War of the Worlds (2005 film)

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For the Byron Haskin film, see The War of the Worlds (1953 film). For the David Michael Latt film, see H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film). For the Timothy Hines film, see H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds (2005 film).
War of the Worlds
An alien hand holds Earth, that is engulfed in flame. A red weed surrounds the hand. Above the image is the film's title, WAR OF THE WORLDS and the main actor, TOM CRUISE. Below is the release date, JUNE 29, and the cast and crew credits.
Theatrical poster
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by Kathleen Kennedy
Colin Wilson
Screenplay by Josh Friedman
David Koepp
Based on The War of the Worlds 
by H.G. Wells
Starring Tom Cruise
Dakota Fanning
Justin Chatwin
Miranda Otto
Tim Robbins
Narrated by Morgan Freeman
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Janusz Kamiński
Edited by Michael Kahn
Production
company
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
(North America)
DreamWorks Pictures
(International)
Release dates
  • June 28, 2005 (2005-06-28) (Kuwait)
  • June 29, 2005 (2005-06-29) (United States)
Running time 116 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $132 million[1]
Box office $591,745,540 [1]

War of the Worlds is a 2005 American science fiction disaster thriller film and a loose adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Josh Friedman and David Koepp. It stars Tom Cruise as Ray Ferrier, a divorced dock worker estranged from his children (Dakota Fanning and Justin Chatwin) and living separately from them. As his ex-wife drops their children off for him to look after for a few days, the planet is attacked by aliens that come up out of the ground (loosely based on H. G. Wells' Martians) driving Tripods and as Earth's armed forces are defeated, Ray tries to protect his children and flee to Boston to rejoin his ex-wife.

The film was shot in 73 days, using five different sound stages as well as locations at California, Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia. The film was surrounded by a secrecy campaign so few details would be leaked before its release. Tie-in promotions were made with several companies, including Hitachi. The film was released in the United States on 29 June and in United Kingdom on 1 July. War of the Worlds was a box office success, and became 2005's fourth most successful film both domestically, with $234 million in North America, and $591 million overall. At the time of its release it was the highest grossing film starring Tom Cruise.

Plot[edit]

The narrator (Morgan Freeman) explains that humans were unaware that intelligent extraterrestrials were making plans to occupy Earth. Ray Ferrier (Tom Cruise) is a divorced crane operator longshoreman who works at a dock in Bayonne, NJ. Ray is estranged from his children. His ex-wife, Mary Ann (Miranda Otto), later drops off the children, 10-year old Rachel (Dakota Fanning) and teenager Robbie (Justin Chatwin), at Ray's house in Bayonne on her way to visiting her parents in Boston. Unexplained changes in the weather occur, emitting lightning that strikes multiple times in the middle of an intersection and disrupting all electrical technology in the area.

Ray finds where multiple lightning strikes have hit the ground, from which a massive three-legged machine emerges and with alien weaponry, incinerates most of the witnesses . Ray collects his children and drives to Mary Ann's home in suburban New Jersey to take refuge. The next morning Ray discovers a Boeing 747 has crashed in the street outside the house. He finds a small news team who reveal that the aliens have also attacked major world cities including New York City, Washington D.C and London and that the aliens entered the machines in capsules via the lightning. Ray decides to take the kids to Boston to be with their mother. Robbie, trying to join the fight against the aliens, tries to leave with the U.S. military, and the three are forced to leave their car after a mob takes it by force. They later survive a Tripod attack which causes a Hudson River ferry to sink. During a desperate battle between the U.S. Marines and the aliens, Ray is forced to choose between being separated from Rachel and preventing Robbie from joining the fight; Ray lets him go with the soldiers and disappears. The Tripods are shown to be protected by an energy shield that makes them invulnerable and the Marines are overwhelmed. While escaping, Ray and Rachel are offered shelter by Harlan Ogilvy (Tim Robbins), who presumes that the aliens had buried their technology on Earth eons ago and that he and Ray can deduce their weaknesses by observing them - their refuge is right in the middle of an alien camp.

The three remain undetected for two days even as a probe and a group of the aliens themselves explore the basement. The next morning, Ogilvy suffers a mental breakdown while witnessing a Tripod harvesting human blood and tissue to fertilize a red weed. Concerned that the aliens may hear Ogilvy's madness, Ray murders Ogilvy to silence him. The basement hideout is exposed when a second probe catches them sleeping. Ray stops the probe with an axe, but Rachel runs outside, where the landscape has been consumed by alien plants, and she is caught by the guarding Tripod. Ray finds a grenade and allows himself to be abducted, placed in the same basket with Rachel and other prisoners. As the aliens select him for harvesting, Ray takes a belt of grenades into the machine which makes it explode and release the cages.

Ray and Rachel arrive in a devastated Boston, where the red weed is dying and the Tripods are collapsing. Ray notices birds landing on a nearby Tripod, indicating that their shields are down. Ray alerts the soldiers escorting his refugee group and they defeat it. Ray and Rachel reach Mary Ann's parents' house, where they are reunited with Mary Ann and, to their surprise, Robbie. The closing narration reveals that the aliens had no immunity to the bacteria on Earth and humanity had earned its ownership of the planet.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

After collaborating in 2002's Minority Report, Steven Spielberg and Tom Cruise were interested in working together again. Spielberg stated about Cruise, "He's such an intelligent, creative partner, and brings such great ideas to the set that we just spark each other. I love working with Tom Cruise."[2] Cruise met with Spielberg during the filming of Spielberg's Catch Me If You Can (2002) and gave three options of films to create together, one of them being an adaptation of The War of the Worlds.[2] Spielberg chose The War of the Worlds and stated, "We looked at each other and the lights went on. As soon as I heard it, I said `Oh my God! War of the Worlds – absolutely.' That was it."[2]

The film is Spielberg's third on the subject of alien visitation, along with Close Encounters of the Third Kind and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Producer and longtime collaborator Kathleen Kennedy notes that with War of the Worlds, Spielberg had the opportunity to explore the antithesis of the characters brought to life in E.T. and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. "When we first started developing E.T., it was a much edgier, darker story and it actually evolved into something that was more benign. I think that the edgier, darker story has always been somewhere inside him. Now, he's telling that story."[2] Spielberg stated that he just thought it would be fun to make a "really scary film with really scary aliens", something which he had never done before.[2][3] Spielberg was intent on telling a contemporary story, with Kennedy stating the story was created as a fantasy, but depicted in a hyper-realistic way.[2]

"For the first time in my life I'm making an alien picture where there is no love and no attempt at communication."
– Steven Spielberg[4]

J. J. Abrams was asked by Spielberg and Cruise to write the script but had to turn down the film as he was working on the pilot for his television series Lost.[5] Josh Friedman delivered a screenplay, which was then rewritten by David Koepp.[6][7] After re-reading the novel, Koepp decided to do the script following a single narrator, "a very limited point of view, from someone on the very periphery of events rather than someone involved in events", and created a list of elements he would not use due to being "cliché", such as the destruction of landmark buildings. Some aspects of the book were heavily adapted and condensed: Tim Robbins' character was an amalgalm of two characters in the book, with the name borrowed from a third. While changing the setting from 19th century to present day, Koepp also tried to "take the modern world back to the 1800s", with the characters being devoid of electricity and modern techniques of communication.[8]

Spielberg accepted the script after finding it had several similarities to his personal life, including the divorce of his parents (Ray and Mary Ann's divorce), and because the plight of the fictional survivors reflects his own uncertainty after the devastation of the September 11 attacks.[3] For Spielberg, the characters' stories of survival needed to be the main focus, as they featured the American mindset of never giving up.[3] Spielberg described War of the Worlds as "a polar opposite" to Close Encounters, with that movie featuring a man leaving family to travel with aliens, while War of the Worlds focused on keeping the family together.[3] At the same time, the aliens and their motivations would not be much explored, as "we just experience the results of these nefarious plans to replace us with themselves".[9]

Although accepting the script, Spielberg asked for several changes. Spielberg had been against the idea of the aliens arriving in spaceships, since every alien invasion movie used such a vehicle.[7] The original Martian cylinders were discarded, where Spielberg replaced the origins of the Tripods with stating they were buried underground in the Earth long ago.[4][7]

Lawrence Brown wrote: "Spielberg's decision to present the invaders' fighting machines as having been there all along, buried deep under the Earth, raises questions which did not exist in the original Wells book. In Spielberg's version, these invaders had been here before, long ago, in prehistoric times. They had set up their machines deep underground, and departed. Why? Why not take over the Earth right there and then? Spielberg does not provide an answer, and the characters are too busy surviving to wonder about this. An answer suggests itself - a very chilling answer. The invaders were interested in humans as food animals. When they came here before, humans were very scarce. The aliens left their hidden machines and departed, patiently observing the Earth until humans would multiply to the requisite numbers - and then they came back, to take over. Under this interpretation, all of us - all humans over the whole of history - have been livestock living in an alien food farm, destined to be 'harvested'".[10]

Filming[edit]

Destroyed Boeing 747 used on the War of the Worlds set. Currently, visitors can view the destroyed airliner set during the Universal Studios's back-lot-tour.

Filming took place in Virginia, Connecticut, New Jersey, California, and New York. The film shooting lasted an estimated 72 days.[11] Spielberg originally intended to shoot War of the Worlds after Munich, but Tom Cruise liked David Koepp's script so much that he suggested Spielberg postpone the former while he would do the same with Mission: Impossible III. Most of Munich's crew was brought in to work on War of the Worlds as well.[4] In 2004, the production crews quickly were set up on both coasts to prepare for the start date, scouting locations up and down the Eastern Seaboard and preparing stages and sets which would be used when the company returned to Los Angeles after the winter holiday. Pre-production took place in only three months, essentially half the amount of time normally allotted for a film of similar size and scope. Spielberg notes, however, "This wasn't a cram course for War of the Worlds. This was my longest schedule in about 12 years. We took our time."[2] Spielberg collaborated with crews at the beginning of pre-production with the use of previsualization, considering the tight schedule.[11]

The scene depicting the first appearance of the Tripods was filmed at the intersection of Ferry Street, Merchart Street, and Wilson Avenue, in Newark, New Jersey.[12] Later, Spielberg filmed several scenes in Virginia.[13] The continuous scene was filmed in California.[14]

The ferry scene was filmed in the New York town of Athens, and Mary Ann's parents house was located in Brooklyn (but was featured in the film in Boston).[2] For the scene involving a crashed Boeing 747, the production crew bought an out-of-use airplane, with transportation costs of $2 million,[15] destroyed it into pieces, and built houses around them.[2] The destroyed plane was kept for the Universal Studios back-lot tour.[15] Ray's house was filmed in Bayonne, New Jersey (with a soundstage doubling the interior); meanwhile, the valley war sequence was filmed in Lexington, Virginia and Mystery Mesa in California. The scene where the tripod is shot down and crashes through a factory was filmed in Naugatuck, Connecticut. The scene of the bodies floating down the river was filmed on the Farmington River in Windsor, Connecticut by a second unit using a stand in for Dakota Fanning (the back of her character) with the portion showing the faces of the credited actors cut in later. Some filming was shot on the Korean War Veterans Parkway in Staten Island, NY. [2][16] The film used six sound stages, spread over three studio lots.[2]

Design and visual effects[edit]

Industrial Light & Magic was the main special effects company for the movie.[17] While Spielberg had used computers to help visualize sequences in pre-production before, Spielberg said, "This is the first film I really tackled using the computer to animate all the storyboards."[2] He decided to employ the technique extensively after a visit to his friend George Lucas.[2][17] In order to keep the realism, the usage of computer-generated imagery shots and bluescreen was limited, with most of the digital effects being blended with miniature and live-action footage.[18]

The design of the Tripods was described by Spielberg as "graceful," with artist Doug Chiang replicating aquatic life forms.[18] At the same time, the director wanted a design that would be iconic while still providing a tribute to the original Tripods, as well as intimidating so the audience would not be more interested about the aliens inside than on the vehicle itself.[9] The visual effects crew tried to blend organic and mechanical elements in the Tripods depiction, and made extensive studies for the movements of the vehicle to be believable, considering the "contradiction" of having a large tank-like head being carried by thin and flexible legs.[19] Animator Randal M. Dutra considered the movements themselves to have a "terrestrial buoyance", in that they were walking on land but had an aquatic flow, and Spielberg described the Tripods as moving like "scary ballet dancers". Most of the alien elements revolved around the number three – the Tripod had three eyes, and both the vehicle and the aliens had three main limbs with three fingers each.[9] Visual effects supervisor Pablo Helman considered depicting the scale of the Tripod as challenging, considering "Steven wanted to make sure that these creatures were 150 feet tall",[18] as it was the height described by Wells in the novel.[9] The aliens themselves had designs based on jellyfish, with movements inspired by red-eyed tree frogs,[19] and an amphibian quality particularly on the wet skin. A styrofoam alien was used as a stand-in to guide the actors in the basement scene.[9] Spielberg did not want any blood or gore during the Heat-Ray deaths; in the words of Helman, "this was going to be a horror movie for kids". So the effects crew came up with the vaporization of the bodies, and considering it could not be fully digital due to both the complexity of the effect and the schedule, live-action dust was used alongside the CGI ray assimilation and particles.[18] Digital birds followed the Tripods in most scenes to symbolize the presence of death, which Chiang compared to vultures and added that "you don't know if these birds are going to the danger or away from it, if you should follow them or run away."[9]

During the scene where Ray's minivan is attacked by a mob, Janusz Kaminski and Spielberg wanted a lot of interactive lights, so they added different kinds of lights, including Coleman lamps, oil lanterns, flashlights and Maglights.[2] The IL&M crew admitted that the destruction of the Bayonne Bridge was the toughest scene to be made with heavy usage mix of CGI effects and live action elements,[20] and a four-week deadline so the shot could be used in a Super Bowl trailer.[18] The scene originally had only a gas station exploding, but then Spielberg suggested blowing up the bridge as well.[18] The scene involved Tripods shooting a Heat-Ray towards the minivan and minivan escapes from it involved a lot of CGI layers to work out. Over 500 CGI effects were used in the film.[21]

Costume designer Joanna Johnston created 60 different versions of Ray's leather jacket, to illustrate the degrees to which he is weathered from the beginning of the journey to the end. "He begins with the jacket, a hoodie, and two t-shirts," explains Johnston. One piece of Dakota Fanning's costume that takes on a special importance is her lavender horse purse: "I wanted her to have something that made her feel safe, some little thing that she could sleep with and put over her face," Johnston notes. "That was the lavender horse purse. We tied it up on a ribbon and Dakota hung it on her body, so it was with her at all times." Johnston dressed Robbie for an unconscious emulation of his father, "They're more alike than they realize, with great tension on the surface," Johnston says.[2]

Music[edit]

War of the Worlds: Music from the Motion Picture
Film score by John Williams
Released 2005
Genre Soundtrack
Label Decca Records
John Williams chronology
Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith War of the Worlds Memoirs of a Geisha
Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 3/5 stars[22]
Filmtracks 3/5 stars
ScoreNotes C+
SoundtrackNet 3.5/5 stars

Longtime Spielberg collaborator John Williams composed the music score of War of the Worlds. It was the first time Williams had to compose with an incomplete Spielberg film, as only the first six reels, totalling sixty minutes, were ready for him to use as reference.[23] He considered the score "a very serious piece," which had to combine "necessary frightening atmosphere" with "propulsively rhythmic drive for the action scenes" –[24] the music would be symbolically "pulling forward" vehicles in chase scenes such as Ray driving out of Bayonne or the Tripod attacking the Hudson ferry. Williams added small nods to classic monster movie scores by having orchestras doing a "grand gesture" in scenes overlooking Tripods. To increase the scariness, Williams added a female chorus with a crescendo resembling a shriek – which would "humanize" the track representing "victims that go out without saying an 'ouch' – they're gone before they can say that" – for the Tripod attacks, and a nearly inaudible male choir – which Williams compared to "Tibetan monks, the lowest known pitch our bodies can make" – for the aliens exploring the basement. The only deviation from orchestras were electronic sounds for the opening and closing narrations.[23]

A soundtrack album was released by Decca Records, that featured the film's music and Morgan Freeman's opening and closing narration.[25][26] The songs "Little Deuce Coupe" and "Hushabye Mountain" are also featured in the movie, the former sung by Tom Cruise, and the latter by Dakota Fanning.[27][28]

Themes[edit]

The film was described as an anti-war film, as civilians run and only try to save themselves and their family instead of fighting back the alien Tripods.[29] Debra J. Saunders of San Francisco Chronicle described the film as "If aliens invade, don't fight back. Run." Saunders compared the film to Independence Day, where the civilians do run, but they support the military efforts.[29] Many reviewers considered the film tried to recreate the atmosphere of the September 11 attacks, with bystanders struggling to survive and the usage of missing-persons displays.[30] Spielberg declared to Reader's Digest that beside the work being a fantasy, the threat represented was real: "They are a wake-up call to face our fears as we confront a force intent on destroying our way of life."[31] Screenwriter David Koepp stated that he tried not to put explicit references to September 11 or the Iraq War, but said that the inspiration for the scene where Robbie joins the army were teenagers fighting at the Gaza Strip – "I was thinking of teenagers in Gaza throwing bottles and rocks at tanks, and I think that when you're that age you don't fully consider the ramifications of what you're doing and you're very much caught up in the moment and passion, whether that's a good idea or not."[8] Retained from the novel is the aliens being defeated, not by men's weapons, but the planet's smallest creatures, bacteria, which Koepp described as "nature, in a way, knowing a whole lot more than we do".[9]

Release[edit]

War of the Worlds premiered at the Ziegfeld Theatre on 23 June 2005. There, Tom Cruise revealed his relationship with Katie Holmes.[32] Six days later, on 29 June, the film was released in approximately 3,908 theaters across America.[1] The home video was subsequently released on November 22, 2005.

Secrecy[edit]

Spielberg kept most of the parts secret in the filmmaking, as the cast and crew were left confused about how the aliens looked.[33] When asked about the secrecy of the screenplay, David Koepp answered, "[Spielberg] wouldn't give [the screenplay] to anybody". Koepp explained he would e-mail it to him, and he would give a section of the script that was relating to whatever somebody was doing.[33] Miranda Otto thought of not even discussing the story with her family and friends. Otto said, "I know some people who always say, 'Oh, everything's so secret.' I think it's good. In the old days people didn't get to know much about movies before they came out and nowadays there's just so much information. I think a bit of mystery is always really good. You don't want to blow all of your cards beforehand."[34]

Spielberg admitted after keeping things secret for so long, there is in the end the temptation to reveal too much to the detriment of the story at the press conference of War of the Worlds. So, Spielberg only revealed the hill scene, where Ray tries to stop his son from leaving, stating "to say more would reveal too much."[35] The secrecy caused The Sun to claim the film would surpass Titanic's 200 million budget, which at the time held the record for the most expensive film ever made.[36] The actual budget of the film was US $132 million.[1][37]

Marketing and home media releases[edit]

Paramount Pictures Interactive Marketing debuted a human survival online game on its official website, waroftheworlds.com, on 14 April to promote the film.[38] Hitachi collaborated with Paramount Pictures for a worldwide promotional campaign, under the title of “The Ultimate Visual Experience”. The agreement was announced by Kazuhiro Tachibana, general manager of Hitachi’s Consumer Business Group.[39] Kazuhiro stated, "Our ‘The Ultimate Visual Experience’ campaign is a perfect match between Spielberg and Cruise’s pursuit of the world’s best in film entertainment and Hitachi’s commitment to the highest picture quality through its digital consumer electronic products."[39]

The film was released on VHS and DVD on 22 November 2005, with both a single-disc edition and a two-disc special edition featured production featurettes, documentaries and trailers.[40] The film grossed $113,000,000 in DVD sales, bringing its total film gross to $704,745,540, ranking tenth place in the 2005 DVD sales chart.[41] Paramount released the film on Blu-ray Disc on 1 June 2010.

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

On 29 June 2005 (2005-06-29), the film grossed approximately US$81 million worldwide,[42] and earned the thirty-eighth biggest opening week gross with grossing $98,826,764 in 3,908 theatres, averaging $95,288 in each theater.[43] Meanwhile, on Independence Day weekend, War of the Worlds grossed $64,878,725 in 3908 theatres also, giving an average of $16,601.[44] This is the third-biggest film opening on Independence Day weekend.[45] The film earned $200 million in 24 days, ranking thirty-seventh place in the list of fastest films to gross $200 million.[46] The film has grossed $704,745,540 including DVD sales,[1] making it the fourth highest grossing film of 2005, and the sixty-sixth highest grossing film worldwide.[47][48]

Critical reaction[edit]

The movie gained positive critical consensus. Review aggregator website Metacritic gave it an average score of 73 based on 40 reviews.[49] On another website, Rotten Tomatoes, War of the Worlds currently garners a 74% "fresh" rating based on 250 reviews and the critical consensus stating [that] "Steven Spielberg's adaptation of War of the Worlds delivers on the thrill and paranoia of H.G. Wells' classic novel while impressively updating the action and effects for modern audiences."[50] However, the general public liked the film a lot less than the critics did- the film has a 41% "rotten" audience rating, indicating generally negative reviews among average moviegoers. Many people praised the film's beginning while criticizing the ending.

James Berardinelli praised the acting and considered that focusing the narrative on the struggle of one character made the film more effective, but described the ending as weak, even though Spielberg "does the best he can to make it cinematically dramatic".[51] Total Film's review gave War of the Worlds 4 out of 5 stars, considering that "Spielberg finds fresh juice in a tale already adapted for film, TV, stage, radio and record", and describing the film as having many "startling images", comparing the first Tripod attack to the Omaha Beach landing from Saving Private Ryan.[52]

Los Angeles Times' Kenneth Turan, who felt the special effects were unusual, stated that Spielberg may actually have done his job in War of the Worlds "better than he realizes", showing how fragile the world is. Turan claimed Spielberg raised a most provocative question: "Is the ultimate fantasy an invasion from outer space, or is it the survival of the human race?"[53] However, Broomfield Enterprise's Dan Marcucci and Nancy Serougi did not share Berardinelli and Turan's opinion. They felt that Morgan Freeman's narration was unnecessary, and that the first half was "great" but the second half "became filled with clichés, riddled with holes, and tainted by Tim Robbins".[54]

Michael Wilmington of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three and a half stars (out of four), saying "War of the Worlds definitely wins its battle, but not the war." Wilmington stated the film brought the viewers on a wild journey through two sides of Spielberg: the dark and the light. He also said the film contained a core sentiment similar to that of Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[55] About.com's Rebecca Murray gave a positive review, stating, "Spielberg almost succeeds in creating the perfect alien movie", with criticism only for the ending.[56] Jonathan Rosenbaum of Chicago Reader praised the special effects and Cruise's performance.[57] Roger Ebert criticized the "retro design" and considered that despite the big budget, the alien invasion was "rudimentary" and "not very interesting", regarding the best scenes as Ray walking among the airliner wreckage and a train running in flames, declaring that "such scenes seem to come from a kind of reality different from that of the tripods."[58]

The French film magazine Cahiers du cinéma ranked the film as 8th place in its list of best films of the 2000s.[59] Japanese film director Kiyoshi Kurosawa listed the film as the best film of 2000-2009.[60]

Awards[edit]

War of the Worlds was nominated for three Academy Awards, Visual Effects, Sound Mixing (Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer and Ron Judkins), and Sound Editing, losing all to King Kong.[61] The film was nominated for six Saturn Awards,[62] and won Best Performance by a Younger Actor (Dakota Fanning).[63] The film won a Golden Reel Award for Sound Effects & Foley,[64] a World Soundtrack Award for Best Original Soundtrack,[65] and three VES Awards for its special effects,[66] and was nominated for three Empire Awards, three Satellite Awards, and an MTV Movie Award.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "War of the Worlds Production Notes (2005)". War of the Worlds, Official Site. Retrieved 11 September 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d Anthony Breznican (23 June 2005). "Spielberg's family values". USA Today. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c "Steven Spielberg Goes To War". Empire. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  5. ^ Jensen, Jeff (29 December 2009). "'Lost': The 'M:I 3' Connection". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Fleming, Michael; McNary, Davy (16 March 2004). "'War' meets its maker". Variety. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "War Of The Worlds: Script by David Koepp & Josh Friedman (2005)". The War of the Worlds. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  8. ^ a b Freer, Ian. "David Koepp on War of the Worlds". Empire. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Designing the Enemy: Tripods and Aliens. War of the Worlds DVD: Paramount Home Entertainment. 2005. 
  10. ^ Lawrence C. Brown, "H.G.Wells' Enduring Influence" in Mark Smythe (ed.) "Old and New trends in 21st Century Popular Culture"
  11. ^ a b "Close Encounters of the Worst Kind". Wired. June 2005. Retrieved 13 September 2009. 
  12. ^ James Wray (9 October 2004). "More on War of the Worlds Filing in New Jersey". Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 13 September 2009. 
  13. ^ "Spielberg to film in Shenandoah Valley". USA Today. 29 November 2004. Retrieved 13 September 2009. 
  14. ^ Mark Schatzker (20 June 2005). "Worlds Collide". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 13 September 2009. 
  15. ^ a b Malloy, Betsy (27 May 2007). "Universal Studios Picture – War of the Worlds Set:". About.com. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  16. ^ Turner, Rachel (20 October 2004). ""War of the Worlds" scouts out Lexington". The Trident. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  17. ^ a b "War of the Worlds". Frank Rose. June 2005. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f Freer, Ian. "Pablo Helman On War of the Worlds". Empire. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  19. ^ a b Desowitz, Bill (7 July 2005). "War of the Worlds: A Post 9/11 Digital Attack". VFXWorld. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  20. ^ Claudia Kienzle. "Industrial Light & Magic" (PDF). Autodesk. Retrieved 14 September 2009. 
  21. ^ Johnny Betts. "War of the Worlds (2005) – Odds & Ends". The Movie Mark. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  22. ^ Allmusic review
  23. ^ a b Scoring War of the Worlds. War of the Worlds DVD: Paramount Home Entertainment. 2005. 
  24. ^ Burlingame, Jon (29 November 2005). "Master class". Variety. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  25. ^ "War of the Worlds (2005)". Soundtrack Info. 28 June 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  26. ^ "War of the Worlds (2005)". Ricard L. Befan. John Williams Fan Network. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  27. ^ Jason Cook. "War of the Worlds Review (2005)". The Spinning Image. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  28. ^ "War of the Worlds". Premiere. 29 June 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  29. ^ a b Saunders, Debra (10 July 2005). "Spielberg's anti-war 'War of the Worlds'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  30. ^ Steven D. Greydanus. "War of the Worlds (2005)". Decent Films. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  31. ^ "Steven Spielberg and Tom Cruise: The Fascinating Truth Behind "War of the Worlds"". Reader's Digest. June 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  32. ^ Donna Freydkin (23 June 2005). "Cruise, Holmes step out". USA Today. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  33. ^ a b Steve Head (24 June 2005). "Headgame 7: War of the Worlds". IGN. p. 1. Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  34. ^ Steve Head (24 June 2005). "Headgame 7: War of the Worlds". IGN. p. 2. Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  35. ^ Press Conference of War of the Worlds. Tom Cruise, Steven Spielberg. 23 June 2005.
  36. ^ "The costliest film ever". The Sun. UK. 17 August 2004. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  37. ^ "Movie Budgets". The Numbers. Retrieved 25 September 2009. 
  38. ^ "Paramount Pictures Interactive Marketing to Place Online Gamers Into the Action With 'War of the Worlds' Online Game". Prnewswire. 12 April 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 
  39. ^ a b "Hitachi goes global for "War of the Worlds"". Hitachi. 20 April 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 
  40. ^ Netherby, Jennifer (12 September 2005). "DW has big War plans". Video Business. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  41. ^ "DVD Sales Chart (2005)". Lee's Movie Info. Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  42. ^ "Opening Day Records". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  43. ^ "Biggest Opening Weeks". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
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