Yucatán

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Yucatán
State
Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán
Flag of Yucatán
Flag
Official seal of Yucatán
Seal
Nickname(s):
La Hermana República de Yucatán
(The sister republic of Yucatán)[1][2]
State of Yucatán within Mexico
State of Yucatán within Mexico
Coordinates: 20°50′N 89°0′W / 20.833°N 89.000°W / 20.833; -89.000Coordinates: 20°50′N 89°0′W / 20.833°N 89.000°W / 20.833; -89.000
Country Mexico
Capital Mérida
Municipalities 106
Admission December 23, 1823[3][4]
Order 8th[a]
Government
 • Governor Rolando Zapata PRI
 • Senators[5] Daniel Avila Ruiz PAN
Adriana Diaz PAN
Angelica Araujo PRI
 • Deputies[6]
Area[7]
 • Total 39,524 km2 (15,260 sq mi)
  Ranked 20th
Highest elevation[8] 210 m (690 ft)
Population (2012)[9]
 • Total 2,015,977
 • Rank 21st
 • Density 51/km2 (130/sq mi)
 • Density rank 17th
Demonym Yucateco (a)
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Postal code 97
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-YUC
HDI Increase 0.734 high Ranked 20th
GDP US$ 9,191,180.625 th[b]
Website Official Web Site

^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Federated Republic of Yucatán, included the modern states of Yucatán, Campeche and Quintana Roo.

^ b. The state's GDP was 117,647,112 thousand of pesos in 2008,[10] amount corresponding to 9,191,180.625 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[11]

Yucatán (About this sound ʝukaˈtan ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities, and its capital city is Mérida.

It is located in Southeastern Mexico, on the north part of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is bordered by the states of Campeche to the southwest, Quintana Roo to the southeast and the Gulf of Mexico lies off its north coast.

Before the arrival of Spaniards to the Yucatán Peninsula, the name of this region was el Mayab.[12] In Mayan language, "ma' ya'ab" is translated as "a few". It was a very important region for the Mayan civilization, which reached the peak of its development on this place, where they founded the cities of Chichen Itza, Izamal, Motul, Mayapan, Ek' Balam and Ichcaanzihóo (also called T'ho), now Mérida.[13]

After the Spanish conquest, Yucatán Peninsula was a single administrative and political entity, the Captaincy General of Yucatán. Following independence and the breakup of the Mexican Empire in 1823, the first Republic of Yucatán was proclaimed which then was voluntarily annexed to the Federal Republic of United Mexican States on December 21, 1823.[3] Later on March 16, 1841, as result of cultural and political conflicts around the federal pact, Yucatán declared independence from Mexico to form a second Republic of Yucatán, but eventually on July 14, 1848, Yucatán was definitely rejoined to Mexico. In 1858, in the middle of the caste war, the state of Yucatan was divided for the first time, establishing Campeche as separate state (officially in 1863). During the Porfiriato, in 1902, the state of Yucatan was divided again to form the Federal territory that later became the present state of Quintana Roo.[14]

Today, Yucatán is the safest state in Mexico[15][16] and Mérida was awarded City of Peace in 2011.[17][18]

Toponymy[edit]

The name Yucatán, also assigned to the peninsula, came from early explorations of the Conquistadors from Europe. There are reliable versions that the name was result from confusion between the Mayan inhabitants and the first Spanish explorers around 1517:

  • According to one of them, was the answer of a Mayan indigenous to the question of a Spanish explorer, since he wanted to know the name of the region. The Mayan probably replied Ma'anaatik ka t'ann which means in the Maya language I do not understand your speech or I do not understand you.
  • It is also said that the Spaniards gave the name of Yucatán to the region, because the Mayan answered their questions with the phrase uh yu ka t'ann, which in the Maya language means hear how they talk.

Probably the first narrator's of "I do not understand" version was the friar Toribio de Benavente, in his book Historia de los indios de la Nueva España (History of the Indians of New Spain) says:

Another version is from Bernal Díaz del Castillo. In his book Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España (True History of the Conquest of New Spain), he says Yucatá means "land of yucas",[20] a plant that was cultivated by the Maya and was an important food source for them.[21]

History[edit]

The written history of Yucatán begins after the Spanish conquest.

Prehispanic era[edit]

Temple of Kukulcan in Chichén Itzá, locally called "El Castillo".
Main article: Maya civilization
See also: Itzamna and Chichen Itza

The origin of the first settlements has not been scientifically confirmed, although the presence of first humans in the area dates from the late Pleistocene or ice age (about 10,000 – 12,000 years), according to the findings in the Loltún caves and caverns of Tulum (Women of the Palms).[22]

The first Maya moved to the Peninsula circa 250 CE, from the Petén (today northern Guatemala), to settle the southeastern peninsula in the modern Bacalar, Quintana Roo.[23][24] In 525, the Chanés (Mayan tribe that preceded the Itza), moved to the east of the peninsula, founding Chichén Itzá, Izamal, Motul, Ek' Balam, Ichcaanzihó (modern Mérida) and Champotón. Later, Tutul xiúes, Toltec descent, who came from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, settled in the region causing displacement of the Itza and Cocomes —a diversified branch of Itzá—, and finally, after years and many battles, was formed Mayapán League (composed of the Itza, the Xiús and Cocomes), that eventually disintegrated circa 1194,[25] giving way to a period of anarchy and fragmentation into small domains which the Spanish conquistadors found in the 16th century.[26]

Exploration by Conquistadors[edit]

In 1513, Juan Ponce de León had already conquered the island of Borinquén (now Puerto Rico) and had discovered Florida.[27] Antón de Alaminos, who was with Ponce de León on this latest discovery, suspected that in west of Cuba they could find new land. Under their influence, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, supported by the governor of Cuba, organized an expedition commanded by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba to explore the west seas of the island.[28]

This expedition sailed from port of Ajaruco on February 8, 1517, to La Habana and after circling the island and sailing south west by what is now known as the Yucatán Channel, the expedition made landfall at the Yucatán Peninsula on March 1. There are discrepancies about where the first explorers arrived. Some say it was in Isla Mujeres. Bernal Díaz del Castillo places it at Cabo Catoche where they saw a great city which they named the «Gran Cairo».[29]

Spanish Conquest[edit]

The conquest of Yucatan was completed two decades after the conquest of Mexico; by Francisco de Montejo "el Adelantado", his son Francisco de Montejo y León "el Mozo" and his nephew, Francisco de Montejo "el Sobrino". El Adelantado was in the expedition of Juan de Grijalva and was with Hernán Cortés in the third expedition that eventually became the Conquest of Mexico.[30] He was subsequently appointed for the conquest of the Maya of Yucatán, but failed in his first attempt in 1527–28. In 1529 he was appointed Governor of Tabasco, with the order to pacify Tabasco and conquer Yucatán and Cozumel.

From Tabasco, Montejo led a new campaign to Yucatán by western (1531–35) and failed again in his attempt. Circa 1535, after many bloody battles with the natives, he reached the complete pacification of the Province of Tabasco and began planning his new foray to Yucatán.

El Adelantado was appointed governor of Honduras and then of Chiapas. Therefore, he gave his son "El Mozo", the mission to consummate the conquest of Yucatán. Francisco de Montejo y León "el Mozo" founded the cities of San Francisco de Campeche on October 4, 1540, and Mérida on January 6, 1542 (in honor of Mérida, Extremadura). The city of Mérida was founded over the ruins of the Mayan city of Ichkanzihóo (T'ho) and were used for the new buildings, the stones of old Mayan pyramids. Later, government powers were changed from Santa María de la Victoria, Tabasco, to Mérida on June 11, 1542.[31] The newly founded Mérida was besieged by the Mayan troops of Nachi Cocom (overlord or 'Halach uinik' in Mayan language). It was a definitive battle for the Conquest of Yucatán. With that victory, the Spaniards consolidated their domain on the west of the peninsula.

Francisco de Montejo "El Adelantado" appointed his nephew, Francisco de Montejo "el Sobrino", the conquest of the eastern Yucatán, which was achieved after many bloody battles, ending with the foundation of the city of Valladolid on May 28, 1543.

Canek rebellion, during the colonial Yucatán[edit]

Main article: Jacinto Canek

Oppressive policies of inequality and prejudice were imposed on the native Mayans by the Spanish colonial government. In November 1761, Jacinto Canek, a Mayan from the town of Cisteil (now located in Yaxcabá Municipality), led an armed uprising against the government, which was quickly put down. Captured insurgents were taken to Mérida, where they were tried and tortured. As a warning to the population against rebellion, Cisteil was burned and covered with salt.

This abortive rebellion was not of great consequence to the colonial regime, but it marked the history of the peninsula and clearly delineated anti-colonial tensions in the region. The uprising was a precursor to the social upheaval that would explode less than a century later, as the Caste War. The Canek rebellion is remembered today as a symbol of the racial and social conflict that predominated for centuries in the Spanish colonies.

Yucatán in independent Mexico[edit]

Yucatán in Mexico, 1824.

Because of its geographical remoteness from the center of New Spain, especially from Mexico City, Yucatán was not militarily affected by the Mexican War of Independence, but the war influenced the enlightened people of Yucatán. In 1820 Lorenzo de Zavala, member of Sanjuanistas (a group of creoles who met at the church of San Juan in downtown Mérida), created the Patriotic Confederation, which eventually divided into two groups: the supporters of the Spanish government under the Cádiz Constitution and another led by Zavala, which sought outright independence from Spain. Mariano Carrillo Albornoz then Governor of Yucatán, sent Zavala and Manuel García Sosa as deputies of the Cádiz Cortes to Madrid, while the other liberals were imprisoned. While this was happening in Yucatán, the Plan of Iguala was proclaimed in the current state of Guerrero (at that time part of the Intendency of Mexico).

On September 15, 1821, in the Hall of Councils of the City of Mérida, Yucatán declares its independence from Spain,[32] almost immediately, Governor Juan María Echeverri sent two representatives to negotiate the incorporation of Yucatán to the Mexican Empire. The incorporation to the Mexican Empire was on November 2, 1821.[33]

Republic of Yucatán[edit]

Main article: Republic of Yucatán

The Mexican Empire was quickly overthrown under the Plan of Casa Mata, the provinces of the empire became independent states. The first Republic of Yucatán, declared on May 29, 1823, joined the Federal Republic of the United Mexican States as the Federated Republic of Yucatán on December 23, 1823.[34][35]

The second Republic of Yucatán[a] emerged when the federal pact signed by Yucatán and endorsed in the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825 was broken by the centralist government of Mexico since 1835. In 1841 the state of Tabasco decreed its separation from Mexico and Miguel Barbachano, then governor of Yucatán, sent a commission headed by Justo Sierra O'Reilly to meet with Tabasco authorities to propose the creation of an independent federal republic from Mexico formed by the two states. The idea failed when Tabasco rejoined Mexico in 1842.

On August 22, 1846, Mexican interim president José Mariano Salas restored the 1824 constitution and the federalism. Two years later, during the government of president José Joaquín de Herrera, Miguel Barbachano ordered the reinstatement of Yucatán to Mexico under the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825. A decisive factor for the reinstatement was the Caste War, which forced Yucatán to seek outside help. In 1852 due to internal struggles between opposing political factions, was created the Territory of Campeche. On April 29, 1863, during the government of Benito Juárez, Campeche gained its current status as an independent state.[36]

Flag of Yucatán[edit]

Flag of the Republic of Yucatán, civil insignia of the Yucatecan without legal recognition.
Main article: Flag of Yucatán

The flag of Yucatán was raised on March 16, 1841. The period of the Republic of Yucatán was the only one in which the banner was officially used by the authorities of Yucatán.

Rodolfo Menéndez de la Peña, historian, describes the flag of Yucatán:

The flag doesn't have official recognition in the state, however, it has a strong recognition among the people of the state.[37][38] De facto state flag, in any case, according to a convention led by former president Ernesto Zedillo, is a white flag with the shield of the state in the middle.

Caste War[edit]

Main article: Caste War of Yucatán

The Caste War of Yucatán was a conflict that lasted from 1847 to 1901. It began with the revolt of native Maya people led by Maya chiefs Jacinto Pat and Cecilio Chi, against the population of European descent called "Yucatecos", who had political and economic control. A lengthy war ensued between the Yucateco forces in the north-west of the Yucatán and the independent Maya in the south-east. It officially ended with the occupation of the Maya capital of Chan Santa Cruz by the Mexican army in 1901, although skirmishes with villages and small settlements that refused to acknowledge Mexican control continued for over another decade.

Adam Jones wrote: "This ferocious race war featured genocidal atrocities on both sides, with up to 200,000 killed."[39]

Because of the conflict, on November 24, 1902, Yucatán had a second territorial division when Porfirio Díaz decreed the creation of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo,[40] with capital in the port of Payo Obispo (today Chetumal). In little more than half a century, Yucatán lost more than two thirds of its original territory.

The henequen industry[edit]

Agave fourcroydes, commonly known as henequén in Yucatán, sisal elsewhere and ki in Maya language.

In the late 19th century, the henequen industry grew to unprecedented power in the Yucatan. The henequen grown in the Yucatan was used around the world for rope and twine, and became known as sisal rope, named after the seaside town of Sisal, from where the rope was shipped. Today Sisal is a sleepy fishing village, being rediscovered by locals and visitors as a beach location for vacation homes. The henequen industry provided financial autonomy to the isolated Yucatán. The fiber of Henequén plant (known as sosquil (maya: sos kí)) was manufactured into twine and rope, used in riggings, string, sacks, rugs, and many other items. It became the chief export item of the Yucatán, making many local families very wealthy. That wealth is today evident in the architecture of the colonial city of Mérida, as well as in the more than 150 haciendas that are spread throughout the Yucatán Peninsula.

Hundreds of prosperous haciendas abounded in the state until the advent of synthetic products after World War II, the cultivation of Henequén in other parts of the world and the self-serving actions of some of the leading henequen-growing families led to the gradual decline of the Yucatan's monopoly on the industry.

The incredible influx of wealth during that period from the henequn industry focused mainly on Mérida, the capital of Yucatan State. It allowed the city of Mérida to install street lights and a tram system even before Mexico City. It is said that in the early 20th century, the city had the largest number of millionaires per capita in the world. Today, Paseo de Montejo (inspired by the Parisian avenue Champs-Élysées), is lined with the elegant houses built during that time. These houses are mostly now renovated and serve as everything from private homes to banks, hotels and restaurants. Many of the haciendas today[41] have also been renovated and now serve as private homes, event venues and upscale luxury hotels.

Late 20th century[edit]

Until the mid-20th century most of Yucatán's contact with the outside world was by sea; trade with the USA and Cuba, as well as Europe and other Caribbean islands, was more significant than that with the rest of Mexico. In the 1950s Yucatán was linked to the rest of Mexico by railway, followed by highway in the 1960s, ending the region's comparative isolation. Today Yucatán still demonstrates a unique culture from the rest of Mexico, including its own style of food.

Commercial jet airplanes began arriving in Mérida in the 1960s, and additional international airports were built first in Cozumel and then in the new planned resort community of Cancún in the 1980s, making tourism a major force in the economy of the Yucatán Peninsula.

The first Maya governor of Yucatán, Francisco Luna Kan, was elected in 1976.

Today, the Yucatán Peninsula is a major tourism destination, as well as home to one of the largest indigenous populations in Mexico, the Maya people.

Geography[edit]

The State of Yucatán is located on the Yucatán Peninsula. It borders the states of Campeche to the southwest, Quintana Roo to the east and southeast, and the Gulf of Mexico to the north and west. As a whole, the state is extremely flat with little or no topographic variation, with the exception of the Puuc hills, located in the southern portion of the state.

Flora and fauna of Yucatán
Cactus wren in Joshua Tree NP.jpg White-tailed deer at Marymoor Park.jpg Hawksbill Turtle.jpg Lightmatter flamingo2.jpg Cairina moschata.jpg
Campylorhynchus yucatanicus Odocoileus virginianus Eretmochelys imbricata Phoenicopterus ruber Cairina moschata
Standing jaguar.jpg Meleagris ocellata1.jpg Tayassu pecari -Brazil-8.jpg Ocelot.jpg Boa constrictor (2).jpg
Panthera onca Meleagris ocellata Tayassu pecari Leopardus pardalis Boa constrictor
Ceiba pentandra 0008.jpg Árbol de Guancaste.jpg Aloe Vera.jpg Cane cholla, with flower, Albuquerque.JPG Bixa orellana with fruits in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 1453.jpg
Ceiba pentandra Enterolobium cyclocarpum Aloe vera Cylindropuntia imbricata Bixa orellana
Morelet's Crocodile.jpg Howler monkey20020316 cropped.jpg YucatanNeotropicalRattlesnake CincinnatiZoo.jpg Pristis pectinata - Georgia Aquarium Jan 2006.jpg Iguana Manual Antonio.jpg
Crocodylus moreletii Alouatta pigra Crotalus simus Pristis pectinata Ctenosaura similis

Government and politics[edit]

Government[edit]

The Constitution of Yucatán provides that the government of Yucatán, like the government of every other state in Mexico, consists of three powers: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary.

Executive power rests in the governor of Yucatán, who is directly elected by the citizens, using a secret ballot, to a six-year term with no possibility of reelection. Legislative power rests in the Congress of Yucatán which is a unicameral legislature composed of 25 deputies. Judicial power is invested in the Superior Court of Justice of Yucatán.

Municipalities[edit]

The State of Yucatán is divided into 106 municipalities, each headed by a municipal president (mayor). Usually municipalities are named after the city that serves as municipal seat; e.g. the municipal seat of the Municipality of Mérida is the City of Mérida.

Politics[edit]

The most recent local election in Yucatán was held on July 2, 2012.

Tourism in Yucatán
Chichen-Itza El Castillo.jpg Uxmal01-panorama.jpg Dzibilchaltun.jpg Ek Balam1.jpg Kabah 2C2 W-Fass.jpg
Chichen Itza Uxmal Dzibilchaltun Ek' Balam Kabah
Anthropologisches Museum, Merida.JPG Church of the Three Kings.jpg Valladolid Mexico Cathedral.jpg Progreso Beach.jpg Izamal Convento.jpg
Mérida Tizimín Valladolid Progreso Izamal
Grutas de Loltun 1.JPG Cuzama.jpg 12Cenote Dzitnup.jpg Cenote-ik-kil.png Sacred Cenote Chichen Itza.JPG
Loltun, Oxkutzcab Bolón-Chohol, Cuzamá Dzitnup, Valladolid Ik Kil, Kaua Sacred Cenote, Chichen Itza

Demography[edit]

Major cities and towns[edit]


Vista de Merida.jpg
Mérida
Gfot0008.jpg
Kanasín
Num. City Municipality Pop. Num. City Municipality Pop.
Portada wiki.jpg
Motul
2002.12.30 07 Plaza ayuntamiento Ticul Yucatan Mexico.jpg
Ticul
1 Mérida Mérida Municipality 734.153 7 Umán Umán Municipality 29.135
2 Kanasín Kanasín Municipality 50.357 8 Tekax Tekax Municipality 23.524
3 Valladolid Valladolid Municipality 45.868 9 Hunucmá Hunucmá Municipality 22.800
4 Tizimín Tizimín Municipality 44.151 10 Motul Motul Municipality 21.508
5 Progreso Progreso Municipality 35.519 11 Oxkutzcab Oxkutzcab Municipality 21.341
6 Ticul Ticul Municipality 31.147 12 Peto Peto Municipality 18.177
Source: INEGI[42]
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1895[43] 298,569 —    
1900 309,652 +3.7%
1910 339,613 +9.7%
1921 358,221 +5.5%
1930 386,096 +7.8%
1940 418,210 +8.3%
1950 516,899 +23.6%
1960 614,049 +18.8%
1970 758,355 +23.5%
1980 1,063,733 +40.3%
1990 1,362,940 +28.1%
1995 1,556,622 +14.2%
2000 1,658,210 +6.5%
2005 1,818,948 +9.7%
2010[44] 1,955,577 +7.5%

Languages[edit]

The most widespread indigenous language of Yucatán is Yucatec Maya, spoken natively by approximately 800,000 people in Yucatán and adjacent Quintana Roo and Campeche, especially in rural areas. The Spanish spoken in Yucatán has lexical and some phonological borrowing from Mayan and employs many words of Mayan origin, such as purux ("fat"), tuch ("navel") and wixar ("urinate").

Food[edit]

Yucatecan food is its own unique style and is very different from what most people would consider Mexican food. It includes influences from the local Mayan culture, as well as Caribbean, European (Spanish), (North) African, and Middle Eastern cultures, as well as influence from the cuisine of other parts of Mexico.

There are many regional dishes. Some of them are:

  • Poc Chuc, a Mayan/Yucatecan version of barbecued pork.
  • Salbutes and Panuchos. Salbutes are soft, cooked tortillas with lettuce, tomato, turkey, and avocado on top. Panuchos feature fried tortillas filled with black beans and topped with turkey or chicken, lettuce, avocado and pickled onions. Habanero chiles accompany most dishes, either in solid or puréed form, along with fresh limes and corn tortillas.
  • Queso relleno is a "gourmet" dish featuring ground pork inside of a carved Edam cheese ball served with tomato sauce and gravy.
  • Pavo en Relleno Negro is turkey meat stew cooked with a black paste made from roasted chiles, a local version of the mole de guajalote found throughout Mexico. The meat soaked in the black soup is also served in tacos, sandwiches and even in panuchos or salbutes.
  • Sopa de Lima A turkey, lime, and tortilla soup.
  • Papadzules. Egg tacos covered in pumpkin seed sauce and tomatoes.
  • Cochinita Pibil is a marinated pork dish and by far the most renowned of Yucatecan food.
  • Xcatik, a type of chili.
  • Pavo en Relleno Blanco is a turkey stew almost like Pavo en Relleno Negro.
  • Xnipec, a fiery hot salsa or relish similar to pico de gallo, made with habanero chiles and Seville orange juice

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • ^a Usually when historians talk about of the Republic of Yucatán, they are talking about the second republic.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "La bandera de Yucatán". Diario de Yucatán. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  2. ^ "La historia de la República de Yucatán". Portal Electronico de Dzidzantun Yucatán. Retrieved August 30, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (in Spanish). p. 15. 
  4. ^ Nettie Lee Benson; Colegio de México. Centro de Estudios Históricos; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1994). La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano. UNAM. pp. 227–. ISBN 978-968-12-0586-7. Retrieved February 20, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Senadores por Yucatán LXII y LXII Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Yucatán". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  9. ^ "ENOE". Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano.". pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  12. ^ de San Buenaventura, Joseph (1994). Historias de la conquista del Mayab, 1511–1697. p. 183. ISBN 968-6843-59-0. 
  13. ^ (Molina Solís 1896, p. 33)
  14. ^ Casares G. Cantón, Raúl; Duch Colell, Juan; Zavala Vallado, Slvio et ál (1998). Yucatán en el tiempo. Mérida, Yucatán. ISBN 970-9071-04-1. 
  15. ^ "Yucatán, el Estado más seguro del país". Punto Medio. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Confirman a Yucatán como estado más seguro". Grupo Sipse. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Declararán a Mérida ciudad de la paz". Vanguardia. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Aprovecha Mérida nombramiento de 'Ciudad de la Paz' para atraer inversiones". Diario de Yucatán. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  19. ^ (de Motolonía 1985, p. 332)
  20. ^ (Díaz del Castillo 2005, p. 22)
  21. ^ "¿Cómo se alimentaban los mayas?". Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  22. ^ Diario de Yucatán (January 2001). "La Ruta Puuc". Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  23. ^ (Silva 2006, p. 62)
  24. ^ (de Landa 1984, p. 19)
  25. ^ (Molina Solís 1896, p. 10)
  26. ^ (Silva 2006, p. 63)
  27. ^ Peck, Douglas T. "Misconceptions and Myths Related to the Fountain of Youth and Juan Ponce de Leon's 1513 Exploration Voyage". New World Explorers, Inc. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  28. ^ (López de Cogolludo 2007, p. 21)
  29. ^ (López de Cogolludo 2007, p. 22)
  30. ^ (López de Cogolludo 2007, p. 68)
  31. ^ (Ancona 1878, p. 6)
  32. ^ "Datos de Interes" (in Spanish). 
  33. ^ Jaime Oroza Diaz (1982) Historia de Yucatán, Ed. UADY, ISBN 968-6160-00-0
  34. ^ "La Historia de la República de Yucatán" (in Spanish). 
  35. ^ "La Diputación Provincial y el Federalismo Mexicano" (in Spanish). 
  36. ^ "SEP" (in Spanish). 
  37. ^ Diario de Yucatán. "160 aniversario de la Bandera de Yucatán". Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  38. ^ Diario de Yucatán. "Buenos Aires City, anfitrión de un evento al estilo de Las Vegas". Retrieved August 26, 2010. 
  39. ^ Nicholas A. Robins, Adam Jones (2009). "Genocides by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice". Indiana University Press. p.50. ISBN 0253220777
  40. ^ Gobierno del Estado de Quintana Roo. "Historia". Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  41. ^ Fields, Ellen. "Haciendas of the Yucatan". Yucatan Living. 
  42. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2008). "Perfil sociodemográfico de Yucatán". p. 8. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  44. ^ "México en cifras". INEGI. Retrieved 2012-02-02. 

External links[edit]