View of central Yanam
|Nickname(s): French Yanam|
|• Total||30 km2 (10 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91 (0)884|
Yanam or Yanaon is a town in the Indian union territory of Puducherry; it is located in Yanam district. Yanam has some 300 years of history and is well known as French Yanam even now although it was transferred to India in 1954. It forms a 30 km² enclave in the district of East Godavari in Andhra Pradesh. It has a population of 32,000, most of whom speak Telugu. Yanam is a unique blend of French and Telugu culture prevailing in Andhra Pradesh. During French rule, the Tuesday market (mangalavaram santa) at Yanam was popular among Telugu people in the Madras Presidency who visited Yanam to buy foreign and smuggled goods during Yanam People's Festival, which is held in January. It was previously also called as kalyanapuram because, after implementation of the Sarda Act in British India during 1929, many Andhra people used to come and do marriages (mainly Child marriage) here as the local French government did not oppose child marriages. In 1936, Yanam Population was 5,220.
According to the 1995–2005 Development Records it was the best constituency in Puducherry, which is moving forward in the development sector, and also one of the best constituencies in India. Many development schemes were carried out for the people compared to other places in India and Yanam was a trial-base centre for implementing the development schemes in Puducherry.
- 1 General statistics
- 2 Colonial history
- 3 Local Administration in the Colonial Era
- 4 Municipal Administration in the Colonial Era
- 5 Revenue Administration in the Colonial Era
- 6 Cession of Yanam
- 7 Aftermath of Liberation
- 8 French Nationality
- 9 Court House (Palais de justice)
- 10 Famous people in the colonial Yanam
- 11 Present situation of administration
- 12 Culture
- 13 Official Languages
- 14 Tourism
- 15 Festivals
- 16 Places of worship
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Latitude: 16°42' N – 16°46' N; Longitude: 82°11' E – 82°19' E.
The district lies in the delta of Godavari River, the town is situated where the river meets its tributary Koringa River (Coringa River), 9 kilometres from the Bay of Bengal in the Coromandel coast.
It is occupied by alluvium consisting of sand clay and gravel. Ground water occurs both water table and confined conditions in the granular beds in the alluvial deposits. It is development by means of shallow filter point well within a depth of nine metres. The soil is greyish black and is essentially clayey in composition. A few thin layers of sandy clay or sand, not exceeding 0.3-metre in thickness are intercalated with the clayed soil. The river sands on the bank of Gauthami Godavari consists predominantly of quartz, felspar and muscovite mica. A few grains of monazite are also found in the black streaks. There are no minerals of economic value in the region.
Yanam received irrigation water through Bank Canal, which starts from Dowleswaram Head Works (Sir Arthur Cotton Barrage on the River Godavari downstream Rajahmundry). This canal runs towards east up to Pillanka, a small village near Yanam. From popularly known as French Channel built by an agreement entered in 1949 between the then French Government and the Government of India. This canal serves the irrigation as well as drinking water needs of the areas west of Coringa River.
After merger, steps were taken to provide irrigation facilities for about 5.6 km² of dry land in the eastern side of Coringa River by providing a new irrigation canal called Adivipolam Channel from the tail end of Tallarevu south canal and at the starting point of Neelapalli channel on the right side. The work was taken for execution by the Andhra Pradesh Public Works Department as a deposit work in 1964 and was completed and commissioned in June 1966. The water from this channel is used for drinking purpose also, as in the case of French Channel.
In the hot season humidity rates vary between 68% and 80%. But generally, it experiences a climate characterised by high humidity (over 70% in the day and 60% in the evenings throughout the year), an oppressive summer season, and a good rainfall. It enjoys the benefit of both the Southwest and Northeast monsoons. During a year on an average, the normal rainfall is 1226 mm.
The sky is generally heavily clouded to overcast during the southwest monsoon months. There is moderate cloudiness in the post monsoon months. During the rest of the year, the sky will be clear or lightly clouded.
Temperatures in Yanam range from 27 °C to 45 °C in summer and 17 °C to 28 °C in winter. From February, temperature start rising rapidly till May, which is the hottest month with the mean maximum around 37 °C and mean minimum around 28 °C. Humidity being high, the heat is very tiring. The maximum temperature on some days in May or early June before the onset of the south-west monsoon may even touch 47 °C. The sea breeze, however affords some relief in the afternoons.
Similarly pre-monsoon thunder-showers may also bring welcome relief on some days. With the onset of the monsoon in June the temperature falls rapidly and remains almost steady till September. In this season mean maximum temperature is around 32 °C and night temperature fall rapidly till December or January when day temperature is around 27 °C and the night temperature around 19 °C. Sometimes the minimum temperature may drop as low as about 14 °C. December and January are the coolest months.
- 1843 – 4,000
- 1885 – 4,266
- 1936 – 5,220
- 1948 – 5,853
- 1971 – 8,291
- 1981 – 11,631
- 1991 – 20,297
Apart from the town of Yanam itself, the following villages fall under the district's jurisdiction: Agraharam, Darialatippa, Farampeta, Guerempeta, Savithrinagar, Kanakalapeta, Kurasampeta and Mettakur.
Yanam has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the national average of 74.04% with male literacy at 84%, and female literacy at 77%.
Yanaon was a Dutch colony before French overtook it in the 1720s. In the west of Yanam, we can still find 'Neelikundilu' (indigo wells). People say that the Dutch constructed a fort here .It is being called by locals as 'saali kota' because previously weavers (in Telugu Saalivandru) used to weave clothes after the demise of Dutch people. In this fort, they used to keep their currency, minted in the mint at Neelapalli, a nearby village. People say that this region was presented to the French general the Marquis de Bussy, by Vizianagaram Kings a token of gratitude for the help rendered by Bussy in the fight against the rulers of Bobbili. Even now we can see a street named after Bussy in Yanam. It is believed that Bussy had stayed in a certain building in this street.
Commercial Era (before 1742)
It is mentioned in the book, The botanic garden of Yanam (Le Jardin Botanique de Yanaon) by Médecin-colonel Alfred-Alphonse-Léon Bigot (Colonel A. Bigot), that at first, the French establishment of a warehouse here in 1723 A.D. the La Compagnie Française des Indes Orientales of France established here a trading post of theirs. In 1723, Yanam was the third French colony established in India though it was officially confirmed in 1751. Since the business became slack and commercial operations had not produced the desired results, it was given up in 1727
It was seized again by Dupleix in 1731. A firman from Haji Hassan Khan, Nawab of Masulipatam authorised the French Representative Fouquet, then chief of the Company at Masulipatam to set up a loge at Yanam in the year 1731. Nawab Roustoum khan granted a Paravana dated 1735 for French commerce in Yanam.
Political Era (after 1742)
But it was re-established completely in 1742 during the reign of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. After 1742 political motives began to overshadow the desire for commercial gain. Mr. De Choisis administered it. He died here on 27 October 1747. Monsieur Sinfray succeeded him. The annual rent was waived by a document in 1743 for Yanam. Mir Ahmad Ali Khan, Nawab of Arcot, granted all the rights on the lands situated before the quarters at Yanam in 1747.
In December 1753, a Paravana of Salabat Jang conceded to Bussy the Northern Circars. Salabat Jang was indebted for his elevation to the throne to the French East India Company, which was confirmed by then Mughal emperor also. The agreement made between the French and Salabat Jang in Aurangabad bears the signature of Said Loukshur, Minister of Salabat Jang. Yanam acquired considerable importance during the occupation of the Northern Circars by the French.
First British Occupation
Another important event in the history was the war between the French and the British fought at Chandurthi in 1758 in which the French were defeated. Salabat Jang made a treaty with the British and gave the Northern Circars under a firman to the British. After 1760 the French lost hold in South India, especially on Northern Circars.
A document dated 15 May 1765 showed that the villages of Yanam and Kapulapalem (Capouloupalém) with other lands were handed over by Jean White Hill and George Dolben, the British representatives deputed by Mr. Jean Pybus, the head of the British settlement in Masulipatam to Mr. Yoan Yacques Panon, French Commissioner deputed by Jean Law de Lauriston the then Governor General of Puducherry, for taking them over. This document mentions that France entered into possession of Yanam and its dependent territories with exemption from all export and import duties. Soon after taking possession of this settlement, Mr. Panon obtained a firman for full liberty of trade and commerce of the French in Yanam.
French East India Company
|First British Occupation of Yanaon
(Seven Years War)
French East India Company
Second British Occupation
Between 1778 and 1783, Puducherry was under British occupation. Yanam was restored again to the French in 1785. Mr. Mallhendre took possession of it and Mr. Bluter succeeded him. After Bluter, Mr. Pierre Sonnerat (18 August 1748 – 31 March 1814) became the chief in 1790 in Yanam. He appreciated very much the sonority and the music of the Telugu language. He administered Yanam during the time of the French Revolution.
French East India Company
|Second British Occupation of Yanaon
French Colonial Empire
Third British Occupation
Once again French lost control over Yanam to the British. During 1793 and 1816 Puducherry was under British control. So, Yanam fell thrice into the hands of the British. After the Napoleonic wars, by the Treaty of Paris (1814) Yanam along with the factory at Machilipatnam was finally returned to the French on 26 September 1816. From then it was continuously under French control until its transfer to India in 1954.
French Colonial Empire
|Final British Occupation of Yanaon
French Colonial Empire
Local Administration in the Colonial Era
Local administration was started in Yanaon by a royal decree (Ordonnance Royale) dated 23 July 1840 during July Monarchy. According to that decree Yanaon and Mahé were provided with Chef de service (Service Chief) who resides in his official residence. After the merger, it is being resided by Regional Executive Officer, Yanam.
Another pivotal incident in local administration was the decree of 1872. It was dated 13 June 1872 and was issued during Third Republic. According to that decree Conseils locaux (Local councils) were created at each colony. The elected member was called as Conseiller local (Local councillor). Conseil local de Yanaon had a strength of 4 local councillors. The term of office was 6 years with one half of membership renewed every 3 years.
According to a decree dated 24 February 1878, one person can be sent as a sénateur to Sénat (French Senate). Senator will be elected by Conseil colonial (Colonial Council) and Conseil local (Local council). First election were held on 26 March 1876.
By the decree of 1946, French India (Inde française) became an (Overseas Territory) of France. Then an Assemblée Représentative (Representative Assembly) was created for each colony. Yanaon was provided with two assembly representatives (Equivalent to MLA). Currently Yanaon is holding one assembly representative.
Notable assembly representatives from Yanam were Kamichetty Venougopala Rao Naidou, Kamichetty Savithiry, Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu and Kanakala Tatayya Naidou.
Municipal Administration in the Colonial Era
Though the French established colonies in India in the seventeenth century itself, it was not until the end of the 19th century that they started civil administration in French India.
French Metropolitan Decree
A French Metropolitan Decree, dated 12 March 1880 adopted a six-year term of office for Mayors (Maire), municipal councillors (Conseil municipaux) and commune panchayats (communes). Thus French India has seen a French system of municipal administration. In the past, municipal administration was virtually the pivot of the whole administrative machinery in French India. It had several features that could serve as a role model for hassle-free administration.
Then a total of 10 communes were formed in which Yanaon became one commune with a strength of 12 Municipal Councillors (conseillers municipaux). The first elections were held on 30 May 1880.
Structure of the Municipality
La Mairie (Town Hall) in Yanaon is now called as Municipality Building. It was built in 19th century and is situated next to Court House in the Thiagaraja Street in Yanaon Town. During French colonial rule, Yanam Municipality had 12 Sièges. Then, they were called previously as Sièges instead of wards. Each ward is represented by a municipal councillor. Each commune possesses a Mayor and a Municipal council (Conseil Municipal) that manage the commune from the Mairie. The life-span of a Municipal council will be 6 six years with one half of the membership renewed for every 3 years.
Election Results of 1948
Elections held on 24 October 1948 and 18 October 1954 are most crucial in the history of French India. In June 1948 the French and Indian Governments came to an agreement as to how the future of the French Settlements should be determined.
Municipal elections were held in Pondicherry, Karikal and Yanam on 24 October 1948. The two main parties were the French India Socialist Party (Socialists), who favoured the continuance of French rule, and the French India Congress (Congress), who favoured union with India. Socialist Party was headed by Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu and Congress Party was headed by Yerra Jaganatha Rao.
- Yanam – 12
- Socialists – 03
- Independents – 09
Revenue Administration in the Colonial Era
After the French took over the establishment from the British (1816), they brought forward some legislation to regulate the system of farming and to improve the status of cultivation. An Ordonnance Royale issued on 25 October 1826 legislated that lands were perpetually farmed out to Europeans or their descendants. The farmer with the help of the ecrivain (Village Administrative Officer) had to draw up every year a contract called patta stating the extent of lands cultivated by the ryot and taxes due on such land. The pattas were then registered in the Bureau du Domaine.
The ordinance of 25 October 1826 was repealed by the ordinance of 7 June 1828 to regulate the ownership of lands and collection of land tax. This is the basic and primordial law to which one has to refer even now for matters relating to the origin of land ownership. The ordinance put forth a fourfold classification of the lands and provided for the payment of tax directly to the domaine but did not envisage any major deviation from the old principle that gave the king the exclusive right over the land. Hence, the Commission d'Agriculture et de commerce constituted in the year 1848 recommended a remission of tax and conferment of ownership rights to cultivators. An arrete was issued on 19 February 1853 to give a general remission of tax.
The Arrete of 6 November 1889 laid down the conditions for establishment of a Bureau du cadastre in the offices of Services des contributions to deal with administrative aspects of survey work. The land records prepared during the French regime were plan parcellaire, tableau synoptique, matrice cadastrale, etc.
Cession of Yanam
Actually, Yanam had an extremely dominant pro-French atmosphere prevailing in its people and its leaders. But in due course of time due to nationalist struggle by some leaders, conditions became intolerable in Yanam after its mayor and other representatives of Yanam adopted the merger resolution. The Mayor Madimchetty Satianandam, deputy mayor, and over 200 people took refuge in the adjacent areas of the Indian Union. Then 78-year-old Samatam Krouschnaya became Acting Mayor of Yanam. On Sunday 13 June 1954, Indian police came into action. They along with the pro-merger leaders hired hoodlums from Yanam assaulted refugees on Indian soil. It was then that the refugees marched into Yanam under the leadership of Dadala Raphael Ramanayya and aided by then Maire De Yanaon, Monsieur Madimchetty Satianarayanamourty alias Satia and took over the administration. After hoisting the Indian National Flag, they formed the revolutionary provisional government of Yanam headed by Dadala Raphael Ramanayya and adopted a resolution declaring "Yanaon A Libéré" (Yanam liberated). The coup d'état of Yanam was announced by All India Radio and Press.
French Colonial Empire
|Établissement française de Yanaon
(de facto not recognised by France)
1815–13 June 1954
Provisional Government of Yanam
|Établissement française de Yanaon
1815–1 November 1954
|Établissement française de Yanaon
1815–16 August 1962
Aftermath of Liberation
The Yanam coup d'état had enraged the French authorities of Puducherry. Rumours were spread to the effect that the French government were despatching a cruiser to Yanam to capture Merger leaders and to re-establish their authority. After the coup, the last administrator of Yanam, George Sala was recalled by André Ménard, then Governor General of Puducherry in June 1954.
Monsieur Dadala was also appointed as Acting Commissioner for Yanam for 14 days. Towards the end of June 1954, Kewal Singh paid a visit to Yanam and requested Dadala's return to Pondicherry to continue his activities there. On 3 July, on Kewal Singh's request, Dadala left Yanam, after making all arrangements for its proper administration.
De facto transfer
Yanam remained under French control till 13 June 1954, when it joined the Republic of India by Indian military action. On 1 November 1954, after long years of freedom struggle the de facto transfer (Vāstavikāntaraṇa) of the four enclaves of Pondicherry, Yanam, Mahé, and Karikal to the Indian Union was achieved.
The Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, visited Puducherry on 16 January 1955. Messrs Edouard Goubert, S. Perumal, Dadala and Sri Pakirisamy Pillai presented addresses to Pandit Nehru in a public meeting in the maidan of Gorimedu.
Treaty of cession
A treaty of cession was signed by the two countries on 28 May 1956. The de jure transfer was delayed until the end of the Algerian War. The treaty was ratified by the French parliament in May 1962. On 16 August 1962 (De Jure Day) India and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held.
Special administration status
According to Traité de cession dated 1956, the four former French colonies were assured of maintaining their special administrative status. That is why Puducherry is the only Union Territory with some special provisions like Legislative Assembly, French as official language, etc. This is the most important article in the Traité de Cession, which ensures and safeguardes the personal interest of the people regarding their special administrative status.
The Article II of Traité de Cession states that,
- The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people.
De jure Transfer
Treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in May 1956 was ratified by the French parliament in May 1962. On 16 August 1962 India and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held. Every year on 16 August, the De jure Transfer Day (Vidhitāntaraṇa Dinamu in Telugu) is celebrated throughout Puducherry Union Territory.
Merger in Puducherry U.T
Date of events
|Colony||Liberation||de facto transfer||Treaty of Cession||de jure transfer||Merger|
|Pondichéry||–||1 November 1954||28 May 1956||16 August 1963||1 July 1963|
|Chandernagore||–||26 June 1949||28 February 1951||9 June 1952||1 October 1954|
|Karikal||–||1 November 1954||28 May 1956||16 August 1963||1 July 1963|
|Mahé||16 June 1954||1 November 1954||28 May 1956||16 August 1963||1 July 1963|
|Yanaon||13 June 1954||1 November 1954||28 May 1956||16 August 1963||1 July 1963|
After the liberation the French government offered citizenship to the people living in colonies of French India, i.e., Pondichéry, Mahé, Karikal and Yanaon. Actually, French law made it easy for thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and East Africa, India and Indochina to live in mainland France. Nearly 50,000 Tamil people chose French nationality.
In Yanam some 10,000 people chose French nationality. According to some estimates, nearly 120 to 150 Telugu families from former French India live in France. On the other hand, there are some French nationals living in Yanam and enjoying French pension (In Telugu, Guddi Pinchanu).
Yanam French Peoples Association was formed and its president is Penupothu Suryanarayan. As of the 2000s, around 80 French nationals live in Yanam.
Court House (Palais de justice)
The Court building is situated in a very ancient white monument building of French architect It is called as Palais de justice (Court House) and located at Thiagaraja Street, Yanam to the next of Municipality building. The building consists of two floors. The ground floor is the court and the first floor is the residential quarters of the Judge. The building was renovated in the year of 1967 and inaugurated by Thiru S.L. Silam, the then Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry.
Yanam Judicial Magistrate Court is a very ancient court formed prior to the French domain i.e. before 1725 while Yanam was as a Dutch colony. The Judicial Magistrate Court was existing then.
Subsequently while this area came under the French on the reorganisation of French domain in 1725 the same court has been converted as French Court under French Law as a Judicial Court. Both civil and criminal cases tried here.
After Independence, this court was converted as an Indian Court as a Judicial Magistrate Court, Yanam in 1956, whereas, the Regional Administrative Officer of Yanam was the Judge of the court having both executive and judicial powers on civil and criminal cases.
After bifurcation of the judiciary, this court came under a separate Judicial Department of Government of Puducherry and under the administration of the High Court, Madras and it was termed as Judicial First Class Magistrate Court cum District Munsif Court. Subsequently under the reform by the Hon'ble High Court, Madras, the Yanam was upgraded to that of Subordinate Judge (Civil Judge-Senior Division)/Assistant Sessions Judge cum Judicial Magistrate of I Class in the year 2000. Now because of this upgradation, all the civil cases up to the pecuniary jurisdiction of Rs. 500,000s are triable by this court, in criminal side, this court has got jurisdiction to try all cases up to 307 IPC except cases having death sentence. Further this court is empowered to deal with the motor accident claims, family cases, LAOPs (Land Acquisition of Puducherry), etc.
Famous people in the colonial Yanam
First Laurel Poet of Andhra, Chellapilla Venkata Kavi (1870–1950), One of the duo of the famous Tirupati Venkata Kavulu lived here. Many poets such as the late Villa Reddi Naidu, V.Venkataswami Naidu. Some important politicians include Kanakala Tatayya Naidou and Md. Abdul Razzaq.
Samatam Krouschnaya (Samatam Krishnayya) lived here in Yanam and wrote many books in Telugu. Monsieur Samatam was a pro-French activist. He was Acting Mayor of Yanaon during merger struggle and he was a person of great and unique qualities. He was killed at the age of 78 by Indian military while Yanam being seized during Coup d'État de Yanaon.
A prominent leader who was instrumental in the merger of Yanam into the Indian Union was Dadala Rafael Ramanayya. He was born in Farampeta and grew up from humble origins to become a key leader of the liberation of Yanam and the other French settlements. He was at the forefront of the strugge to liberate Yanam and facilitate its merger into the Indian union. He was leader who led Coup d'État de Yanaon on 13 June 1954 and subsequently functioned as head of its provisional government for some time.
Another prominent leader who was also key player in the merger of Yanam into the Indian Union was Monsieur Mayor Madimchetty Satianandam. He became prominent in Yanam politics during the 1940s and after the election of 1948, he was elected as mayor of Yanam. Unfortunately, when he switched to pro-merger camp headed by Monsieur Dadala, his home got pillaged by people. Aftermath liberation, his involvement in Yanam politics reduced gradually.
In early 20th century, Bezawada Bapa Naidou was Mayor of Yanam. He was a humble and powerful politician in his times. He was murdered in Pondicherry. After his death his faction became weak and even his siblings were also not able to continue in Yanam politics as he did.
One of Bapa Naidou's councillors in the "Conseil Local de Yanaon" was Monsieur Diwan Bouloussou Soubramaniam Sastroulou (Former Conseiller local de Yanaon). He was very prominent personality and loyal follower of Bapa Naidou. Monsieur Bouloussou had been one of "Les jurys de Yanaon" and even he worked as Diwan for "Manyam Zamindar" before being elected as Councilor. He was one of the very rare genuine and humble politicians of his time.
Bezawada charan Naidou's bitter opponent The Grand Old Man of Yanam, Kamichetty Venougopala Rao Naidou was also a famous leader and had been active in politics in French Yanaon. After death of Bapa Naidou, he became Mayor of Yanam (Maire de Yanaon) and even his family became very dominant in Yanam politics for at least 50 years thence.
Venugopala Rao Naidou's son, Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu (former MLA and Speaker, Puducherry) dominated Yanam politics after its independence for almost four decades. He was elected as MLA more than five times and even had been speaker for Puducherry. He was a very influential figure in Yanam politics until his death.
Shri .Malladi Krishna Rao, the most Famous & Current Politician of 20th century and Honorable Minister for Revenue(includes Mines), Excise, Tourism, Civil Aviation, Sports & Fisheries. He was continuously won twice as an Independent candidate and once as an Indian National Congress candidate in MLA elections and got the highest majority in Yanam for the first time. He is the first Yanam citizen to become the minister for Puducherry in 2007 and awarded as the Best MLA Award twice from the governor of Puducherry. In his term in politics from 1996 there has been a huge development took place and Yanam stood the best constituency in Puducherry as compared to the development growth-rate. He is famously known, as Malladi in Puducherry and Malladi is one of the key members to command the Puducherry politics as well as some of the districts of Andhra Pradesh. He has been awarded as "The Father for the Development of Yanam" from the MP of Puducherry Thiru Ramadas.
Present situation of administration
Following the introduction of the Pondicherry Municipalities Act, 1973, four municipalities came into existence in Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanam towns. The entities of Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam communes formed the municipalities of Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. Under the new law, all functions excluding those assigned to the Chairman (i.e., those hitherto exercised by the Mayor) appointed under the municipal decree came to be exercised by the Commissioner. The Mayors were also relieved of their day-to-day administrative responsibilities enabling them to be in greater contact with the public. Commissioners were appointed as the Chief Executive Heads of the Municipalities, in different ranks according to the grade of the municipalities.
At present Yanam Municipality is composed of 10 municipal wards,
- Ambedkar Nagar
As the people aspired for a popular government, the Indian Parliament enacted the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963 that came into force on 1 July 1963, and the pattern of Government prevailing in the rest of the country was introduced in this territory also, but subject to certain limitations. Under Article 239 of the Indian Constitution, the President of India appoints an Administrator with such designation as he may specify to head the administration of the territory.
Yanam was allocated with one seat in the Puducherry Legislative Assembly. From 1964 to 1989, Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu held this constituency as his pocket borough until his death without facing any challenge in winning the seat consecutively in 1964 (INC), 1969 (IND), 1974 (IND), 1977 (JP), 1980 (IND) and in 1985 (INC).
Yanam has a mixed culture of French and Telugu. The people of Yanam are very generous, well cultured, polite and respectable. One can easily distinguish the Yanam Telugu people from the other kinds of Telugu immigrants because of their historical presence of double cultural influence. Even as one enters Yanam, we see Soyez le bien venue displayed (by Govt of Puducherry) and when leaving Merci Bien.
Official languages of Yanam are Telugu and French.
- Telugu: It is also an official language of Puducherry but used only when communicating within the Telugu region (Yanam). So, more correctly it is considered as regional official language of Puducherry while being official language of Yanam region.
- French: It is also an official language of Puducherry Union territory. Though it was official language of French India (1673–1954), its official language status was preserved by Traité de Cession (Treaty of Cession) signed by India and France on 28 May 1956. It remained as de jure official language of Puducherry U.T by the Article XXVIII of Traité de Cession, which states that,
- Le français restera la langue officielle des Établissements aussi longtemps que les répresentants élus de la population n'auront pas pris une décision différente (Version française)
- The French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise (English version)
Yanam has very beautiful views. It is covered with coconut trees. One can enjoy fresh iodinised air since it is located over the banks of the Gauthami Godavari River. Humidity is high in this region. The river Gauthami Godavari is one of the main branches of the river Godavari. It enters the Bay of Bengal after flowing about 12 km through Yanam.
Yanam Ferry Road was inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Puducherry, Shri R.V.Janaki Raman on 11 January 2000. Now, there is a proposal for making the Ferry Road very beautiful by erecting important personalities statues on the footpath of this road.
- Regency Ceramics Limited is a major industry, manufacturing Ceramic Floor tiles in Yanam. Having set up the plant in 1984, Dr.G.N.Naidu, the Chairman & Managing Director, has expanded the unit by adding subsidiary plants to provide the necessary inputs to the main plant thus making it an integrated Tiles manufacturing Industry. Directly & indirectly, Regency Group of Companies are providing employment and livelihood for more than 2000 families in Yanam. The company has even established School, Junior College, Degree College and Engineering College in Yanam. For the Regency employees children, education is free in Regency School. Regma Packaging is a unit which provide the Packing Material for the Main Plant wherein the workers are all women only which is a unique feature.
The Company has declared lock out of its factory (situated at Yanam in the UT of Puducherry) from 1 February 2012, as a result of labor unrest at the factory turned violent on 27 January 2012, leading to police firing and imposition of Section 144 in the town, causing extensive damage to the plant and machinery and the death of K C Chandrasekhar, president (operations)
- sri srinivasa paper mills is a paper manufacturing industry in yanam.The plant was set up in 2001 under the name of Sri godavari kraft papers,later it was taken over by srinivasa papers in 2010.Mr.korlapati seshagiri rao,the chairman & managing director of sri srinivasa paper mills.This unit supplies paper for various industries all over AP&TN.
Important temples nearer to Yanam
Lord Satyanarayana Swamy's Temple is located in Annavaram. It is around 80 km from Yanam towards the east. It is very famous for performing Vrathams especially for newly married couples for getting blessings from Lord Satyanarayana Swamy. It is the second important Temple in Andhra Pradesh after Tirupati Lord Venkateshwara Temple.
'Lord Shiva' here goes by the name of 'Bheemeswara Swamy'. The height of the Lingam is around 14 ft (4 m) and it is one of the oldest temples in India. People say that it was constructed by the Devathas. There is one more temple called Manikyamabika Devi Temple in the campus of this Temple. It is one of the Ashtadasa Pithas in India. It is very famous as it has the Sakthi Chakra and Goddess Parvathi is sitting on this Chakra. It is around 16 km from Yanam. There are frequent buses from Yanam to Draksharamam.
Padagaya Temple is one of the oldest temples in India. It is also called Dakshina Kasi. Here, Lord Shiva is in the form of a rooster. We can see the footprints (padas) of the Gaya Rakshas here. It is a very famous temple. The Shiva manifestation is called "Kukkuteswara Swamy" and the Parvathi manifestation is called "Raja Rajeswari". The Nandi (Shiva's Bull) in front of the Shiva Lingam is very famous and looks as if it is alive. There is a Durga Temple in the temple complex, which is also one of the AshtaDasa Pithas of Goddess Durga . The Pitham of the Goddess gave rise to the name "Puruhuthika Devi" and the town is called as "Pithapuram". There is also one more temple of Shri Dattatreya Swamy in this Temple Complex. It is very famous as Dattatreya's next incarnation is Sripada Vallabha Swamy who was born in Pithapuram. People from all over India, especially from the West and North of India come to Pithapuram to have the Darshan of these Lords. It is around 50 km from Yanam.
Śrī Rājarājeśwara Kalyāṇōtsavālu
Śrī Rājarājeśwara Kalyāṇōtsavām at Yanam is an annual festival at Sivalayam celebrated for twenty days in the month of Māgha (January/February). Kalyāṇam will be performed on Māgha Śuddha Dvādaśi i.e., on the twelfth day of the festival. Lord's holy consort is Goddess Śrī Rājarājeśwari Ammavāru
Venkanna Babu Kalyāṇōtsavālu
The Kalyāṇōtsavam Festival is celebrated in the month of Phālguṇa (February/March) every year by the people of Yanam in a very grand manner. The festival commences on Phālguṇa Śuddha Pāḍyami with Lord Venkanna Babu's Kalyāṇam. On that day he will be made bridegroom and then a procession on streets with different chariots each day occurs and Ponnavōhanam, Ratha Yātra (Rathōtsavam) and Chakratīrtham are the important events of the festival. Vāhana Samprōkshaṇa (ritual cleansing of the chariot) will be done by priests everyday for each Vāhanam used for procession. During the festival days, nearly 150,000 devotees come to Yanam to receive the blessings of Lord Venkanna Babu.
The Ratham was built in 1950 by the then Committee under then Assemblée Répresentative, Kanakala Tatayya Naidou. The Ratham's weight is around 15 tonnes. It was partially damaged to the heavy cyclonic storm in November 1996 but was renovated in 1998. This Ratham was carried throughout the entire Yanam Town in the early days. After the electrification work, the Ratham's route has been limited from Chinna Center to the Kotha Bus Stand. It is carried by devotees singing slogans and bhajans. The Government of Puducherry has declared a holiday for Yanam on this special event.
Every year in March, a major Catholic Festival is celebrated. Devotees from various neighbouring places come here and worship Mother Mary. The very remarkable thing is that the devotees are not only Christians but also Muslims, Hindus and also from other religions.
Fête de Pondichéry
Fête de Pondichéry is a three-day annual cultural festival conducted by the Department of Art and Culture of the Government of Puducherry. It is celebrated by people from all walks of life.
It is conducted for Lord Venkanna Babu in Yanam during the months of September/October and resembles the Tirupati Brahmotsavam. It is a 10-day festival that attracts millions of people from the surrounding villages of Yanam.
Places of worship
Lord Śrī Rājarājeśwara Temple is at Yanam on the bank of Atreya Godavari (also known as Corangi river). This temple was built by the Chalukya kings of Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry) in the 15th century. The sculptures of those period are present in this temple. Though Kalyāṇōtsavām and Rathōstavam has been performed since old days. It is carried by devotees singing slogans and bhajans.
The Kalyāṇōtsavam Festival is celebrated in the month of Māgha (January/February) every year by the people of Yanam. The festival commences on Māgha Śuddha Pāḍyami, Lord Śrī Rājarājeśwara will be made bridegroom and then a procession on streets with different chariots each day occurs and Kalyāṇam, Rathōtsavam and Triśūlatīrtham are the important events of the festival. Vāhana Samprōkshaṇa (ritual cleansing of the chariot) will be done by priests everyday for each Vāhanam used for procession.During the festival days, devotees come to Yanam to receive the blessings of Lord Śrī Rājarājeśwara.
Venkanna Babu Temple
A famous Vishnu Temple is present in Vishnalayam street (Rue Vichenou) of Yanam named Alivelu Manga Sametha Shri Venkateswara Alayam. The God is well known as "Venkanna Babu", "Chaldikudu Venkanna" and "Meesala Venkanna". The speciality of the Temple is that the Swamy Idol has big moustaches like Lord Sathyanarayana Swamy of Annavaram. This temple was built by the Chalukya kings of Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry) in the 15th century. The sculptures of those period are present in this temple.
The Venkanna Babu Temple had been very famous for performing Child Marriages during the pre-independence days. Due to the dedicated efforts of the Social Reformer, Shri Raja Ram Mohun Roy, the Sarada Act (prevention of Child Marriages) was implemented by the then British Government in India.
As the Yanam Region was under French rule, the people from the nearby State, used to come to this Temple for performing child marriages. Even people from MadrasChennai, Hyderabad and other long distant places used to come to Yanam for conducting child marriages. In the past, daily some hundreds of marriages were performed in this temple. Hence, Yanam was also called "KALYANA PURAM".
The site for the mosque was donated by the French Government in 1848. At that time a small mosque was constructed. Then in 1956, the same was remodelled. It was demolished in 1978 and a new mosque was constructed. In 1999–2000, the mosque was expanded to become the Grand Mosque. At present, around 200 persons can pray in this mosque at a time. Every year, Ramzan, Bakrid and Milad un Nabi functions are celebrated grandly. The mosque caters to the people of nearby villages like Thallarevu, Kolanka, Sunkarapalem. which are in the adjacent state of Andhra Pradesh.
The monument in remembrance of the Catholic French rulers is linked with this church. This church is named St.Ann's Catholic Church. This church was built in the European style. The furniture, decoration articles were all imported from France. This church was built in 1846 by the French missionaries. The foundation stone was laid down by Father Michel Lecnam and he died on 30 April 1836 before completion of the church work. In his remembrance, a culvert was fixed in this church. The church work was completed in the year 1846. The other special attraction in this church is that a hill temple was built on the premises of the church by the French rulers, and there is another hill temple behind a church built by the English engineers.
The history behind this hill is that in 1943 a ship named Villiam B. Augustus, ran aground on a sandy island due to a cyclonic storm. Though the ship's crew tried hard to rescue the ship weighing 1000 tonnes using all the manpower, it was in vain. The ship stayed stuck for one year in the same place. At that time, an engineer named E. H. Swini was deputed from America for this purpose. He also tried and came to a conclusion that this task would not be possible with manpower alone. He worshipped Mother Mary (Mariayamma in Telugu) and all of sudden the ship moved from the sandy island. In tribute of the Mother Mary, the engineer and his wife constructed this church in Yanam. This history is mentioned in the hill temple behind this church.
- Causes for Liberation of French colonies in India
- Municipal Administration in French India
- Yanam Venkanna Babu Kalyāṇōtsavām
- Pondicherry (Lok Sabha constituency)
- Puducherry Legislative Assembly
- Pondicherry Municipality
- Yanam Municipality
- French East India Company
- Dadala Raphael Ramanayya
- Coup d'État de Yanaon
- French colonial empire
- French India
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- La Gazette de l'Etat de Pondichéry (Gazette of Puducherry)
- La Gazette de l'Etat de Pondichéry
- La Gazette de I'Etat de Pondichéry
- Future of French India, by Russel H. Fifield
- "My Struggle for freedom of French Provinces in India" autobiography written by Sri Dadala Raphael Ramanayya
- Traité de Cession, 1956
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yanam.|
- Official regional website of Yanam
- Future of French India, by Russel H. Fifield (Associate Professor of Political Science at University of Michigan
- Pravasandhrulu in France: identity and integration by Jonnalagadda Anuradha, France
- Official website of the Government of the Union Territory of Puducherry
- Indian Ministry for External Affairs – 1956 Treaty of Cession
- THE FRENCH AND PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA
- Tourism in Yanam