Military production during World War II

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Women metalworkers during the siege of Leningrad
Russian women working in city factory at the height of the Siege of Leningrad.
Assembly line of Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6s fighters in a German aircraft factory.

Military production during World War II includes the arms, ammunitions, natural resources, personnel and financing which were mobilized for the war. Military production, in this article, means everything produced by the belligerents from the occupation of Austria in early 1938 to the surrender and occupation of Japan in late 1945.

The mobilization of funds, people, natural resources and matériel for the production and supply of military equipment and military forces during World War II was a critical component of the war effort. During the conflict, the Allies outpaced the Axis powers in most production categories. Access to the funding and industrial resources necessary to sustain the war effort was linked to their respective economic and political alliances. As formerly neutral powers (such as the United States) joined the escalating conflict, territory changed hands, combatants were defeated, the balance of power shifted in favour of the Allies (as did the means to sustain the military production required to win the war).

Historical context[edit]

German-language poster illustrating wartime production
German poster entitled "Designing and Building the East".

During the 1930s, political forces in Germany increased their financial investment in the military to develop the armed forces required to support near- and long-term political and territorial goals. Germany's economic, scientific, research and industrial capabilities were one of the most technically advanced in the world at the time and supported a rapidly growing, innovative military. However, access to (and control of) the resources and production capacity required to entertain long-term goals (such as European control, German territorial expansion and the destruction of the USSR) were limited. Political demands necessitated the expansion of Germany's control of natural and human resources, industrial capacity and farmland beyond its borders. Germany's military production was tied to resources outside its area of control, a dynamic not found amongst the Allies.

In 1938 the British Commonwealth was a global superpower, with political and economic control of a quarter of the world's population, industry and resources. From 1938 to mid-1942, the British coordinated the Allied effort in all global theatres. They fought the German, Italian, Japanese and Vichy armies, air forces and navies across Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, the Mediterranean and in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic Oceans. British forces destroyed Italian armies in North and East Africa and occupied overseas colonies of occupied European nations. Following engagements with Axis forces, British Empire troops occupied Libya, Italian Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran and Iraq. The Empire funded and delivered needed supplies by Arctic convoys to the USSR, and supported Free French forces to recapture French Equatorial Africa. Britain also established governments in exile in London to rally support in occupied Europe for the Allied effort. The British defeated, held back or slowed the Axis powers for three years while mobilizing their globally integrated economy and industrial infrastructure to build what became, by 1942, the most extensive military apparatus of the war. This allowed their later allies (such as the United States) to mobilise their economies and develop the military forces required to play a role in the war effort, and for the British to go on the offensive in its theatres of operation.

Mushroom-shaped cloud
The first atomic bomb.

The entry of the United States into the war in late 1941 injected financial, human and industrial resources into Allied operations. The US produced more than its own military forces required and armed itself and its allies for the most industrialized war in history.[1] At the beginning of the war, the British and French placed large orders for aircraft with American manufacturers and the US Congress approved plans to increase its air forces by 3,000 planes. In May 1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt called for the production of 185,000 aeroplanes, 120,000 tanks, 55,000 anti-aircraft guns and 18 million tons of merchant shipping in two years. Adolf Hitler was told by his advisors that this was American propaganda; in 1939, annual aircraft production for the US military was less than 3,000 planes. By the end of the war US factories had produced 300,000 planes,[2][3] and by 1944 had produced two-thirds of the Allied military equipment used in the war—bringing military forces into play in North and South America, the Caribbean, the Atlantic, Western Europe and the Pacific.

The U.S. produced vast quantities of military equipment into late 1945, including nuclear weapons, and became the strongest, most technologically advanced military forces in the world. In addition to out-producing the Axis, the Allies produced technological innovations; through the Tizard Mission, British contributions included radar (instrumental in winning the Battle of Britain), sonar (improving their ability to sink U-boats), and the proximity fuze; the Americans led the Manhattan Project (which eliminated the need to invade Japan). The proximity fuze, for example, was five times as effective as contact or timed fuzes and was devastating in naval use against Japanese aircraft and so effective against German ground troops that General George S. Patton said it "won the Battle of the Bulge for us."[4]

The human and social costs of the war on the population of the USSR were immense, with combat deaths alone in the millions. Recognising the importance of their population and industrial production to the war effort, the USSR evacuated the majority of its European territory—moving 2,500 factories, 17 million people and great quantities of resources to the east.[5] Out of German reach, the USSR produced equipment and forces critical to the Axis defeat in Europe. Over one million women served in the Soviet armed forces.

Overhead view of assembly lines in large airplane factory
Assembly line production of fighter aircraft near Niagara Falls, New York.

The statistics below illustrate the extent to which the Allies outproduced the Axis. Production of machine tools tripled, and thousands of ships were built in shipyards which did not exist before the war.[6] According to William S. Knudsen, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible."[7]

Access to resources and large, controlled international labour pools and the ability to build arms in relative peace were critical to the eventual victory of the Allies. Donald Douglas (founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company) declared, "Here's proof that free men can out-produce slaves."[8]

Production summaries 1939–1945[edit]

Personnel[edit]

Service Allies Axis
Combat 25 24
Auxiliary x23 x22
Merchant Marine x21 x20
Irregulars x19 x18
Total 80,000,000 30,000,000

Major weapons groups[edit]

System Allies Axis
Tanks, self-propelled artillery, vehicles 4,358,649 670,288
Artillery, mortars, guns 6,792,696 1,363,491
Aircraft 637,248 229,331
Missiles (only for test) 45,458
Ships 54,932 1,670

Economy[edit]

In thousands of international dollars, at 2014 prices.[citation needed]

Service Allies Axis
GDP 9,770,790,872.32 10,268,201,776.37
Expenditure

[9]

Vital commerce and raw materials[edit]

To move raw materials and supply distant forces, large numbers of cargo ships had to be built
Category Allies Axis
Cargo ships 47,118 x
Merchant shipping 46,817,172 5,621,967
Coal 4,581,400,000 2,629,900,000
Crude oil 1,043,000,000 66,000,000
Steel 733,006,633 x
Aluminium 5,104,697 1,199,150
Asbestos 3,934,043 x
  • Cargo and resources in metric tonnes

Production overview: service, power and type[edit]

Land forces[edit]

Power Tanks & SPGs Armoured vehicles Other vehicles Artillery Mortars Machine guns Personnel
British Empire 47,862 47,420 1,475,521 226,113 239,540 1,090,410 11,192,533
USA and territories 102,410 2,382,311 257,390 105,055 2,679,840 10,000,000
USSR 106,025 197,100 516,648 200,300 1,477,400 34,401,807
Other
Allies 256,297 47,420 4,054,932 1,000,151 544,895 5,247,650
Germany and territories 67,429 345,914 159,147 73,484 674,280 1,000,730 16,540,835
Hungary 908 447 4,583
Romania 91 251 2,800 10,000
Italian Empire 3,368 83,000 7,200 22,000
Japanese Empire 4,524 165,945 13,350 29,000 380,000
Other
Axis 76,320 346,165 408,092 97,281 725,280 1,395,313

Air forces[edit]

Power Total Fighters Attack Bombers Recon Transport Training Other Personnel
British Empire 177,025 38,786 33,811 38,158 7,014 12,585 46,256 415 1,927,395
USA and territories 324,000 99,000 97,000 23,900 57,000 2,400,000
USSR 136,223 22,301 37,549 21,116 17,332 4,061
Other
Allies 637,248 164,087 71,360 156,274 7,014 52,917 107,317 420
Germany and territories 133,387 57,653 8,991 28,577 5,025 8,396 14,311 11,361 3,402,200
Romania 1,113 513 272 128 0 200 0 0
Italian Empire 13,402 6,157 34 3,381 388 2,471 968 3
Japanese Empire 71,580 26,548 21,639 13,839 3,709 1,073 3,420 1,376
Other 9,849 881 4 395 318 1,880 5,145 57
Axis 229,338 91,752 30,936 46,320 11,002 9,176 22,944 12,794

Naval forces[edit]

Power Total large ships Carriers Battleships Cruisers Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Sloops Patrol boats Submarines De/ Mining Landing craft Personnel
British Empire 890 41(24) 6[note 1] 102 291 209 387 33 4,209 238 1,244 9,538 1,227,415
USA and territories 6,771 124(101) 8 48 349 245 35,000 x
USSR 2[note 2] 2 25 52
Other
Allies 165(125) 16 152 665 209 387 33 4,209 568 1,244 44,538
Germany & territories 1 2 17 1,152 540 1,500,000
Italian Empire 1 3 6 6 63
Japanese Empire 18 2 9 63 199
Romania 8 2 5
Other
Axis ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1,416

During the war, Romania built the minelayer Amiral Murgescu, the submarines Rechinul and Marsuinul, a class of four minesweepers, a class of two gunboats[10] and completed six British Power Boat motor torpedo boats.[11][12]

Commercial forces[edit]

British Empire USA USSR Germany Hungary Italy Japan Romania
Harbour craft 1,092
Cargo 1,361
Cargo tonnage 12,823,942 33,993,230 1,469,606 4,152,361

Resources[edit]

Country Coal Iron ore Crude oil Steel Aluminium Nickel Zinc
!a -9999 -9999 -9999
USA 2,149.7 396.9 833.2
Britain[13] 1,441.2 119.2 90.8 3.700 0.205
Australia 83.1 1.56
India[14] 196.7 6.0 1.12
Canada 101.9 3.6 8.4 16.4 3.500[15]
New Zealand[16] 18
USSR 590.8 71.3 110.6 0.263[17] 0.069[18] 0.384[18]
Total Allied 4581.4 597 1043
Germany 2,420.3 240.7 33.4[19] 1.9[20] 0.046[20] 2.1[20]
Japan 184.5 21.0 5.2
Italy 16.9 4.4
Hungary 6.6 14.1 3.1
Romania 1.6 10.8 25.0
Total Axis 2629.9 291
~z 99999999 99999999 99999999

All figures in millions of tonnes

Reference data for summary tables[edit]

The relationship in GDP between the major Allied and Axis powers 1938-1945.

GDP[edit]

GDP provides insight into the relative strength of the belligerents in the run up to, and during the conflict.

Gross domestic product[nb 1][21][22]
Country 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945
United Kingdom 284 287 316 344 353 361 346 331
Dominions 115
Colonies 285
British Empire 684 687 716 744 753 761 746 731
France 186 199 82 130 116 110 93 101
Colonies 49
French Empire 235 248 131 179 165 159 142 150
Soviet Union 359 366 417 359 274 305 362 343
Occupied
Soviet Union Total 359 366 417 359 274 305 362 343
United States 800 869 943 1094 1235 1399 1499 1474
Colonies 24
United States Total 824 893 968 1118 1259 1423 1523 1498
German Reich 351 384 387 412 417 426 437 310
Occupied 77 430 733 733 430 244
German Reich Total 351 461 817 1145 1150 856 681 310
Italy 141 151 147 144 145 137 117 92
Colonies 3
Occupied 20 20 20 20
Italian Empire 144 154 170 167 168 160 140 115
Japan 169 184 192 196 197 194 189 144
Colonies 63
Occupied
Japanese Empire 232 247 255 159 160 157 152 207
Romania 24
Hungary 24
Bulgaria 10
Albania 1

Romanian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and Albanian GDP calculated by multiplying the GDP per capita of the four countries in 1938 ($1,242 for Romania, $2,655 for Hungary, $1,595 for Bulgaria and over $900 for Albania)[23] by their estimated populations in 1938: 19,750,000 for Romania,[24] 9,082,400 for Hungary,[25] 6,380,000 for Bulgaria and[26] and 1,040,400 for Albania.[27]

  1. ^ Billions of international dollars, at 1990 prices. Adjusted annually for changing compositions within each alliance.

Table notes

  1. France to Axis: 1940:50% (light green), 1941-44:100% (brown)
  2. USSR to Allies: 1941:44% (light green), 1942-1945:100%.
  3. US direct support to the Allies begins with Lend Lease in March 1941, though the US made it possible for the Allies to purchase US-produced materiel from 1939[28]
  4. Italy to Allies and Axis: 1938:0%, 1939-1943:100% Axis (brown), 1944-1945:100% Allies
  5. Japanese to Axis begins with Tripartite Pact in 1940
  6. The Allied and Axis totals are not the immediate sum of the table values; see the distribution rules[clarification needed] used above.

Personnel - Allied - British Empire[edit]

Including all non-British subjects in British services.[29]

Army Army (female) Navy Navy (female) Marines Air Force Air Force (female) Auxiliary Merchant marine Partisans Total combat Other labour
Aden 1,200
Australia 727,703 24,026 36,976 3,000 0 124,007 27,000 4,500 942,712
Argentine volunteers 1,700 1,700 599 1 4,000
Basutoland/Bechuana/Swaziland 10,000 36,000
Free Belgian Forces 42,300 1,200 1,900 45,770 370
Britain 3,300,000 210,309 865,000 74,000 78,500 1,208,000 181,909 1,500,000 185,000 7,602,718
B. Indian Ocean 6,500 6,500
Canada 705,374 25,251 99,822 7,100 222,501 27,123 82,163 18,000 1,187,334
Caribbean / Bermuda 10,000
Ceylon 26,000
Chinese volunteers 10,000 10,000
Cyprus 30,000 30,000
Czech volunteers 4,000 2,000 6,000
East Africa 200,000 228,000
Egypt 100,000 100,000
Falklands 200
Fiji 7,000 1,071 7,000
Free French Forces 3,700 20 3,720
Free Greek 5,000 8,500 250 14,000
Gibraltar 700
Guiana, British 32 10 42 33 48 196 31
Hong Kong 2,200 2,200
India 2,500,000 11,000 45,947 30,000 50,000 2,586,957 14,000,000
Ireland 70,000 70,000
Lesoto 21,000 21,000
Free Luxembourg 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80
Malaysia 1,500 0 1,450 0 0 0 0 3,215 0 4,800 10,965
Malta 8,200
Mauritius 6,800 3,500
Nepal 250,280 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250,280
Free Dutch 4,000 1,000 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 6,000
Newfoundland 3,503 500 2,889 0 0 712 0 0 10,000 0 21,204 3,600
New Zealand 125,000 3,905 10,139 700 0 37,250 4,750 124,000 3,000 0 308,744
Free Norway 4,000 0 7,500 0 0 2,700 0 0 0 0 14,200
Palestine 25,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25,000
Free Polish 215,000 0 4,000 0 0 20,000 0 0 0 0 239,000
Seychelles 1,500
Sudan 20,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,000
South Africa 334,000 0 13,269 280 75 0 12,000 0 0 0 359,624
Southern Africa 77,767 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 77,767
St Helena 250
Tonga 2,000
USA volunteers 0 0 0 0 0 8,000 0 0 0 0 8,000
West Africa 130,000 0 0 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 0 146,000
West Indies 10,000 0 40000 0 0 5,560 80 0 0 0 55,640
British Empire 9,122,660 276,001 1,142,335 85,080 78,575 1,674,532 252,863 1,717,297 281,300 4,800 14,692,644 14,004,001

Note:

  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.

Personnel - Axis - German Reich[edit]

Including all non-German subjects in German services.

Army Army (female) Navy Navy (female) Marines Air Force Air Force (female) Auxiliary Merchant marine Partisans Total combat Other labour
Albania 9,000 9,000
Arab legion 20,000 20,000
Belgium 22,000 22,000
British Empire 3,500 3,500
Bulgaria 30,000 90,000
Croatia 55,500 500 400 32,000 88,400
Czech
Denmark 12,000 12,000
Finland vol 2,500 2,500
France & territories 8,000 4,500 5,080 17,580 348,500
Germany & territories 14,793,200 1,500,000 3,400,000 19,693,200
Greece 22,000 22,000
Hungary 40,000 40,000
Italy 18,000 18,000
Luxembourg 12,035 12,035
Netherlands 45,000 45,000
Norway 50,000 1,500 1,500 53,000
Poland 75,000 45,000 120,000
Portugal 200 200
Romania 55,000 55,000
Serbia 10,000 10,000
Slovakia
Slovenia 6,000 6,000
Spain 47,000 47,000
Sweden 300 300
Switzerland 800 800
USA 20 20
USSR 1,051,000 300 100,000 1,151,300
German Reich 16,336,755 1,506,500 3,402,200 204,080 21,449,535 348,000

Note:

  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Wehrmachtsgefolge, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.
  2. USSR includes Armenia 4k SS,14k Wehr, 7k Aux; Azerbaijan 55k SS, 70k Wehr; Belarus 12k Wehr, 20k Aux; Cossack 200k Wehr; Estonia 20k SS, 50k Wehr, 7k Aux; Georgia 10k SS; 30k Wehr; Kalmyk 5k Wehr; Latvia 55k SS; 87k Wehr, 300 Air, 23k Aux; Lithuania 50k Wehr, 10 Aux; North Caucuses 4k SS; Russia 60k SS, 26k Wehr; Turkestan 16k Wehr; Ukrainian 300k Wehr; 2k Aux; Tatar/Urals 12k Wehr

Aircraft - Allied - British Empire[edit]

Within the UK, initially aircraft production was very vulnerable to enemy bombing. To expand and diversify the production base the British setup "Shadow factories". These brought other manufacturing companies - such as vehicle manufacturers - into aircraft production, or aircraft parts production. These inexperienced companies were set up in groups under the guidance or control of the aircraft manufacturers. New factory buildings were provided with government money.[30]

Fighters Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA Total
Bristol Blenheim[note 3] 5,519 626 6,145
CAC Boomerang 250 250
Bristol Brigand 147 147
Boulton Paul Defiant[note 4] 1,065 1065
Blackburn Firebrand 230 230
Fairey Firefly 872 872
Fairey Fulmar 600 600
Gloster Gladiator[note 5] 483 483
de Havilland Hornet[note 6] 197 197
Gloster Meteor 250 250
Curtiss Mohawk IV[31] 5 5
North American Mustang 200 200
Blackburn Roc 136 136
Supermarine Seafire[note 7] 2,334 2,334
Gloster Gladiator 98 98
Supermarine Spitfire 20,351 20,351[32]
Hawker Tempest 1,702 1,702
de Havilland Vampire 244 244
Westland Welkin 77 77
Westland Whirlwind[note 8] 116 116
450 37,705 626 5 38,786
Attack Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA
Bristol Beaufighter 364 5,564 5,928
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver 1,134 1,134
Hawker Hurricane[note 9] 14,231 1,451 15,682
de Havilland Mosquito 212 6,199 1,134 7,545
Blackburn Skua 192 192
Hawker Typhoon 3,330 3,330
576 29,516 3,719 33,811
Bomber Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA
Fairey Albacore 800 800
Fairey Barracuda 2,607 2,607
Bristol Beaufort 700 1,429 2,129
Bristol Buckingham 119 119
Handley Page Halifax 6,178[note 10]> 6,178
Handley Page Hampden[note 11] 1,270 160 1,430
Handley Page Hampden 152 152
Avro Lancaster 7,307 430 7,377
Avro Lincoln[note 6] 73 530 1 604
Avro Manchester 202 202
Short Stirling 2,383 2,383
Fairey Swordfish[note 11] 2,396 2,396
Vickers Wellington[note 11] 11,461 11,461
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley[note 11] 1,780 1,780
773 36,794 591 38,158
Reconnaissance
& patrol
Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA
Taylorcraft Auster 1,800 1,800
Bristol Bolingbroke[note 12] 676 626
Bristol Bombay[note 13] 51 51
Blackburn Botha 580 580
Piper Cub 150 150
Saro Lerwick 21 21
Hawker Osprey 9 9
Consolidated Canso 272 721 993
Supermarine Sea Otter 292 292
Short Seaford 10 10
Blackburn Shark 17 17
Supermarine Stranraer 17 40 57
Short Sunderland 767 767
Supermarine Walrus 746 746
Vickers Warwick 845 845
5,410 1604 7,014
Transport Aus Britain Can India NZ SA
de Havilland Albatross 7 7
Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle 602 602
CAC Gliders 8 8
Northrop/Canadian Vickers Delta 19 19
De Havilland Australia DHA-G1/G2 8 8
de Havilland Dragon 87 87
de Havilland Dragon Rapide/Dominie 474 474
Short Empire 42 42
Armstrong Whitworth Ensign 15 15
de Havilland Flamingo 14 14
Fleet 50 Freighter 5 5
General Aircraft Hamilcar[note 14] 412 412
Slingsby Hengist 18 18
Airspeed Horsa[note 14] 5,000 5,000
General Aircraft Hotspur 1,015 1,015
Avro Lancastrian 82 6 82
Westland Lysander 1,445 225 1,670
Miles Messenger 93 93
Miles Monarch 11 11
Miles Monitor 22 22
Noorduyn Norseman 861 861
Short S.26 3 3
Whitley 1,814 1,814
Avro York 259 1 259
Other
103 11,380 1,117 12,600
Training Aus Britain Can India NZ SA
Avro Anson 8,488 3,197 11,685
Fairey Battle[note 15] 2,201
Bristol Buckmaster 112
Fairchild Cornell (PT-19/26) 1,642
de Havilland Don 30
Fleet Finch 606
Fleet Fort 101
Harlow PC-5 5 50
North American Harvard 3,985
Miles Magister 1,303
Miles Martinet 1,724
Miles Master 3,250
Miles Mentor 45
de Havilland Moth Minor 100
Airspeed Oxford 8,586
Percival Proctor 1,143
de Havilland Tiger Moth 1,080 5,738 1,748 150 8,716
Avions Fairey Tipsy B 15
CAC Wackett 202
CAC Wirraway 755
2,037 32,735 11,284 50 150 46,256
Other Australia Canada Britain India NZ SA Empire
Prototypes[note 16] 2 3 61
Other 10 339
2 13[note 17] 400[note 18] 415
Total 'x x x x x x x

Aircraft - Allies - France, Poland and minor powers[edit]

Production numbers until the time of the German occupation of the respective country. Some types listed were in production before the war, those listed were still in production at the time of or after the Munich crisis.

Fighters Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark France Netherlands Poland Yugoslavia Total
Avia B.534-IV/Bk.534 274
Caudron CR.714 90
Dewoitine D.520 403
Fokker D.XXI 10 110 120
Koolhoven F.K.58 20[note 19]
Avions Fairey Fox VI/VII 106
Fokker G.I 63
Hawker Hurricane I 15 20
Ikarus IK-2 12
Rogozarski IK-3 12
Bloch MB.151/152 636
Morane-Saulnier MS.406 1,077
Potez 630/631 280
PZL.50 Jastrząb (6)[note 20]
PZL P.24 118[note 21]
Arsenal VG.33/36/39 40[note 22]
Total 121 274 10 2,526 193 119 (+5) 44 3,287[note 23]
Attack Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark France Netherlands Poland Yugoslavia Total
Breguet Br.690 230
Laté 298 121
Loire-Nieuport LN.40 68
Fairey P.4/34 (12)[note 24]
Rogožarski PVT[note 25] 61
Total (12) 419 61 480[note 26]
Bombers Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark France Netherlands Poland Yugoslavia Total
Aero A.101 64
Aero A.304 19
Amiot 351/354 80
Avia B-71 61
Fairey Battle I 18 [note 27]
Fokker C.X/Fokker C.XI 53
Dornier Do 17K 70
Farman F.222.2/F.223 25
LeO 45 452
LWS-6 Żubr 17
Bloch MB.131 143
Bloch MB.174/175 79
Bloch MB.210 298
Potez 633 55
PZL.37 120
PZL.43 54[note 28]
PZL.46 2[note 29]
Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H 19
Fokker T.V 16
Fokker T.VIII 36
Total 18 144 1,132 105 193 89 1,681

Aircraft - Axis - All[edit]

Occupied countries produced weapons for the Axis powers. Figures are for the period of occupation only.

Fighters Belgium Bulgaria Czech Netherlands Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Poland Romania Yugoslavia Total
Mitsubishi A6M Zero 10,939
Arado Ar 240 14
Avia B-135 12
Avia B-534 78
Bachem Ba 349 36[note 30]
Messerschmitt Bf 109 33,142 309 33,984
Macchi C.200/Macchi C.202/Macchi C.205 2,766
Fiat CR.25 12
Fiat CR.42 1,782
Dewoitine D.520[note 31] 440
Dornier Do 17Z-7/Z-10 12
Dornier Do 335 37
Caproni Vizzola F.5 14
Koolhoven F.K.52 6
Focke-Wulf Fw 190 20,000
Fiat G.50 666
Fiat G.55 305
Heinkel He 100[note 32] 25
Heinkel He 112 60
Heinkel He 162 320
Heinkel He 219 300
IAR 80 346
Nakajima J1N 479
Mitsubishi J2M 621
Kawasaki Ki-10 283
Nakajima Ki-27 3,399
Nakajima Ki-44 1,227
Kawasaki Ki-61 3,159
Nakajima Ki-84 3,514
Kawasaki Ki-100 395
Kawasaki Ki-102 238
Bloch MB.150[note 31] 35
Messerschmitt Me 163 370 7 377
Messerschmitt Me 262 1,430
Mörkö-Morane[note 33] 41
Morane-Saulnier MS.410[note 34] 74
Yokosuka MXY7 852
Kawanishi N1K 1,435
PZL P.24 25 25 50
Reggiane Re.2000, 2001, 2002 & 2005 204 531 735
IMAM Ro.44 35
IMAM Ro.57 75
Ambrosini SAI.207 14
Focke-Wulf Ta 152 & Focke-Wulf Ta 154 200 these are unrelated types.
VL Myrsky 51
VL Pyry 41
Total 90 6 133 549 55,934 513 6,200 26,548 25 371 91,728
Attack Belgium Bulgaria Czech Netherlands Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Poland Romania Yugoslavia
Nakajima A6M2-N 327
Breda Ba.65 218
Breda Ba.88 149
Aichi D3A 1,486
CANSA FC.12 11
CANSA FC.20 6
Heinkel He 115 138
Heinkel He 118[note 35] 15
Henschel Hs 123[note 36] 250
Henschel Hs 129 865
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka 6,500
Nakajima Ki-27 3,368
Mitsubishi Ki-30 704
Nakajima Ki-43 5,919
Kawasaki Ki-45 1,701
Kawasaki Ki-48 1,997
Mitsubishi Ki-51 2,385
Nakajima Ki-84 3,514
Kawasaki Ki-102 238
Messerschmitt Me 210[note 37] 400 272 672
Messerschmitt Me 410[note 38] 1,189
Fiat RS.14 188
Savoia-Marchetti SM.85 34
Total 9,092 272 606 21,904 30,903
Bombers Belgium Bulgaria Czech Netherlands Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Poland Romania Yugoslavia
Aero A.304 4
Arado Ar 234 210
Nakajima B5N 1,149
Nakajima B6N 1,268
Aichi B7A 114
Bloch MB.174/175[note 39] 38
Fiat BR.20 602
Caproni Ca.135 140
Caproni Ca.309-314 1,516
Yokosuka D4Y 2,038
Dornier Do 22 30
Dornier Do 17E/F 405
Dornier Do 17K 14
Dornier Do 17M/P/R/S/U 448
Dornier Do 17Z 875
Dornier Do 215 105
Dornier Do 217 1,025
Fieseler Fi 167 14
Focke-Wulf Fw 200 276
Mitsubishi G3M 1,048
Mitsubishi G4M 2,435
Heinkel He 111 7,300
Heinkel He 177 1,190
IAR 37 380
Junkers Ju 88/188/388 16,517
Kaproni-Bulgarski KB.6 24
Mitsubishi Ki-21 2,064
Kawasaki Ki-32 854
Nakajima Ki-49 819
Mitsubishi Ki-67/Mitsubishi Ki-109 767
LeO 45[note 31] 162
Aichi M6A 28
Piaggio P.108 35
Yokosuka P1Y 1,102
Kyushu Q1W 153
Letov Š-328 80
Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 1,350
Savoia-Marchetti SM.82[note 40] 379
Savoia-Marchetti SM.84 246
Weiss WM-21 128
CANT Z.506B 320
CANT Z.1007 660
CANT Z.1018 15
Total 24 84 200 28,444 128 5,228 13,839 380 44,802

Propaganda posters[edit]

Painting of workman in blue overalls
Vichy France poster: "At work in Germany you are an ambassador of French quality" 
Painting of three soldiers buckling their helmets
Japanese Organized Labour Service Corps poster 
Man with work glasses, woman, plane and tank
USSR: "Everything for the Front. Everything for Victory" 
Photo of smiling woman assembling a bomb
French-Canadian poster: "I'm making bombs and buying bonds!-Buy Victory Bonds." 
Painting of soldier and workman shaking hands
Italy: "Work and Fight for your Country and Victory" 
Caricature of Japanese soldier striding towards Australia
Australia: "He's coming south—it's fight, work or perish" 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ the five King George V class were started prior to war, a further four battleships were cancelled to make resources available for construction of other ships (Gazarke & Dulin)
  2. ^ Two battlecruisers of Kronshtadt-class laid down but never progressed
  3. ^ The majority of Blenheims were built as light bombers
  4. ^ Total includes 140 unarmed Defiants produced as target tugs
  5. ^ Pre-war production. 165 additional to export customers. Sea Gladiator conversions and production listed in Sea Gladiator entry.
  6. ^ a b includes post-war production
  7. ^ Includes some post-war production and conversions of Spitfires
  8. ^ changed to ground attack role during war
  9. ^ up to 1942 the Hurricane was chiefly used as a fighter aircraft
  10. ^ includes transport and Coastal Command reconnaissance versions
  11. ^ a b c d Includes pre-war production
  12. ^ Blenheim variant, includes 457 produced as trainers
  13. ^ light bomber/transport used in Middle East and Mediterranean theatres
  14. ^ a b assault gliders generally not reusable following use
  15. ^ Initially used as light bomber e.g. during Battle of France
  16. ^ Including: Arpin A-1 (1) , Airspeed Cambridge (2), Airspeed Fleet Shadower (1), Avro Tudor (2), Blackburn B-20 (1), Boulton Paul P.92 (1), Burnelli CBY-3 (2), CAC Woomera, Australia (2), Chrislea Airguard (1) , de Havilland Dove (1), de Havilland T.K.5 (1) , Fairey Spearfish (5), Fane F.1/40 (1), General Aircraft Cagnet (1), General Aircraft Owlet (1), General Aircraft Fleet Shadower (1), General Aircraft GAL.47 (1), General Aircraft GAL.55 (2), General Aircraft GAL.56 (4), Canadian Car and Foundry FDB-1, Canada (1), Gloster F.5/34 (2) , Gloster F.9/37 (2) , Handley Page Manx (1), Hawker Hotspur (1), Hawker Tornado (4), Miles M.20 (2), Miles X Minor (1), Miles M.35 (1), Miles M.39 (1), Miles LR 5 (1), Parnall 382 (1), Reid and Sigrist R.S.1/2 (2), Saro A33 (1), Saro Shrimp (1), Short Shetland (2), Supermarine Type 322 (2), Vickers Type 432 (1), Vickers VC.1 Viking (1), Vickers Windsor (3)
  17. ^ includes: CCF Maple Leaf Trainer II (2 plus 10 built in Mexico )
  18. ^ includes: Folland Fo.108 engine test bed (12), General Aircraft Cygnet (10), General Aircraft Monospar ST-25 (30)[clarification needed], Hawker Henley (200)[clarification needed], Hawker Sea Fury (10), Miles M.15 (2), Miles M.18 (3) , Miles Mercury (6), Percival Petrel (27), Percival Vega Gull (~20), Supermarine Spiteful fighter (19)
  19. ^ Delivered to France.
  20. ^ First prototype incomplete by German occupation.
  21. ^ Only 1 (designated P.11g) used by Poland in 1939. The remaining ones were exported to various Balkan countries.
  22. ^ Around 200 more airframes were in advanced production stage.
  23. ^ not counting uncompleted PZL.50
  24. ^ Production was started in Denmark, but not completed before the German invasion.
  25. ^ Originally an advanced fighter-training aircraft, this type was later used as a light attack plane, in particular by the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia.
  26. ^ not counting P.4/34
  27. ^ According to some sources license production started in Denmark but not completed before the German invasion.
  28. ^ All but 5 delivered to Bulgaria.
  29. ^ Prototypes that were used in combat.
  30. ^ Never entered service
  31. ^ a b c Number refers to production resumed after German occupation.
  32. ^ Produced shortly before the war and mainly used for testing and propaganda purposes.
  33. ^ Conversion from MS.406/410.
  34. ^ Conversion from MS.406.
  35. ^ Produced before the war and 2 used by Japanese for testing.
  36. ^ All produced before the war, but used until 1944.
  37. ^ Only 90 German-built Me 210 were completed and delivered, about 100 Hungarian-built were supplied to Germany
  38. ^ Also used as a fighter and for reconnaissance
  39. ^ Produced for Germany after German occupation.
  40. ^ Only bomber versions listed here.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. IX, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  2. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  3. ^ Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, pp. 4-5, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995. ISBN 0-7603-0143-3.
  4. ^ Baldwin, Ralph B. The Deadly Fuze: Secret Weapon of World War II, pp. 4-6, 11, 50, 279, Presidio Press, San Rafael, California, 1980. ISBN 978-0-89141-087-4.
  5. ^ Kumanev, G.A., "War and the evacuation of the USSR: 1941-1942", New Age, 2006
  6. ^ Sawyer, L. A. and Mitchell, W. H. The Liberty Ships: The History of the "Emergency" Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During the Second World War, Second Edition, pp. vii, 1-8, Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., London, England, 1985. ISBN 1-85044-049-2.
  7. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 5, 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  8. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 8, Cypress, California, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  9. ^ "Financial Calculators". dollartimes.com. 
  10. ^ Cristian Crăciunoiu, Romanian navy torpedo boats, pp. 38-42
  11. ^ Cristian Crăciunoiu, Romanian navy torpedo boats, pp. 140-143
  12. ^ Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1922-1946, p. 362
  13. ^ Mitchell, B.R. British Historical Statistics, 1988[page needed]
  14. ^ http://www.teindia.nic.in/mhrd/50yrsedu/15/8P/82/8P820T03.htm
  15. ^ Dialogue on Aluminium 110 years of history in Canada approximation
  16. ^ Baker The New Zealand People at War: War Economy 1965[page needed]
  17. ^ Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy
  18. ^ a b Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment and the Defense Burden, 1940-1945 Mark Harrison, 1996
  19. ^ Including 23.4 synthetic.
  20. ^ a b c Volume 3 -The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy 1940-1944 only, retrieved June 8, 2014
  21. ^ "Comparison of GDP adjusted for actual yearly shared contribution to war efforts after Zuljan, Ralph, Allied and Axis GDP", "Articles On War", OnWar.com, 2003, retrieved June 8, 2014 
  22. ^ Harrison, 1998
  23. ^ Stephen Broadberry, Kevin H. O'Rourke, The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, p. 190
  24. ^ ROMANIA: historical demographical data of the whole country
  25. ^ HUNGARY: historical demographical data of the whole country
  26. ^ BULGARIA historical demographical data of the whole country
  27. ^ ALBANIA: historical demographical data of the whole country
  28. ^ General Article: Foreign Affairs, pbs.org 
  29. ^ Rose, Patrick (2012). The Indian Army, 1939–47: Experience and Development. Routledge. 
  30. ^ Granatstein, Dr. J. L. (May 27, 2005). "ARMING THE NATION: CANADA'S INDUSTRIAL WAR EFFORT, 1939-1945" (PDF). Canadian Council of Chief Executives. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  31. ^ Baugher "Hawk 75A-5 for China" 1999
  32. ^ Ethell, Jeffrey L. and Steve Pace. Spitfire. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1997. ISBN 0-7603-0300-2. p117

Table data[edit]

Personnel -Allied - British Empire[edit]

Personnel - Axis[edit]

This includes all German and non-German subjects serving within German Reich forces.

Aircraft - Allied[edit]

  • Australia
  • Bristol Brigand
  • Free Dutch
  • New Zealand
  • General
  • Barnes 1989
  • Bishop 2002
  • Bowyer 1980
  • Butler 2004
  • Flint 2006
  • Green 1967
  • Jackson 1987
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mason 1994
  • Morgan ?
  • Otway 1990
  • Swanborough 1997
  • Tapper 1988
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985

Aircraft - Axis[edit]

  • Italy
  • Dressel and Griehl 1994
  • Encyclopedia of weapons of World War Two
  • Francillon 1970
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mondey 1996
  • Smith and Anthony ?

Raw materials[edit]

  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1938-1944, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1948
  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1941-1947, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1949

Official histories[edit]

  • History of the Second World War (104 volumes), Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1949 to 1993
  • Official History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945 (22 volumes), Australian Government Printing Service, 1952 to 1977
  • Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Vol I Six Years of War, Stacey, C P., Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1955
  • Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War 1939-45 (24 volumes), Combined Inter-Services Historical Section, India & Pakistan, New Delhi, 1956-1966
  • Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45, Historical Publications Branch, Wellington, New Zealand, 1965

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ailsby, Christopher, Hitler's Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich (Photographic Histories), Potomac Books, 2004
  • Barnett, Correlli, The audit of war : the illusion & reality of Britain as a great nation, Macmillan, 1986
  • Barnes, C.H.; James D.N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900, London, Putnam, 1989
  • Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopaedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing, 2002
  • Bowyer, Michael J.F. Aircraft for the Royal Air Force: The "Griffon" Spitfire, The Albemarle Bomber and the Shetland Flying-Boat, London, Faber & Faber, 1980
  • Boyd, David, (2009) "Wartime Production by the Commonwealth during WWII" British Equipment of the Second World War
  • Boyd, David (2009), "British Production of Aircraft By Year During The Second World War", British Equipment of the Second World War 
  • Butler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Fighters and Bombers 1935–1950. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004
  • Canada at War, "The Canadian War Industry"
  • Dressel, Joachim and Manfred Griehl. Bombers of the Luftwaffe. London: DAG Publications, 1994
  • Flint, Keith, Airborne Armour: Tetrarch, Locust, Hamilcar and the 6th Airborne Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment 1938-1950. Helion & Company Ltd., 2006
  • Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, London, Putnam, 1970
  • Gregg, W.A ed., Canada’s Fighting Vehicles Europe 1943-1945, Canadian Military Historical Society, 1980
  • Green, William. War Planes of The Second World War:Volume Seven - Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft. London: Macdonald, 1967
  • Harrison, Mark, "The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison", Cambridge University Press, 1998 (Author's overview)
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, Random House, New York, 2012
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). London: Orbis Publishing, 1985
  • Jackson, A.J., De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Third ed.), London, Putnam, 1987
  • Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, London, Studio Editions Ltd, 1989
  • "Les luxembourgeois de la Brigade Piron". (in French) Armee.lu. Retrieved 29 June 2013
  • Long, Jason, Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy, sturmvogel.orbat.com, Retrieved June 12, 2014
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914, London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994
  • Milward, Alan S., War, economy, and society, 1939-1945, University of California Press, 1979
  • Morgan, Eric B. "Albemarle" in Twentyfirst Profile, Volume 1, No. 11. New Milton, Hants, UK: 21st Profile Ltd.
  • Munoz, A.J., For Croatia and Christ: The Croatian Army in World War II 1941–1945, Axis Europa Books,NY, 1996
  • Mondey, David. The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. New York: Bounty Books, 1996
  • Ness, Leland, Jane's World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles, The Complete Guide, Harper Collins, 2002
  • Otway, Lieutenant-Colonel T.B.H. The Second World War 1939-1945 Army: Airborne Forces. London: Imperial War Museum, 1990
  • Overy, Richard, Why the Allies Won (Paperback), W. W. Norton & Company, 1997
  • Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies
  • Smith, J.R. and Anthony L. Kay. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam and Company Ltd.,
  • Swanborough, Gordon. British Aircraft at War, 1939-1945. East Sussex, UK: HPC Publishing, 1997
  • Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam, 1988
  • Tomasevich, Jozo, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press, 2001
  • Veterans Affairs Canada, "Canadian Production of War Materials"
  • Wilson, Stewart, Aircraft of WWII, 1998
  • Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995
  • Zuljan, Ralph, "Allied and Axis GDP" Articles On War OnWar.com (2003)

External links[edit]