleges and universities under contract with the Navy attended the conference along with Naval officers from the Bureau, who were designated as the administrators of the V-12 Program.[1]

The colleges and universities were "expected to keep academic standards high" and were ultimately placed in charge of the implementation, which was accomplished in six months. Captain Adams stated that the Navy had no intent of "taking over the colleges," but instead, the Navy wanted to take "full advantage" of each institution's academic resources and to make use of the experience and knowledge of the college administrators. This included all details of the program such as the length of the college day, scheduling of exercises, meals, recreation, textbooks, and class time.[1]

Participating institutions[edit]

During the advent of World War II, the U.S. Navy turned to liberal arts colleges to provide a basic education for their recruits.[4]

Line units[edit]

Medical units[edit]

Dental units[edit]

Theological units[edit]

Notable graduates[edit]

Alfred J. Eggers served as NASA's Assistant Administrator for Policy from January 1968 through March 1971. After that he accepted a position as Assistant Director for Research Applications at the National Science Foundation. Dr. Eggers came to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) Ames Aeronautical Laboratory in 1944 from the Navy's V-12 college program.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Henry C. Herge. Navy V-12, Vol. 12. Turner Publishing Co., 1996. Retrieved September 22, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Ohio Has 14 Among Navy Reserve Grads". Steubenville Herald Star (Steubenville, Ohio). December 12, 1940. 
  3. ^ Dakota State University (2004). "Richard Barrett Lowe". American Samoa. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "The V-12 Program". Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "U.S. Naval Activities World War II By State". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Milestones in UAM History". Monticello, Arkansas: University of Arkansas at Monticello. 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  7. ^ "The Former Deans of FCB". Flagstaff, Arizona: Northern Arizona University. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  8. ^ "Yellow Jacket Player, Lee Tressel - 1943-47". Berea, Ohio: Baldwin-Wallace College. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  9. ^ "July 1943: The Navy arrives". Lewiston, Maine: Bates College. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Mountain Boys to Admirals". Berea, Kentucky: Berea College. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c "Naval Training and Education Yearbooks in the Navy Department Library". Department of the Navy. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Our History". Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg University. 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Our History". Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Bucknell of Yesteryear & Today". Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Oral History – Allen J. Acosta". Pasadena, California: California Institute of Technology. April–May 1994. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  16. ^ "St Charles Hall, Carroll College, Helena, Montana". Helena, Montana: Carroll College. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  17. ^ "V-12: The Navy Docks at Mossy Creek". Knoxville, Tennessee: Carson-Newman College. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Deceased Classmates in the Year 1950-1959". United States Naval Academy. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  19. ^ Warren Giese Rejects Central Coaching Job, Ludington Daily News, March 24, 1951.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Missouri". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011. 
  21. ^ Porter, David L. (2005). Basketball: a biographical dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  22. ^ "When the Navy docked on the Hill". Worcester, Massachusetts: College of the Holy Cross. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  23. ^ a b "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Minnesota". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  24. ^ "World War II Wartime Efforts". New York City: Columbia University. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Phillips Hall: The Early Years". Ithaca, New York: Cornell University. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.  (archived 2012)
  26. ^ "Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel". National Archives. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Left. Left. Left, Right, Left". Granville, Ohio: Denison University. 2002. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Archives of DePauw University". Greencastle, Indiana: DePauw University. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  29. ^ "Navy yearbook, Dickinson State Teachers College". Dickinson, North Dakota: Dickinson State Teachers College. 1943. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  30. ^ "About the School". Madison, New Jersey: Drew University. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  31. ^ a b "Navy V-12 Program". Durham, North Carolina: Duke University. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Donald W. Tendick, Sr., Memorial". Historical Marker Database. 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  33. ^ a b c "The War and Post War Years". Atlanta, Georgia: Emory University. 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Oral Histories Collection". Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Franklin and Marshall College. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Naval ROTC". Atlanta, Georgia: Georgia Institute of Technology. 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Gonzaga History World War II". Spokane, Washington: Gonzaga University. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  37. ^ Waldhauser, Steve (2011). "Songs of Thy Triumph – A Short History of Gustavus Adolphus College". St. Peter, Minnesota: Gustavus Adolphus College. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  38. ^ "An army of good men". Hampden-Sydney, Virginia: Hampden-Sydney College. 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Harvard and World War II research guide". The President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "U.S. Naval Administration in World War II". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  41. ^ "About IIT NROTC : History". Chicago, Illinois: Illinois Institute of Technology. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  42. ^ "1948 Bob Quin Award – Don Anderson". McWhirter's. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Veterans Program". University Heights, Ohio: John Carroll University. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Call to Duty, Lawrence University's V-12 Program". Outagamie County Historical Society (OCHS). 2002. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  45. ^ a b c "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Wisconsin". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  46. ^ "MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  47. ^ a b Neil R., McMillen (1997). Remaking Dixie: the impact of World War II on the American South. University Press of Mississippi. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Milligan College once Navy training center during World War II". Johnson City Press. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  49. ^ "V-12 Program". Jackson, Missouri: Millsaps College. 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  50. ^ "Montana Tech of the University of Montana". Universities.com. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  51. ^ a b Kelly, Jacques (2007-11-24). "Aloysius Carroll Galvin". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Pennsylvania". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  53. ^ "History and Heritage". Peru, Nebraska: Peru State College. 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Dr. Edward W. Burke, Former Professor Passes". King College. 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  55. ^ a b "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – North Dakota". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  56. ^ "History". Arlington, Texas: University of Texas at Arlington. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Men and Women of the Greatest Generation". Navyleague Councils Support. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  58. ^ Quinn, Patrick (Winter 1993). "Wartime on Campus" (PDF). Chicago, Illinois: Northwestern University - Northwestern Perspective. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  59. ^ "Oxy Trivia". Los Angeles, California: Occidental College. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  60. ^ "S.S. Park Victory" Park University Magazine, Spring 2009, pp 18-19.
  61. ^ "New Recruits Arrive for Navy V-12 Program". State College, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, The Collegian. July 3, 1943. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  62. ^ Richard D. Challener, "The Response to War," Princeton History 1992 11: 48-65.
  63. ^ a b "Warren Harding starting V-12 program at Purdue". West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  64. ^ "Shots from RPI". Troy, New York: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  65. ^ "V-12 Naval Training at St. Ambrose College". Davenport, Iowa: Saint Ambrose University. 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  66. ^ "2LT Edward Lawrence "Larry" Phelan". Canton (village), New York: St. Lawrence University. 1998. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  67. ^ "Veterans Memorial". Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's University of Minnesota. 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  68. ^ "1944 Marine V-12 SLI Yearbook". SLI. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  69. ^ a b "The establishment of Southwestern University". *Georgetown, Texas: Community Impact. June 13, 2008. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  70. ^ "V-12 program to mark its 60th anniversary at Stevens". Hoboken, New Jersey: Stevens Institute of Technology, Stevens Alumni Association. 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  71. ^ "Daily Gazette". Swarthmore, Pennsylvania: Swarthmore College. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  72. ^ "Tufts and the V-12 Program". Medford, Massachusetts: Tufts University. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  73. ^ a b "Arthur J.M. Oustalet, Jr.". Veteran Tributes. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Garnet and Gray: ReUnion". Schenectady, New York: Union College. 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  75. ^ a b "Guide to the Navy V-12 program archives – University of California, Berkeley – 1943–1946". Online Archive of California. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  76. ^ "Collections: Robert M. Hayes". Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – District of Columbia". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  78. ^ "From Basketball to Covert Ops: E. Henry Knoche". The Washington Post. 
  79. ^ "Memorial for veterans planned at ISU". Pocatello, Idaho: Idaho State Journal. 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  80. ^ "History of the Jayhawk Battalion". Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  81. ^ a b c "Alumni Association Scholarships". Louisville, Kentucky: University of Louisville. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  82. ^ "World War II". Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  83. ^ a b "Michigan in the News". Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  84. ^ a b "Our History". Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  85. ^ a b "The Beginning of NROTC at UNC Chapel Hill". Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  86. ^ "Inventory: Naval Flight Preparatory School. V-5, V-7, V-12 Records". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  87. ^ Moore, Frank E. "Redlands, Our Town" Moore Historical Foundation, Redlands, CA 1987
  88. ^ "V-12 Program". Richmond, Virginia: University of Richmond. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  89. ^ "The News about the University of Rochester, 1944". GenWeb Monroe County. 2010. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  90. ^ Lesesne, Henry H. (2001). A History of the University of South Carolina, 1940-2000. University of South Carolina Press. p. 27. 
  91. ^ "Alfred S. Harrison". United States Army Corps of Engineers. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  92. ^ a b "Guide to the University of Utah College of Medicine certificates, 1947-1949". Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah School of Medicine. 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  93. ^ McHenry 2007, p.25.
  94. ^ "Oral History Entries". Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Archives. 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  95. ^ "Amidst the Depression and War, Progress Still Prevails". Villanova, Pennsylvania: Villanova University. 2002. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  96. ^ "History of Phi Gamma Delta in Indiana/ Psi History:". Crawfordsville, Indiana: Wabash College. 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  97. ^ "McDonald, Billy Ray "B.R."". The Dwight D. Eisenhower Foundation. 2000. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  98. ^ a b c d e f g h i "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – New York". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011. 
  99. ^ "Guide to the Navy V-5 and V-12 Training Units Collection, 1941 - 1944". Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University. 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  100. ^ "Guide to the Whitman College V-5 and V-12 Program Records 1942-1991". NWDA. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  101. ^ "Whitman News 1942-1943". Walla Walla, Washington: Whitman College. 1943. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  102. ^ Nichols, D.J. (1987). "AASP Primary Records Program". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  103. ^ Two Towers: The Story of Worcester Tech 1865-1965 URL accessed on July 23, 2006
  104. ^ John, Finney (1997). "Yale Class of 1945 - From White Shoe to Combat Boot". New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University - Yale Alumni Magazine. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  105. ^ a b c d "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Massachusetts". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  106. ^ a b "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Nebraska". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011. 
  107. ^ a b "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Indiana". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  108. ^ "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – Maryland". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011. 
  109. ^ "Biography of Victor Parsonnet". Heart Rhythm Society. December 23, 1998. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  110. ^ a b c "U.S. Naval Activities World War II – California". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  111. ^ Goettling, Gary (2011). "World War II and the Tech Connection". Georgia Tech Alumni Association. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  112. ^ a b "Brigadier General (Dr.) Herbert V. Swindell". U.S. Air Force. April 1979. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  113. ^ Carroll bio
  114. ^ Martin, Douglas. "Henry S. Coleman, 79, Dies; Hostage at Columbia in '68", The New York Times, February 4, 2006. Accessed September 12, 2009.
  115. ^ BGSU HOF profile, accessed October 2, 2010
  116. ^ Jim Brahos (1944-12-27). "Lew Wallace Third in State But 1945 Path Is Rougher". Hammond Times. 
  117. ^ "Paul Newman – Biographies in Naval History". 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Cardozier, V. R. Colleges and Universities in World War II (1993) online
  • Westerlund, John S. "Anchors Aweigh: The U.S. Navy's WWII Port of Call at Flagstaff," Journal of Arizona History (2002) 43#1 pp 69–86. Arizona State Teachers College (now Northern Arizona University)

External links[edit]