2.4 Metre

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2.4 Metre
2.4mR black.svg
Class symbol
Competição de Vela, barco de quilha fixa nas Paralimpíadas (29101681283).jpg
International 2.4mR +
Development
DesignDevelopment class
Boat
Crew1
Draft1 m (39 in) (Mark III)
Hull
Hull weight260 kg (570 lb)
LOA4.16 m (13 ft 8 in) (Mark III)
Beam0.805 m (2 ft 7+34 in)
Rig
Rig typeFractional Sloop[1]
Mast length4.65 m (15 ft 3 in)
Sails
Upwind sail area7.5 m2 (81 sq ft) (Mark III)
Racing
RYA PN1250[2]
Paralympics class

The International 2.4mR is a one-person keelboat. The class is a development class governed by the 2.4mR rule. The rule controlled by World Sailing (formerly known as ISAF) is one of the few classes designated as an International class. The 2.4mR class rule is closely related to the 12mR class rule that was used at the America's Cup.

While there is a small but active group of amateur or professional designers and builders around the world, around 90% of the 2.4mR boats are the commercially produced Norlin Mark III designed by Swedish yacht designer Peter Norlin. Over the years, new 2.4mR designs such as the Stradivari III, the Proton and the Super 3 have come into production.

The 2.4mR boats are primarily used for racing and the class holds highly competitive national events in many countries. World and European championships can attract as many as 100 boats each year.

The 2.4mR is ideal for adaptive sailing since the sailor barely moves in the boat, and all settings can be adjusted from a facing forward seated position. Both hand-steering and foot-steering are possible. The boat is sailed without a spinnaker, but it is equipped with a whisker-pole extending outward to hold the shape the jib when sailing downwind. The boat's capability as a truly inclusive sailing boat has been demonstrated over many years at multiple Open World Championships.

History[edit]

After the 1980 America's Cup, people in the Newport, RI area started sailing boats called Mini-12s. They were named after the 12-Metre yachts that were used at the America's Cup. As the fleet started to grow, the word spread to Sweden, home of the yacht designer Peter Norlin. Peter Norlin refined the original designs, and along with other naval architects, they collectively initiated the International 2.4mR class that we know today. Although the 2.4mR is a development class, Peter Norlin has become the dominant designer, and the class is therefore often mistaken as a one-design class.

One-design[edit]

In recent years attempts have been made to develop a one-design class based on the 2.4 Norlin Mark III. This was primarily because the competition within the Paralympics was meant to be more about the sailors' competitiveness and less about the equipment. This led to the introduction of Appendix K to the Class rules and a group of individuals started to work on a set of stand-alone one-design rules. This is still at the early stages but this effort is likely to lead to the emergence of a new one-design 2.4mR class alongside the existing development 2.4mR class.

Rating formula[edit]

As an open class rather than a one-design, all boat designs must meet the following formula.[3]

(all measurements in mm)

  • L = the "corrected" length of the hull (see rule D.6.3)
  • d = the midship girth difference (see rule D.6.4)
  • F = the average freeboard height (see rule D.6.5)
  • S = the total rated area of the mainsail and jib combined.

Events[edit]

Open World Championships[edit]

Gold Silver Bronze Ref.
1993 Kokkola  Patrik Forsgren (SWE)  Peter Norlin (SWE)  Ralf Casen (FIN) [4]
1994 Rutland Water  Bo Hedensjö (SWE)  Carl-Gustaf Fresk (SWE)  Steffan Bellander (SWE) [4]
1995 Aahus  Carl-Gustaf Fresk (SWE)  Marko Dahlberg (FIN)  Bo Hedensjö (SWE) [4]
1996 Cannes  Peter Norlin (SWE)  Bo Hedensjö (SWE)  Imma Björndahl (FIN)
1997  Marko Dahlberg (FIN)  Peter Norlin (SWE)  Patrik Forsgren (SWE) [4]
1998 Tampere  Rikard Bjurström (FIN)  Matti Rouhiainen (FIN)  Peter Norlin (SWE) [4]
1999  Tom Björndahl (FIN)  Marko Dahlberg (FIN)  Peter Norlin (SWE) [4]
2000 Melbourne  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Rikard Bjurström (FIN)  Peter Norlin (SWE) [4]
2001 Tønsberg  Heiko Kroeger (GER)  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Peter Norlin (SWE) [4]
2002 Miami  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Hans Meyers (USA)  Tom Brown (USA) [4]
2003  Marko Dahlberg (FIN)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Stellan Berlin (SWE) [4]
2004  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Ulf Arvidsson (SWE)  Lochlan Gilbert (AUS) [5]
2005  Nick Scandone (USA)  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Helena Lucas (GBR)
2006 Helsinki  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Thierry Schmitter (NED)  Harri Malm (FIN)
2007 Kolding  Lennart Heselius (SWE)  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Ulf Arvidsson (SWE) [4]
2008 Gran Canaria  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Hans Asklund (SWE)
2009 Fort Myers  John Ruf (USA)  Carl Horrocks (USA)  Paul Tingley (CAN)
2010 Hoorn  Paul Tingley (CAN)  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Hans Asklund (SWE)
2011 Ålesund  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Marko Dahlberg (FIN)  Rikard Bjurström (FIN) [6]
2012 Porto San Giorgio  Peter Andersson (SWE)  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Megan Pascoe (GBR)
2013 Poole  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Helena Lucas (GBR)  Megan Pascoe (GBR)
2014 Toronto  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Bjørnar Erikstad (NOR)  Helena Lucas (GBR) [7]
2015 Rauma  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Bjørnar Erikstad (NOR)  Heiko Kröger (GER)
2016 Hobart  Megan Pascoe (GBR)  Matt Bugg (AUS)  Paul Francis (NZL)|- [8]
2017 Sneek  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Hans Asklund (SWE) [9]
2018 Gävle  Stellan Berlin (SWE)  Megan Pascoe (GBR)  Marko Dahlberg (FIN) [10]
2019 Genoa  Megan Pascoe (GBR)  Marko Dahlberg (FIN)  Fia Fjelldahl (SWE) [11]
2020 Cancelled COVID 19
2021 Cancelled COVID 19
2022 Tampa USA  Dee Smith (USA)  Megan Pascoe (GBR)  Marko Dahlberg (FIN) [12]

Para World Sailing Championships[edit]

The 2.4 metre has been used a number of times as equipment for the One-Person Technical Disabled discipline which holds an annual World Championships.

Gold Silver Bronze Ref.
1999 Cadiz  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Jens Als Anderson (DEN)  Phillippe Balle (FRA) [13]
2000 Not Held - see Sailing at the 2000 Summer Paralympics
2001 St Petersburg, Florida  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Thomas Brown (USA)  Bjornar Erikstad (NOR) [14][15]
2002 Medemblik  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Thomas Brown (USA) [16]
2003 Athens  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Thierry Schmitter (NED) [17]
2004 Not Held - see Sailing at the 2004 Summer Paralympics
2005 Sonderborg (DEN)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Thierry Schmitter (NED) [18]
2006 Perth  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Helena Lucas (GBR)  Bjornar Erikstad (NOR) [19]
2007 Rochester  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Thierry Schmitter (NED) [20]
2008 Not Held - see Sailing at the 2008 Summer Paralympics
2009 Athens  Thierry Schmitter (NED)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Helena Lucas (GBR) [21][22]
2010 Medemblik  Thierry Schmitter (NED)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Megan Pascoe (GBR) [23]
2011 Weymouth  Thierry Schmitter (NED)  André Rademaker (NED)  Helena Lucas (GBR) [24][25]
2012 Charlotte Harbor  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Thierry Schmitter (NED)  Paul Tingley (CAN) [26]
2013 Kinsale  Guus Bijlard (NED)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Damien Seguin (FRA) [27]
2014 Nova Scotia  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Helena Lucas (GBR)  Damien Seguin (FRA) [28]
2015 Melbourne  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Matthew Bugg (AUS) [29]
2016 Medemblik  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Matthew Bugg (AUS) [30]
2017 Kiel  Heiko Kröger (GER)  Matthew Bugg (AUS)  Damien Seguin (FRA) [31]
2018 Sheboygan  Matthew Bugg (AUS)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Dee Smith (USA) [32][33]
2019  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Antonio Squizzato (ITA)  Bjørnar Erikstad (NOR) [34][35]
2021  Heiko Kroger (GER)  Antonio Squizzato (ITA)  Fia Fjelddhal (SWE) [36]

Paralympics[edit]

From 2000 to 2016, the 2.4 Metre was the official single-crew class boat for sailing at the Summer Paralympics although it was used in a more one-design form utilising the Norlin Mk3 design.

Gold Silver Bronze Ref.
2000 Sydney  Heiko Kroeger (GER)  Jens Als Andersen (DEN)  Thomas Brown (USA) details
2004 Athens  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Thomas Brown (USA)  Thierry Schmitter (NED) details
2008 Beijing
Qingdoa
 Paul Tingley (CAN)  Damien Seguin (FRA)  John Ruf (USA) details
2012 London
Weymouth
 Helena Lucas (GBR)  Heiko Kroeger  (GER)  Thierry Schmitter (NED) details
2016 Rio  Damien Seguin (FRA)  Matthew Bugg (AUS)  Helena Lucas (GBR) details

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SailboatData.com - 2.4 METER Sailboat". Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  2. ^ "Portsmouth Number List 2012". Royal Yachting Association. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  3. ^ Marie. "International 2.4 mR Class Rules (2006)" (PDF). Inter24metre.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "ICA Past Regatta Page - World Champions Medalist List". Retrieved 2021-09-07.
  5. ^ http://www.sailingsource.com/24metre/files/2004_wc.htm[dead link]
  6. ^ http://www.24worlds.org/upload_images/A58C8BB1361C4210B903BAD5E43B6A81.htm[dead link]
  7. ^ http://www.yachtscoring.com/event_results_cumulative.cfm?eid=1074[dead link]
  8. ^ "Overall Results - World Championships". sailingresults.net.
  9. ^ "Koninklijke Watersportvereniging Sneek // WK 2.4 mR > Deelnemers / uitslagen". www.kws-sneek.nl.
  10. ^ "UK24mR Association - 2018 Results". www.ukassociation2-4mr.co.uk.
  11. ^ "Giraglia Rolex Cup". www.yachtclubitaliano.it.
  12. ^ https://www.yachtscoring.com/event_results_cumulative.cfm?eID=15018
  13. ^ 1999 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  14. ^ 2001 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  15. ^ http://www.spyc.org/World/Championships.htm
  16. ^ 2002 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  17. ^ 2003 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  18. ^ 2005 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  19. ^ 2006 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  20. ^ 2007 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  21. ^ 2009 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  22. ^ http://www.disabledworlds09.gr
  23. ^ 2010 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  24. ^ 2011 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  25. ^ http://www.ifdsworlds2011.com
  26. ^ 2012 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  27. ^ 2013 IFDS Disabled Sailing World Championships at World Sailing
  28. ^ 2014 IFDS Combined World Championships at World Sailing
  29. ^ 2015 Para World Sailing Championships at World Sailing
  30. ^ 2016 Para World Sailing Championships at World Sailing
  31. ^ "Kieler Woche 2017 manage2sail". manage2sail.com.
  32. ^ "2018 Para World Sailing Championship". Sailing.org. World Sailing. Archived from the original on 2021-11-30.
  33. ^ http://www.paraworldsailing2018.com/
  34. ^ "2019 Para World Sailing Championship". Sailing.org. World Sailing. Archived from the original on 2022-01-17.
  35. ^ https://www.paraworldsailing2019.com/en/
  36. ^ https://www.manage2sail.com/sv-SE/event/24mrGoldCup2021#!/results?classId=24mR

External links[edit]