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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1239 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1239
Ab urbe condita1992
Armenian calendar688
Assyrian calendar5989
Balinese saka calendar1160–1161
Bengali calendar646
Berber calendar2189
English Regnal year23 Hen. 3 – 24 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1783
Burmese calendar601
Byzantine calendar6747–6748
Chinese calendar戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
3935 or 3875
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
3936 or 3876
Coptic calendar955–956
Discordian calendar2405
Ethiopian calendar1231–1232
Hebrew calendar4999–5000
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1295–1296
 - Shaka Samvat1160–1161
 - Kali Yuga4339–4340
Holocene calendar11239
Igbo calendar239–240
Iranian calendar617–618
Islamic calendar636–637
Japanese calendarRyakunin 2 / En'ō 1
Javanese calendar1148–1149
Julian calendar1239
Korean calendar3572
Minguo calendar673 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−229
Thai solar calendar1781–1782
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
1365 or 984 or 212
    — to —
(female Earth-Pig)
1366 or 985 or 213
The Crusader States around 124041
Amaury VI de Montfort (1192–1241)

Year 1239 (MCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]




  • September 1Barons' Crusade: A Crusader force (some 1,500 knights) under King Theobald I of Navarre arrives at Acre. At a council of local barons – most prominently: Walter of Brienne, Odo of Montbéliard, Balian of Beirut, John of Arsuf, and Balian of Sidon, plans are made to prepare an expedition against the Ayyubids in Egypt. Later, Theobald is also joined by some Crusaders from Cyprus.[2]
  • November 2 – A expeditionary force (some 4,000 knights) under Theobald I sets out from Acre for the Egyptian frontier, detachments from the military orders and several local barons accompany the Crusaders. While marching to Jaffa, a Crusader column led by Peter of Brittany and his lieutenant Raoul de Soissons with two hundred knights, lays an ambush and attacks a rich Muslim caravan.[3]
  • November 12 – Sultan as-Salih Ayyub sends an Ayyubid army to Gaza to protect the Egyptian border. At nightfall, Henry of Bar, jealous of the successful ambush of Peter of Brittany, decides to march out towards Gaza with a Crusader force (some 500 knights and 1,000 soldiers). Although warned by Theobald I, Henry orders to set up camp in a flat terrain surrounded by sand dunes near Gaza.[4]
  • November 13Battle of Gaza: The Crusader army led by Henry of Bar is defeated by the Egyptians near Gaza. More than a thousand men are slaughtered, including Henry himself. Six hundred more are captured and carried off to Egypt. Among them are Amaury VI de Montfort and Philippe de Nanteuil – who, in the dungeons of Cairo, writes a Crusade song about the failure of the expedition.[5]
  • December 7 – Ayyubid forces under An-Nasir Dawud march on Jerusalem, which is largely undefended. The garrison of the city surrenders to Dawud, after accepting his offer for a safe-conduct to Acre. Dawud destroys Jerusalem's fortifications, including the Tower of David. Meanwhile, Theobald I (losing many men underway) moves with the remnants of the Crusader army northward to Acre.[6]

Mongol Empire[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts and Humanities[edit]





  1. ^ de Epalza, Miguel (1999). Negotiating cultures: bilingual surrender treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain under James the Conqueror. Brill. p. 96. ISBN 90-04-11244-8.
  2. ^ Painter, Sidney (1969). The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall, 1239–1241, p. 472. Robert Lee Wolff; Harry W. Hazard (eds.). A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311, pp. 463–86. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  3. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 179. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  4. ^ Lower, Michael (2005). The Barons' Crusade: A Call to Arms and Its Consequences, pp. 168–71. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3873-7.
  5. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 180. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  6. ^ Lower, Michael (2005). The Barons' Crusade: A Call to Arms and Its Consequences, p. 171. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3873-7.
  7. ^ Hywel Williams (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 139. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.