The Unit 731 complex
|Deaths||Over 3,000 from inside experiments and tens of thousands from field experiments|
|Perpetrators||General Shirō Ishii
Lt. General Masaji Kitano
Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army
Unit 731 (731部隊 Nana-san-ichi butai?, Chinese: 731部队) was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China).
It was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部 Kantōgun Bōeki Kyūsuibu Honbu?). Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shiro Ishii, an officer in the Kwantung Army.
Between 3,000 and 12,000 men, women, and children—from which around 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai—died during the human experimentation conducted by Unit 731 at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites. Almost 70% of the victims who died in the Pingfang camp were Chinese, including both civilian and military. Close to 30% of the victims were Russian. Some others were South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, at the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small number of the prisoners of war from the Allies of World War II (although many more Allied POWs were victims of Unit 731 at other sites).
Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 went on to prominent careers in post-war politics, academia, business, and medicine. Some were arrested by Soviet forces and tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials; others surrendered to the American Forces. It has been postulated that one reason the scientists were not tried was that the information and experience gained in the studies of the biological warfare was of a great value for the United States biological weapons development program. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that "additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as 'War Crimes' evidence." The deal concluded in 1948.
- 1 Formation
- 2 Activities
- 3 Biological warfare
- 4 Known unit members
- 5 Divisions
- 6 Facilities
- 7 Surrender and immunity
- 8 After World War II
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
In 1932, General Shirō Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō), chief medical officer of the Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki was placed in command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory. Ishii organized a secret research group, the "Tōgō Unit", for various chemical and biological experimentation in Manchuria. Ishii had proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit in 1930, after a two-year study trip abroad, on the grounds that Western powers were developing their own programs. One of Ishii's main supporters inside the army was Colonel Chikahiko Koizumi, who later became Japan's Health Minister from 1941 to 1945. Koizumi had joined a secret poison gas research committee in 1915, during World War I, when he and other Japanese army officers were impressed by the successful German use of chlorine gas at the second battle of Ypres, where the Allies suffered 15,000 casualties as a result of the chemical attack.
Unit Tōgō was implemented in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 km (62 mi) south of Harbin on the South Manchurian Railway. A jailbreak in autumn 1934 and later explosion (believed to be an attack) in 1935 led Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress. He received the authorization to move to Pingfang, approximately 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin, to set up a new and much larger facility.
In 1936, Hirohito authorized, by imperial decree, the expansion of this unit and its integration into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department. It was divided at the same time into the "Ishii Unit" and "Wakamatsu Unit" with a base in Hsinking. From August 1940, all these units were known collectively as the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部)" or "Unit 731" (満州第731部隊) for short.
|Weapons of mass destruction|
A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as "logs" (丸太 maruta?) This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill. In an account by a man who worked as a "junior uniformed civilian employee" of the Japanese Army in Unit 731, the term Maruta came from German, meaning medical experiment, used in such contexts as, "How many logs fell?"
The test subjects were selected to give a wide cross-section of the population and included common criminals, captured bandits and anti-Japanese partisans, political prisoners, and also people rounded up by the Kempeitai for alleged "suspicious activities". They included infants, the elderly, and pregnant women.
Prisoners of war were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia. Vivisections were performed on prisoners after infecting them with various diseases. Scientists performed invasive surgery on prisoners, removing organs to study the effects of disease on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was feared that the decomposition process would affect the results. The infected and vivisected prisoners included men, women, children, and infants.
Prisoners had limbs amputated in order to study blood loss. Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Some prisoners' limbs were frozen and amputated, while others had limbs frozen then thawed to study the effects of the resultant untreated gangrene and rotting.
In 2007, the Japanese army surgeon Ken Yuasa testified to the Japan Times that, "I was afraid during my first vivisection, but the second time around, it was much easier. By the third time, I was willing to do it." He believes at least 1,000 people, including surgeons, were involved in vivisections over mainland China.
Germ warfare attacks
Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. To study the effects of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected, often by rape, with syphilis and gonorrhea, then studied.
Plague fleas, infected clothing, and infected supplies encased in bombs were dropped on various targets. The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around and possibly more than 400,000 Chinese civilians. Tularemia was tested on Chinese civilians.
Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644 and Unit 100 among others) were involved in research, development, and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both civilian and military) throughout World War II. Plague-infested fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, coastal Ningbo in 1940, and Changde, Hunan Province, in 1941. This military aerial spraying killed thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics.
Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and explosive bombs.
In other tests, subjects were deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death; placed into high-pressure chambers until death; experimented upon to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival; placed into centrifuges and spun until death; injected with animal blood; exposed to lethal doses of x-rays; subjected to various chemical weapons inside gas chambers; injected with sea water to determine if it could be a substitute for saline; and burned or prematurely buried alive.
Japanese scientists performed tests on prisoners with plague, cholera, smallpox, botulism, and other diseases. This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread the bubonic plague. Some of these bombs were designed with ceramic (porcelain) shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938.
These bombs enabled Japanese soldiers to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells, and other areas with anthrax, plague-carrier fleas, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, and other deadly pathogens. During biological bomb experiments, scientists dressed in protective suits would examine the dying victims. Infected food supplies and clothing were dropped by airplane into areas of China not occupied by Japanese forces. In addition, poisoned food and candies were given out to unsuspecting victims, and the results examined.
In 2002, Changde, China, site of the flea spraying attack, held an "International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare" which estimated that at least 580,000 people died as a result of the attack. The historian Sheldon Harris claims that 200,000 died. In addition to Chinese casualties, 1,700 Japanese in Chekiang were killed by their own biological weapons while attempting to unleash the biological agent, which indicates serious issues with distribution.
Known unit members
- Lieutenant General Shirō Ishii
- Lieutenant Colonel Ryoichi Naito, founder of the pharmaceutical company Green Cross
- Masaji Kitano
- Yoshio Shinozuka
- Yasuji Kaneko
Unit 731 was divided into eight divisions:
- Division 1: Research on bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax, typhoid and tuberculosis using live human subjects. For this purpose, a prison was constructed to contain around three to four hundred people.
- Division 2: Research for biological weapons used in the field, in particular the production of devices to spread germs and parasites.
- Division 3: Production of shells containing biological agents. Stationed in Harbin.
- Division 4: Production of other miscellaneous agents.
- Division 5: Training of personnel.
- Divisions 6–8: Equipment, medical and administrative units.
The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings. The design of the facilities made them hard to destroy by bombing. The complex contained various factories. It had around 4,500 containers to be used to raise fleas, six cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in several days.
Some of Unit 731's satellite facilities are in use by various Chinese industrial concerns. A portion has been preserved and is open to visitors as a War Crimes Museum.
A medical school and research facility belonging to Unit 731 operated in the Shinjuku District of Tokyo during World War II. In 2006, Toyo Ishii—a nurse who worked at the school during the war—revealed that she had helped bury bodies and pieces of bodies on the school's grounds shortly after Japan's surrender in 1945. In response, in February 2011 the Ministry of Health began to excavate the site.
China requested DNA samples from any human remains discovered at the site. The Japanese government—which has never officially acknowledged the existence of Unit 731—rejected the request.
The related Unit 8604 was operated by the Japanese Southern China Area Army and stationed at Canton (Guangzhou). This installation conducted human experimentation in food and water deprivation as well as water-borne typhus. According to postwar testimony, this facility served as the main rat breeding farm for the medical units to provide them with bubonic plague vectors for experiments.
Unit 731 was part of the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department which dealt with contagious disease and water supply generally.
Mukden POW camp
According to Maj. Robert Peaty, of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, who was the senior British officer at Mukden, a prisoner-of-war camp 350 miles from Pingfan, doctors from Unit 731 administered the regular injections of infectious diseases, disguised as harmless vaccinations, which eventually killed 186 Americans.
Surrender and immunity
Operations and experiments continued until the end of the war. Ishii had wanted to use biological weapons in the Pacific conflict since May 1944, but his attempts were repeatedly snubbed.
Destruction of evidence
Ishii ordered every member of the group "to take the secret to the grave", threatening to find them if they failed, and prohibiting any of them from going into public work back in Japan. Potassium cyanide vials were issued for use in the event that the remaining personnel were captured.
Skeleton crews of Ishii's Japanese troops blew the compound up in the final days of the war to destroy evidence of their activities, but most were so well constructed that they survived somewhat intact.
American grant of immunity
After Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945, Douglas MacArthur became the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, rebuilding Japan during the Allied occupation. MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731, including their leader, in exchange for providing America, but not the other wartime allies, with their research on biological warfare. American occupation authorities monitored the activities of former unit members, including reading and censoring their mail. The U.S. believed that the research data was valuable. The U.S. did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on biological weapons.
The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal heard only one reference to Japanese experiments with "poisonous serums" on Chinese civilians. This took place in August 1946 and was instigated by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor. The Japanese defense counselor argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence. The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was likely unaware of Unit 731's activities. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been accidental.
Separate Soviet trials
Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo Trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted twelve top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing, and Unit 100 in Changchun, in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. Included among those prosecuted for war crimes including germ warfare was General Otozō Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria.
The trial of those captured Japanese perpetrators was held in Khabarovsk in December 1949. A lengthy partial transcript of the trial proceedings was published in different languages the following year by a Moscow foreign languages press, including an English language edition. The lead prosecuting attorney at the Khabarovsk trial was Lev Smirnov, who had been one of the top Soviet prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials. The Japanese doctors and army commanders who had perpetrated the Unit 731 experiments received sentences from the Khabarovsk court ranging from two to 25 years in a Siberian labor camp. The Americans refused to acknowledge the trials, branding them communist propaganda.
After World War II
Official silence under Occupation
As above, under the American occupation the members of Unit 731 and other experimental units were allowed to go free. One graduate of Unit 1644, Masami Kitaoka, continued to do experiments on unwilling Japanese subjects from 1947 to 1956 while working for the National Institute of Health Sciences. He infected prisoners with rickettsia and mental health patients with typhus.
Post-Occupation Japanese media coverage and debate
Japanese discussions of Unit 731's activity began in the 1950s, after the end of the American occupation of Japan. In 1952, human experiments carried out in Nagoya City Pediatric Hospital, which resulted in one death, were publicly tied to former members of Unit 731. Later in that decade, journalists suspected that the murders attributed by the government to Sadamichi Hirasawa were actually carried out by members of Unit 731. In 1958, Japanese author Shusaku Endo published the book The Sea and Poison about human experimentation, which is thought to have been based on a real incident.
The author Morimura Seiichi published the book The Devil's Gluttony (悪魔の飽食) in 1981, followed by The Devil's Gluttony: A Sequel in 1983. This purported to reveal the "true" operations of Unit 731, but actually confused them with that of Unit 100, and falsely used unrelated photos attributing them to Unit 731, which raised questions about its accuracy. Also in 1981 appeared the first direct testimony of human vivisection in China, by Ken Yuasa. Since then many more in-depth testimonies have appeared in Japanese. The 2001 documentary Japanese Devils was composed largely of interviews with 14 members of Unit 731 who had been taken as prisoners by China and later released.
Official government response in Japan
Since the end of the US Occupation, the Japanese government has repeatedly apologized for its prewar behavior in general, but specific apologies and indemnities are determined on the basis of bilateral determination that crimes occurred, which requires a high standard of evidence. Unit 731 presents a special problem, since unlike Nazi human experimentation which is extremely well documented, the activities of Unit 731 are known only from the testimonies of former unit members, and testimony cannot be employed to determine indemnity in this way.
Japanese history textbooks usually contain references to Unit 731, but do not go into detail about allegations, in accordance with this principle. Saburo Ienaga's New History of Japan included a detailed description, based on officers' testimony. The Ministry for Education attempted to remove this passage from his textbook before it was taught in public schools, on the basis that the testimony was insufficient. The Supreme Court of Japan ruled in 1997 that the testimony was indeed sufficient and that requiring it to be removed was an illegal violation of freedom of speech.
In 1997, the international lawyer Kōnen Tsuchiya filed a class action suit against the Japanese government demanding reparations for the actions of Unit 731, using evidence filed by Rikkyo University professor Makoto Ueda. All court levels found that the suit was baseless. No findings of fact were made about the existence of human experimentation, but the decision of the court was that reparations are determined by international treaties and not by local court cases.
In October 2003, the Prime Minister of Japan responded to an inquiry from a member of the House of Representatives of Japan stating that, while the current Japanese government does not possess any records related to Unit 731, they recognize the gravity of the matter and will publicize any records that are located in the future.
The Chinese film Men Behind the Sun, directed by Tun Fei Mou in 1988, is a graphic film about the atrocities committed by Unit 731, as is the Russian film Philosophy of a Knife, directed by Andrey Iskanov and released in 2008.
Bruce Dickinson's 1994 CD-single Tears of the Dragon contains a song entitled "The Breeding House" describing the atrocities committed by Unit 731 and the immunity granted by the Americans to the physicians of the Unit.
ReGenesis episode "Let it burn" (Season 3, episode 9) mentions Unit 731 after it was discovered outbreaks of anthrax and glanders was from World War 2 Japan.
Pacific War (World War II)
- Changde chemical weapon attack
- Japanese war crimes
- Kaimingjie germ weapon attack
- Second Sino-Japanese War
Other human experimentation
- Nazi human experimentation
- Josef Mengele
- North Korean human experimentation
- Tuskegee syphilis experiment
- Unethical human experimentation in the United States
- Dr. Sidney Gottlieb
- Porton Down
- Harold Blauer (victim)
- Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
- Guatemala syphilis experiment
- David C. Rapoport. "Terrorism and Weapons of the Apocalypse". In James M. Ludes, Henry Sokolski (eds.), Twenty-First Century Weapons Proliferation: Are We Ready? Routledge, 2001. pp. 19, 29
- Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Biological Weapons, Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950. p. 117
- Yuki Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, Westviewpress, 1996, p.138
- The Imperial Japanese Medical Atrocities and Its Enduring Legacy in Japanese Research Ethics
- AII The War Crime "Unit 731" and Chinese, Korean Civilian. ci
- Seiichi Morimura, The Devil's Gluttony, 1981
- The devil unit, Unit 731. ７３１部隊について
- Harris, S.H. (2002) Factories of Death. Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932—1945, and the American Cover-up, revised edn. Routledge, New York, USA.
- Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, 2003, p. 109
- Williams, Peter, and Wallace, David (1989). Unit 731. Grafton Books, p. 44. ISBN 0-586-20822-4
- Harris, Sheldon H. (1994). Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-Up. California State University, Northridge: Routledge. pp. 26–33. ISBN 0-415-93214-9. "Page 26: Zhong Ma Prison Camp's creation; Page 33: Pingfang site's creation."
- Daniel Barenblat, A plague upon humanity, 2004, p.37.
- Yuki Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, 1996, p.136
- Cook, Haruko Taya; Cook, Theodore F. (1992). Japan at war : an oral history (1 ed.). New York, NY: New Press. p. 162. ISBN 1-56584-014-3.
- Richard Lloyd Parry (February 25, 2007). "Dissect them alive: order not to be disobeyed". London: Times Online.
- Interview with former Unit 731 member Nobuo Kamada
- "Unmasking Horror" Nicholas D. Kristof (March 17, 1995) New York Times. A special report.; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity
- Japan Admits Dissecting WW-II POWs James Bauer. "Japanese Unit 731 Biological Warfare Unit" Viewed January 16, 2007
- Vivisectionist recalls his day of reckoning, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2007/10/24/reference/vivisectionist-recalls-his-day-of-reckoning/
- Christopher Hudson (2 March 2007). "Doctors of Depravity". Daily Mail.
- Video adapted from "Biological Warfare & Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 21, 2007
- Barenblatt, Daniel. A Plague Upon Humanity: the Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-018625-9
- Monchinski, Tony (2008). Critical Pedagogy and the Everyday Classroom. Volumen 3 de Explorations of Educational Purpose. Springer, p. 57. ISBN 1402084625
- Neuman, William Lawrence (2008). Understanding Research. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, p. 65. ISBN 0205471536
- "The Nanjing Massacre and Unit 731". Advocacy & Intelligence Index For POWs-MIAs Archives. 2001. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Biological Weapons Program-Japan Federation of American Scientists
- Review of the studies on Germ Warfare Tien-wei Wu A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare and Unit 731 in the United States
- Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.xii, 173.
- Sheldon Harris, Factories of Death (London, Routledge, 1994)
- Associated Press, "Work starts at Shinjuku Unit 731 site", Japan Times, 22 February 2011, p. 1.
- The Economist, "Deafening silence", 24 February 2011, p. 48.
- Gold, Hal. Unit 731: Testimony. Tuttle Publishing, 2006, p. 50
- Kyodo News, "Occupation censored Unit 731 ex-members' mail: secret paper", Japan Times, February 10, 2010, p. 3.
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/correspondent/1796044.stm - Unit 731: Japan's biological force.
- Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950). (French language: Documents relatifs au procès des anciens Militaires de l'Armée Japonaise accusés d'avoir préparé et employé l'Arme Bactériologique / Japanese language: 細菌戦用兵器ノ準備及ビ使用ノ廉デ起訴サレタ元日本軍軍人ノ事件ニ関スル公判書類 / Chinese language: 前日本陸軍軍人因準備和使用細菌武器被控案審判材料)
- Takashi Tsuchiya. "The Imperial Japanese Experiments in China". The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, pp, 35, 42. Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Ken Alibek and S. Handelman. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. 1999. Delta (2000) ISBN 0-385-33496-6.
- 日本弁護士連合会『人権白書昭和43年版』日本弁護士連合会、1968年、pp.134-136；高杉晋吾『七三一部隊細菌戦の医師を追え』徳間書店、1982年、pp.94-111; 保護施設収容者に対する人権擁護に関する件（決議）
- Nozaki, Yoshiko (2000). Textbook controversy and the production of public truth: Japanese education, nationalism, and Saburo Ienaga's court challenges. University of Wisconsin--Madison. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- Keiichi Tsuneishi (1995). 『七三一部隊 生物兵器犯罪の真実』 講談社現代新書. p. 171. ISBN 4-06-149265-9.
- 田辺敏雄 『検証 旧日本軍の「悪行」―歪められた歴史像を見直す』 自由社 ISBN 4915237362
- Kathleen Woods Masalski (November 2001). "EXAMINING THE JAPANESE HISTORY TEXTBOOK CONTROVERSIES". Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- Asahi Shinbun editorial, August 30, 1997
- 「衆議院議員川田悦子君提出七三一部隊等の旧帝国陸軍防疫給水部に関する質問に対する答弁書」 October 10, 2003.
- Barenblatt, Daniel. A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-018625-9.
- Barnaby, Wendy. The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 1-883319-85-4, ISBN 0-7567-5698-7, ISBN 0-8264-1258-0, ISBN 0-8264-1415-X.
- Cook, Haruko Taya; Cook, Theodore F., Japan at war: an oral history, New York: New Press: Distributed by Norton, 1992. ISBN 1-56584-014-3. Cf. Part 2, Chapter 6 on Unit 731 and Tamura Yoshio.
- Endicott, Stephen and Hagerman, Edward. The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-253-33472-1.
- Gold, Hal. Unit 731 Testimony, Charles E Tuttle Co., 1996. ISBN 4-900737-39-9.
- Grunden, Walter E., Secret Weapons & World War II: Japan in the Shadow of Big Science, University Press of Kansas, 2005. ISBN 0-7006-1383-8.
- Handelman, Stephen and Alibek, Ken. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World—Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It, Random House, 1999. ISBN 0-375-50231-9, ISBN 0-385-33496-6.
- Harris, Robert and Paxman, Jeremy. A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Random House, 2002. ISBN 0-8129-6653-8.
- Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932–45 and the American Cover-Up, Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-09105-5, ISBN 0-415-93214-9.
- Lupis, Marco. Orrori e misteri dell'Unità 731: la "fabbrica" dei batteri killer, La Repubblica, 14 aprile 2003, on line too.
- Mangold, Tom; Goldberg, Jeff, Plague wars: a true story of biological warfare, Macmillan, 2000. Cf. Chapter 3, Unit 731.
- Moreno, Jonathan D. Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans, Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-92835-4.
- Nie, Jing Bao, et al. Japan's Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics (2011) excerpt and text search
- Williams, Peter. Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II, Free Press, 1989. ISBN 0-02-935301-7.
|Find more about Unit 731 at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG)—The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
- History of the Unit 731 UNIT 731 information site.
- History of Japan's biological weapons program—The Federation of American Scientists (FAS).
- History of United States' biological weapons program—The Federation of American Scientists (FAS).
- Unit 731, Nightmare in Manchuria, a World Justice documentary, 
- Unit 731: Auschwitz of the East—AII POW-MIA images.
- Army Doctor—a firsthand account by Yuasa Ken.
- Theodicy - through the Case of "Unit 731" by Eun Park (2003).
- US paid for Japanese human germ warfare data, Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Online.
- Japan's sins of the past by Justin McCurry (2004), The Guardian.
- The Asian Auschwitz of Unit 731 by Shane Green (2002), The Age.
- War Crimes: Never Forget—review of the book Unit 731 by Peter Williams and David Wallace