List of air operations during the Battle of Europe
|Timelines of World War II|
German OKW V-2 forces
Polish Air Force
French Air Force
United Kingdom Royal Air Force
Italian Regia Aeronautica
Soviet Union Red Army Air Force
Finnish Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Romanian Air Force
Royal Hungarian Air Force
United States Army Air Forces
United States Artillery Observers
Royal Bulgarian Air Force
This World War II timeline of European Air Operations lists notable military events in the skies of the European Theater of Operations of World War II from the Invasion of Poland to Victory in Europe Day. The list includes combined arms operations, defensive anti-aircraft warfare, and encompasses areas within the territorial waters of belligerent European states.[note 1]
1 September: The Luftwaffe begins Operation Wasserkante as part of the invasion of Poland. The first air attacks against Warsaw start.
2 September: Single PZL.23B of the 21st Squadron of Polish Air Force bombs a factory in Ohlau. The attack represented the first Allied bombing raid to be conducted against a target in territory within the Third Reich.
3 September: Flying officer Andrew McPherson is the first Royal Air Force pilot to cross the German coast after the United Kingdom declared war on Nazi Germany. Flying a Bristol Blenheim from 139 Squadron, his mission is to identify German maritime targets around Wilhelmshaven.
3 September: The RAF launches its first raid of the war over Germany territory. Eighteen Handley Page Hampdens and nine Vickers Wellingtons are sent to attack the German warships moored at the Wilhelmshaven naval base. However poor visibility prevents the bombers from finding any targets before nightfall so they return.
4 September: The RAF launches another bombing operation against German shipping. Fourteen Wellingtons from 9 and 149 Squadrons attack Brunsbuttel and 15 Bristol Blenheims from 107 and 110 Squadrons raid Wilhelmshaven bay. Five Blenheims and three Vickers Wellingtons are shot down through a combination of Messerschmitt Bf 109s and flak. They become the first British aircraft casualties on the Western Front.
4 September: The first British airman to be taken prisoner was Sergeant George Booth, a RAF Observer from 107 Squadron. He was captured after his Bristol Blenheim was shot down over the German coast.
20 September: The first recorded kill of the French Armee de l'Air is credited to Sergeant André-Armand Legrand, flying a Curtis H75A-1 in the Groupe de Chasse II/5 La Fayette, for downing a Messerschmitt Bf 109E of the Luftwaffe 3/JG 53 over Überherrn.
27 September: The Luftwaffe ceases its bombing campaign against Warsaw after its Polish garrison surrenders to German forces. Approximately 1,150 sorties were flown by a wide variety of aircraft, including obsolete Junkers Ju 52/3m bombers.
30 November: The Winter War between Soviet Union and Finland starts. Three hours after the Red Army had crossed the border and started the Winter War, Helsinki is bombed. Throughout the war, the Soviet Air Force has the air superiority and several cities in Finland are targeted.
18 December: The first use of radar for defence (an "experimental Freya radar") gave warning of RAF bombers near the German Bight as they made an attack on Wilhelmshaven.:20 However the German fighters were not permitted to intercept until visual confirmation was made - the bombers were attacked after they had dropped their bombs.
21 April: A bombing raid on Norway kills the first American military officer killed in World War II.
14 May: Under cover of Adolf Galland's air wing and after dummy paratroopers were airdropped (imitating battle noises after landing), Fort Eben-Emael was taken by glider troops during the Battle of Belgium.:3
15 May: The RAF lost the 100th of its France-based bombers. In 72 hours, it had lost half of its offensive force.
15/16 May: In the 1st large-scale World War II strategic bombing:53 and the 1st attack on the German "backcountry", just 24 of 96 dispatched bombers found the Ruhr Area power stations and refineries.
2 June: Robert Stanford Tuck led a wing of Spitfires from RAF Martlesham Heath, the first "big formation" of the war, against eith Heinkel He IIIs and about 25 Messerschmitt Bf 109s over the Calais area.:108
26 June: The RAF Advanced Air Striking Force disbanded after beginning operations in France in May
25 August: First RAF raid on Berlin
7 September: The Blitz bombing of Britain began with 57 nights of air raids
19 October: Four SM.82 bombers attacked American-operated oil refineries in the British Protectorate of Bahrain, damaging the local refineries. The raid also struck Dhahran in Saudi Arabia, but causing little damage.
15 April: The Belfast Blitz kills 1000, the greatest loss of British lives outside London from a night raid.
10 May: The longest blitz air raid on london killing 2324 people and 11,000 houses.
22 June - 3 July: In the opening phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Luftwaffe achieved air superiority by destroying some 2,000 Soviet aircraft, at a loss of only 35 aircraft (of which 15 were non-combat-related).
8–9 August: The Red Army Air Force began a limited bombing offensive with a raid on Berlin.
15 August: Robert Stanford Tuck led the first air mission by fighters based in eastern England against enemy-occupied territories in a "Rhubarb" sweep of the Netherlands for ground targets by two Hawker Hurricanes .:215–219
7/8 September: The heaviest RAF raid on Berlin to date, with 197 bombers, with 15 bombers lost.
18 December: Blenheim aircraft conducted the first night intruder attack, successfully striking Soesterberg airfield in the Netherlands with bombs and attacking two German bombers in the air with guns
16 February: The first regular operations with the American Douglas Boston bomber were conducted.
8/9 April: The largest force to date (272 aircraft) bomb Hamburg.
17 April: The Augsburg Raid is the first to attempt low-level daylight bombing for accuracy - in this case against the factory producing engines for U-boats. Half of the 12 bombers were shot down for little damage caused.
30 May: The first use of the bomber stream and the first British large scale operation, as part of Operation Millennium the first "Thousand Bomber" raid is sent against Cologne, Germany. Of the 1,047 aircraft sent, nearly 900 bombed the target area - the whole raid passing over in 90 minutes.
4 July: The first American bombing mission over enemy-occupied territory in Europe used 20 Boston bombers (plus 6 RAF-crewed Bostons) to attack the Alkmaar, Hammsted, and Valkenburg airfields --:106 only two reached the target area (two shot down, the others heavily damaged).:111
14 August: First German warplane downed by the USAAF. A German Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor reconnaissance-bomber is shot down by two US fighter pilots, flying a Curtiss P-40 Warhawk and a Lockheed P-38 Lightning, off the coast of Reykjavík, Iceland. All six German airmen are killed as the plane explodes and goes into the sea.
17 August: 12 B-17s of the 97 BG (including one with Eaker aboard) escorted by RAF Spitfires bombed the Sotteville railyard 3 miles (4.8 km) South of Rouen, France, in the "first combat action" of the Eighth Air Force and the first B-17 bombing of Europe.
21 August: 12 B-17's are dispatched to bomb the shipyards in Rotterdam, Netherlands but is aborted due to an attack by Bf 109s and Fw 190s; 1 bomber is damaged; lack of proper coordination with the Spitfire escorts is a major factor in the failure of the mission.
24 August: 12 B-17s bomb the Ateliers et Chantiers de France shipyard in Dunkirk.
5/6 March: The first raid of the Battle of the Ruhr flew RAF Bomber Command's 100,000th sortie of World War II, with 160 acres destroyed and 53 Krupps buildings bombed at Essen.
16/17 April: A force of 327 Lancasters and Halifaxes set out to destroy the Skoda arms factory at Plzeň, in German occupied Czechoslovakia. 271 aircraft raided Mannheim as a diversion the same night. The force mistook the mental hospital near Dobřany to be the factory at Plzeň. The raid sustained the heaviest losses until that point in the air war.
5 May: Republic P-47 Thunderbolts are first used for escorting bombers.
26 June: A 100 BG B-17 surrendered and then escaped.
29 July: First use of unguided air-to-air rockets against American combat box formations of heavy bombers by JG 1 Oesau and JG 11, attacking with Bf 109Gs and Fw 190As each armed with pairs of Werfer-Granate 21 rocket ordnance, developed from the 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 ground barrage rocket system.
1 August: Flying from North Africa Operation Tidal Wave bombs the oil refineries at Ploiești. A large number of the bombers are lost for little strategic benefit. Five Medals of Honor are awarded to American aircrew.
25 August: The first use of a guided anti-ship missile in wartime occurs over the Bay of Biscay, as HMS Bideford and HMS Landguard are damaged by Luftwaffe-deployed Henschel Hs 293 rocket-boosted, MCLOS-guidance glide bombs.
9 September: The Luftwaffe's KG 100 bomber wing is involved with the world's first successful use of a precision-guided munition in modern military history, through their sinking of the Italian battleship Roma, using the Fritz X armored gravity-propulsion PGM munition.
10 October: As a result of the June "surrender/escape" of a 100 BG B-17, out of the 13 B-17s of 100 BG attacking a railyard in Münster, only the B-17F of Robert Rosenthal survives to return safely to RAF Thorpe Abbotts in England.
1 November: A Combined Bomber Offensive progress report estimates that 19/19/9 German towns & cities have been virtually destroyed/severely damaged/more effectively damaged – another report claims 10% of German war potential had been destroyed
3 November: A Wilhelmshaven raid is the first Eighth Air Force blind-bombing mission to completely destroy the aiming point, the Eighth's first 500-plane mission, and the first use by the US of H2X radar
18/19 November: The "Battle of Berlin" aerial campaign bombing began
22/23 November: The largest force sent to bomb Berlin to date (764 aircraft) conducted the most effective World War II raid on Berlin
2 December: 100 Ju-88s bombed the port of Bari, sinking 28 ships including the American cargo ship SS John Harvey which was secretly carrying mustard gas. There were 83 military casualties from the poison. Autopsies indicated excess white blood cells, and the discovery led to the use of the gas to combat leukemia. Records were completely declassified in 1959.:149
30 January: The first U.S. Intruder operation was conducted by P-47s and accurately preceded the bombers to strike fighters at Villaorba airfield.
6–27 February: The Soviet Air Force launched bombing raids against several Finnish cities. The greatest air raids once again targeted Helsinki. In this manner the USSR hoped to force Finland to break its ties with Germany and agree to a peace settlement.
19/20 February: After 14.9% of Halifaxes that crossed the coast were lost on a raid to Leipzig, Handley Page Halifax Merlin engined Mark IIs and Vs were permanently withdrawn from operations to Germany .
6 March: The first large scale US attack on Berlin (some 600 bombers) dropped 1600 tons of bombs - 160-170 of 800-900 fighters are shot down:113
March–April: Bombing stopped aircraft production at Cantiere Navale Triestino
2–5 June: In preparation for Operation Overlord, Operation Cover bombed transportation and airfield targets in Northern France and "coastal defenses, mainly located in the Pas de Calais coastal area, to deceive the enemy as to the sector to be invaded".
14/15 June: The first V-1 was shot down by a fighter
3 July: 74 US military personnel died in (the most for one London event) when a V-1 flying bomb struck Sloane Court East / Turks Row.
23/24 July: The first major raid (629 aircraft) on a German city for two months bombs Kiel
25 July: Mission 494 (1581/500 bombers/fighters) supporting Operation Cobra was the most effective saturation bombing/carpet bombing/area bombardment of the Normandy Campaign, killing US General McNair.
26 July: The first aerial victory for a jet fighter in air combat history occurs as a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a of Erprobungskommando 262 mortally damages a de Havilland Mosquito reconnaissance aircraft of No. 540 Squadron RAF.
28 July: The first operational use of rocket-powered point-defense interceptors occurs as Me 163Bs of I. Gruppe/JG 400 take off from Brandis to defend against a USAAF strategic bombing raid on the Merseburg/Leuna synthetic fuel production complex.
8 September: Operation Penguin began with the first V-2 rocket launches against Paris and London
17 September: The last UK-USSR-Italy-UK shuttle bombing was completed as 72 B-17s and 59 P-51s flew from Italy without bombs to the UK; 70 B-17s 57 P-51s land safely in the UK.
5 January: The first mission of Operation Cornflakes begins when a mail train to Linz was bombed. Fake mailbags containing anti-Nazi propaganda were then dropped on the wreckage in the hope the letters would be unwittingly delivered by the Reichspost. The OSS dropped two million Das Neue Deutschland (German: The New Germany) propaganda newspapers during this psychological warfare operation; which ended in February.:104
3 February: The USAAF conducts its largest raid of the war against Berlin. The attack is led by Major Robert Rosenthal of the 100th Bombardment Group (Heavy). Judge-President of the People's Court Roland Freisler is killed in the bombing.
12 March: The RAF drop 4,851 tonnes of bombs on Dortmund using 1108 aircraft (748 Lancasters, 292 Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos). Up to 98% of buildings in the city center are destroyed. It would be the heaviest raid on a single target in World War II.
14 March: A railway viaduct at Bielefeld is destroyed by the first Grand Slam bomb to be dropped in combat by an Avro Lancaster. The attack by No. 617 Squadron RAF succeeds after 54 attacks using smaller bombs had failed.
18 March: The largest number of Me 262s to date launch their most concentrated attacks against Allied bomber formation. Mission 894 attacking Berlin (1,329 bombers and 733 fighters) loses 13 bombers and 6 fighters. The AAF claim 25 Luftwaffe aircraft.
22 March: Two hundred L-4 Grasshopper spotter planes each carrying one armed infantryman (instead of an observer) cross the Rhine to form a bridgehead for the US 3rd Army near Oppenheim.:2068 (Light aviation became a major part of the US Army's Field Artillery fire detection center on 4 June 1942).:104
19 April: The last RAF air operation using Grand Slam bombs in Europe takes place over Heligoland. Twenty aircraft from 617 Squadron, six with Grand Slams and the remainder with smaller Tallboy bombs, along with 16 aircraft from 9 Squadron attack the island's coastal gun-batteries. No aircraft were lost. A total of 42 Grand Slams were dropped in air operations over Germany.
3 May: Typhoons of 83 Group from the 2nd Tactical Air Force attack the passenger liners Cap Arcona, Thielbek, Athen, and Deutschland moored in the Bay of Lübeck (Baltic Sea). Hundreds of concentration camp prisoners are killed on the sinking ships because intelligence they are on board is not passed on to the flight crews.
7 May: The final European dogfight of World War II, between a small American L-4 Grasshopper liaison aircraft using personal .45 caliber pistols, and a small German liaison aircraft, a Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, forced the German aircrew to land and surrender.
- Irving, David (1964). The Mare's Nest. London: William Kimber and Co. p. 223. ISBN 0-586-06368-4. NOTE: V-2 rocket air operations were conducted by various German Army units, but operational orders were issued by a Joint Services (OKW) command.
- Bomber Command Campaign diary
McKillop, Jack. "Combat Chronology of the USAAF". Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
1942: January Archived 2009-02-04 at the Wayback Machine, February Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, March Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, April Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, May Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, June Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, July Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, August Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, September Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, October Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, November Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, December Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
1943: January Archived 2012-05-31 at the Wayback Machine, February Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, March Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, April Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, May Archived 2009-02-28 at the Wayback Machine, June Archived 2009-02-28 at the Wayback Machine, July Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, August Archived 2009-02-12 at the Wayback Machine, September Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, October Archived 2012-05-31 at the Wayback Machine, November Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, December Archived 2006-10-07 at the Wayback Machine
1944: January Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, February Archived 2014-12-27 at the Wayback Machine, March Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, April Archived 2009-02-16 at the Wayback Machine, May Archived 2012-06-06 at the Wayback Machine, June Archived 2009-02-16 at the Wayback Machine, July Archived 2013-05-27 at the Wayback Machine, August Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, September Archived 2009-02-13 at the Wayback Machine, October Archived 2010-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, November Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, December Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
1945: January Archived 2009-02-16 at the Wayback Machine, February Archived 2013-09-29 at the Wayback Machine, March Archived 2013-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, April Archived 2010-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, May Archived 2010-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, June Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, July Archived 2010-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, August Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, September Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
NOTE: The Chronicles for August 13, 1944 inaccurately list the BATTY mission as an Aphrodite mission
- Falconer, Jonathon (1998). The Bomber Command Handbook 1939-1945. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Limited. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7509-1819-0.
- "Sgt. (Pilot) Albert Stanley Prince - The First of the Ten Thousand". bombercommandmuseum.ca. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Haarr, Geirr H. (2013). The Gathering Storm: The Naval War in Northern Europe September 1939 - April 1940. Seaforth Publishing. pp. 227–230. ISBN 9781473832732.
- Northway, B.S. (ed) (1963). A History of 107 Squadron. Tuddenham, UK: No. 107 Squadron RAF. p. 22.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- 88 Squadron history Archived 24 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Defence
- Brindley, John F. (1971). French Fighters of World War Two, p. 52. Hylton Lacy, London.
- "Bombing of Warsaw". University of Richmond. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Galland, Adolf (1968) . The First and the Last: The Rise and Fall of the German Fighter Forces, 1938–1945. (translated by Mervyn Savill). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-553-11709-2.
- "German and Allied Air Forces". bc.edu. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Miller, Donald L. (2006). Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-7432-3544-0.
- Overy, Richard (1997). Why the Allies Won. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-393-31619-3.
- Jablonski, Edward (1971). Volume 1 (Tragic Victories), Book II (The Big League). Airpower. p. 71.
- Forrester, Larry (1973) . Fly for Your Life: The Story of R. R. Stanford Tuck, D.S.O, D.F.C. and Two Bars. Sir Max Aitken (Foreword). Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday. ISBN 0-553-11642-8.
- Jones, Reginald Victor (1978). Most Secret War. Hamish Hamilton Ltd. ISBN 0-2418-9746-7.
- Michael Omer-Man (9 September 2011). "This Week in History: Italy bombs Tel Aviv". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- Air Raid! A Sequel Archived 29 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Aramco World Magazine, Volume 27, Number 4, July/August 1976.
Seversky, Alexander P. de (1942). Victory Through Air Power. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 145.
"Destruction of enemy morale from the air can be accomplished only by precision bombing."
- McBride, Gisela R.: Through my eyes: memoirs of Hitler's Berlin. Hamilton Books, 2006, page 209. ISBN 0-7618-3394-3
- "RAF History - Bomber Command 60th Anniversary". 28 March 2006. Archived from the original on 28 March 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- "Whirlwind: Bombing Germany (September 1939 – April 1944)", The World at War, 1974
- "April 1942: Bombenhagel auf Rostock". www.ndr.de.
- "U.S. Air Forces Central Command". www.afcent.af.mil.
- Lang, Walter (1998) . United States Military Almanac: a Chronological Compendium of Over 200 Years of American History. Avenel NJ: Random House. p. 102,106–7. ISBN 1-84065-001-X.
- Hammel, Eric. Air War Europa: America's Air War against Germany in Europe and North Africa 1942-1945. Pacifica Press, 1994, p. 56.
- Bauer, Eddy (original text) (1966) . Illustrated World War II Encyclopedia. H. S. Stuttman Inc. p. 1478 (Vol 11), 1999 (Vol 15), 2059,2068. ISBN 0-87475-520-4.
- Cunliffe, Peter W. (2011). A Shaky Do: The Skoda Works Raid 16/17th April 1943. ISBN 978-0955795725.
- Russell, Francis; et al. (1981). The Secret War. World War II. Chicago: Time-Life Books Inc. p. 104, 145,149. ISBN 0-16-049376-5.
- Middlebrook, Martin (1982). The Peenemünde Raid: The Night of 17–18 August 1943. New York: Bobs-Merrill. ISBN 0-672-52759-6.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2008) . German V-Weapon Sites 1943-45. Fortress (72). illustrated by Johnson, Hugh & Taylor, Chris. New York: Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84603-247-9.
- Bomber Command diary Feb 1944
- Hill, Roderic (19 October 1948). Air Operations by Air Defence of Great Britain and Fighter Command in Connection with the German Flying Bomb and Rocket Offensives, 1944–1945.
- Collier, Basil (1976) . The Battle of the V-Weapons, 1944–1945. Yorkshire: The Emfield Press. p. 174. ISBN 0-7057-0070-4.
- Levine, Alan J (1992). The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-275-94319-6. Retrieved 30 June 2006.
- Radinger, Will and Walter Schick. (1996). Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. p. 51.
- de Bie, Rob. "Me 163B Komet - Me 163B Airfields". Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Levine, Alan J (1992). The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-275-94319-6. Retrieved 30 June 2006.
- Stalin's Private Airfields; The diplomacy surrounding the AAF mission to aid the Poles and the mission itself is extensively covered in Richard C. Lukas's The Strange Allies: The United States and Poland, 1941-1945, pp. 61-85. Warsaw Rising Museum
- "LT COL Robert ROSENTHAL". 100thbg.com. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Dresden was a civilian town with no military significance. Why did we burn its people? Archived 21 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine By Dominic Selwood. The Telegraph, 13 February 2015
- "1944 air raids". Historisches Centrum Hagen. historisches-centrum.de. Retrieved 24 June 2009. 1944, 1945
- "Ten Tonner - video of a Grand Slam being dropped on the Bielefeld Viaduct". Movietone News/youtube.com. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "V-2s on Remagen; Attacks on the Ludendorff Bridge". V2Rocket.com. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Mission 894". www.8thafhs.com. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
- King, Benjamin; Timothy Kutta (2003). Impact: The History of Germany's V-Weapons in World War II. Da Capo Press. p. 309. ISBN 0-306-81292-4.
- Smith, J. Richard & Eddie J. Creek (1997). Blitz!: Germany's Arado Ar 234 Jet Bomber. Merriam Press. p. 23. ISBN 9781576380079.
- Flower, Stephen (2004). Barnes Wallis' Bombs. Researched from the original records and interviews with those involved with the development and use of the bombs. Stroud: Tempus. pp. 362–64. ISBN 0-7524-2987-6.
- "Remembering the last raid on Nazi Germany". BBC News. 9 June 2015.
- Till, Major Noel O (September 1945). Report on Investigations, WO 309/1592. No. 2 War Crimes Investigation Team.
From the Till report of June 1945: "The Intelligence Officer with 83 Group RAF has admitted on two occasions; first to Lt H. F. Ansell of this Team (when it was confirmed by a Wing Commander present), and on a second occasion to the Investigating Officer when he was accompanied by Lt. H. F. Ansell, that a message was received on 2 May 1945 that these ships were loaded with KZ prisoners but that, although there was ample time to warn the pilots of the planes who attacked these ships on the following day, by some oversight the message was never passed on... From the facts and from the statement volunteered by the RAF Intelligence Officer, it appears that the primary responsibility for this great loss of life must fall on the British RAF personnel who failed to pass to the pilots the message they received concerning the presence of KZ prisoners on board these ships." See: Jacobs and Pool, 2004 and Till, 1945
- "Campaign Diary". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- May-June 1940 (Battle of France), archived from the original on 7 December 2008
- July-December 1940
- June-October 1940 (Battle of Britain), archived from the original on 6 July 2007
- January-April 1941, archived from the original on 11 October 2012
- May-August 1941, archived from the original on 3 March 2009
- September- December 1941, archived from the original on 14 October 2012
- January 1942, archived from the original on 7 December 2008
- February 1942, archived from the original on 7 June 2007
- March 1942, archived from the original on 11 June 2007
- April 1942, archived from the original on 11 June 2007
- May 1942, archived from the original on 29 September 2012
- June 1942, archived from the original on 6 July 2007
- July 1942, archived from the original on 11 June 2007
- August 1942, archived from the original on 11 June 2007
- September 1942, archived from the original on 10 June 2007,
- October 1942, archived from the original on 6 July 2007,
- November 1942, archived from the original on 6 July 2007,
- December 1942, archived from the original on 6 July 2007
- January 1943, archived from the original on 21 February 2006,
- February 1943, archived from the original on 21 February 2006,
- March 1943, archived from the original on 15 May 2007,
- April 1943, archived from the original on 7 June 2007,
- May 1943, archived from the original on 15 March 2012,
- June 1943, archived from the original on 21 February 2006,
- July 19431943, archived from the original on 4 May 2009,
- August 1943, archived from the original on 11 October 2012,
- September 1943, archived from the original on 29 September 2004,
- October 1943, archived from the original on 3 March 2009,
- November 1943, archived from the original on 26 September 2012,
- December 1943, archived from the original on 3 March 2009
- January 1944, archived from the original on 11 June 2007,
- February 1944, archived from the original on 12 November 2007
- March 1944, archived from the original on 11 June 2007,
- April 1944, archived from the original on 21 February 2006,
- May 1944, archived from the original on 9 April 2013,
- June 1944, archived from the original on 11 June 2007
- D-Day, archived from the original on 12 October 2012,
- July 1944, archived from the original on 6 July 2007
- August 1944, archived from the original on 7 June 2007,
- September 1944, archived from the original on 14 March 2008,
- October 1944, archived from the original on 11 June 2007,
- November 1944, archived from the original on 6 June 2011
- December 1944, archived from the original on 6 June 2011
- January 1945, archived from the original on 11 June 2007,
- February 1945], archived from the original on 7 June 2007,
- March 1945, archived from the original on 6 July 2007,
- April 1945, archived from the original on 28 July 2012