Adaptations of Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

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Poster from the 1880s.

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson and first published in 1886. It is about a London lawyer who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll and the misanthropic Mr. Hyde.

The work is known for its vivid portrayal of a split personality, and since the 1880s dozens of stage and film adaptations have been produced. Until 2012, with the publication of Strange Case of Mr. Bodkin and Father Whitechapel by Elias Keller, there had been no major adaptations of the novel that remain faithful to the narrative structure of Stevenson's original.[1] Most omit the figure of Utterson, telling the story from Jekyll's and Hyde's viewpoint and often having them played by the same actor, thus eliminating entirely the mystery aspect of the true identity of Hyde, which was the original's twist ending and not the basic premise it is today. In addition, many adaptations introduce a romantic element which does not exist in the original story.[2] While Hyde is portrayed in the novella as an evil-looking man of diminutive height, many adaptations have taken liberties with the character's physical appearance, sometimes depicting him with bestial or downright monstrous features.

There are over 123 film versions, not including stage and radio, as well as a number of parodies and imitations.[3] Notable examples are listed below in chronological order.

Adaptations[edit]

Stage[edit]

  • 1887, a play in four acts. Thomas Russell Sullivan's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde opened in Boston in May 1887. The first serious theatrical rendering, it went on to tour Britain and ran for 20 years. It became forever linked with Richard Mansfield's performance; he continued playing the part until shortly before his death in 1907. Sullivan reworked the plot to centre around a domestic love interest.
  • 1888, a play in four acts. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was written by John McKinney in collaboration with the actor Daniel E. Bandmann. It opened at Niblo's Garden in March 1887 with Bandmann in the title role. Later that year it competed directly with Sullivan's 1887 adaptation, when both opened in London within days of each other.
  • 1897, a play in four acts. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Or a Mis-Spent Life was written by Luella Forepaugh and George F. Fish for the repertory company at Forepaugh's Family Theatre in Philadelphia, where it debuted in March 1897. Published in 1904 by Samuel French, Inc. for use by other theatre companies.
  • 1900, a play in four acts. Unproduced adaptation by Marcel Schwob and Vance Thompson.
  • 1991, stage play, opened in London. Written by David Edgar for the Royal Shakespeare Company. The play is notable for its fidelity to the book's plot.
  • 1990, musical U.S. Jekyll & Hyde. Music by Frank Wildhorn, book and lyrics by Leslie Bricusse. Originally conceived for the stage by Steve Cuden and Frank Wildhorn. This musical features the song "This Is The Moment".
  • 2009, a new theatrical adaptation by playwright Jeffrey Hatcher, for Tony Award winning local Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park.
  • 2010, The Holden Kemble Theatre Company run a new adaptation titled The Scandalous Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde at the Edinburgh Festival and then a 312 week run at the Tabard Theatre in Chiswick, London.[4]
  • 2012, Synetic Theater runs a critically acclaimed silent adaptation of Jekyll & Hyde featuring Alex Mills as Jekyll/Hyde, Peter Pereyra as Lanyon, and Brittany O'Grady as the Fiancee.
  • 2012, new version by Jonathan Holloway workshopped and premiered at The Courtyard Theatre, London, featuring Melody Roche as Jekyll, Charlie Allen as Utterson and Gary Blair as Enfield.
  • 2013, a version of the story presented by Flipping the Bird at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, explores the unique twist of Jekyll as a woman, Doctor Tajemnica Jekyll, recently arrived in London from an unspecified foreign country, whose transformation to Edward Hyde came about as part of her desire to defy social boundaries. Utterson serves as her lover and lawyer, while she claims Hyde is her deformed nephew before admitting the truth.
  • 2013, Four of Swords staged an Arts Council England-funded adaptation of the story at Poltimore House, Devon.
  • 2016, Bangor English Dramatic Society will stage a version of 'A New Case of Jekyll and Hyde' at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, transferring the story to a modern setting, dealing with how Mrs Elizabeth Jekyll helps her husband recover from post traumatic stress disorder, through making a serum and testing it on herself. This serum appears to lower inhibitions rather than explicitly releasing the darker side of the subject, with Elizabeth apparently more aggressive than other subjects as she drank alcohol shortly after consuming the serum, subsequently using smaller doses of it in drinks to make her associates- such as her friend Harriet Lanyon and psychiatrist Doctor Utterson- more suggestible to her commands.

Film[edit]

Radio[edit]

  • 1932, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Available for download at: [1]. 52 fifteen-minute episodes, likely to have been broadcast weekly over one year. Further details unknown.
  • 1945, "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", The Weird Circle program episode[6]
  • 1948, "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", NBC Favorite Story program episode hosted by Ronald Colman, starring William Conrad and selected by Alfred Hitchcock[7]
  • 1949, "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", CBS Bookshelf of the World program episode[8]
  • 1952, "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", NBC Presents: Short Story program episode (transcribed but never aired)[9]
  • 1954, "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", NBC Theatre Royal program episode hosted by and starring Laurence Olivier[10]
  • 1974, "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde", CBS Radio Mystery Theater program episode hosted by E. G. Marshall and starring Kevin McCarthy[11]
  • 1985, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, BBC Radio 4 dramatization with Michael Aldridge as Jekyll, James Bryce as Hyde and Bernard Hepton as Utterson[12]
  • 1997, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, BBC Radio 4 dramatization with Alexander Morton as Jekyll/Hyde and David Tennant[13]
  • 2007, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, BBC Radio 4 Saturday Drama with Adam Godley as Jekyll/Hyde and Christine Kavanagh as Mrs. Utterson.[14]
  • 2012, BBC Radio Scotland crime drama, The Strange Case of Dr. Hyde, a four-part reworking of the Stevenson story written by Chris Dolan set in modern-day Edinburgh. Detective Inspector Newman (David Rintoul), assisted by Detective Constable Lanyon (Kenny Blyth), is investigating a series of mutilation murders and seeks the help of eccentric pathologist Dr. Hyde (Jimmy Chisholm), becoming involved along the way with solicitor Jane Poole (Wendy Seager).
  • 2016, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, BBC Radio 4 BBC Drama with Stuart McQuarrie as Jekyll, John Dougall as Hyde and Madeleine Worrall as Lorna Utterson[15] This version is presented as a speculative version of what the original Jekyll & Hyde would have been like before Stevenson edited it based on his wife's objections, and introduces the twist of a third identity for Jekyll in the form of George Denman, intended to represent all the most positive aspects of Jekyll's character, only for Denman to regress to Hyde when he loses his temper.

Television[edit]

  • 1955, Season 1 Episode of CBS's live CLIMAX! drama program. This is an adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's "The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde". Hosted by Bill Lundigan, this episode was originally aired on 28 July 1955 (Season 1 Episode 34). The story was adapted for television by Gore Vidal.[16]
  • 1959, made-for-TV film France, The Testament of Dr. Cordelier. A modern adaptation of Stevenson's novel, it stars Jean-Louis Barrault, Teddy Bilis, and Michel Vitold.
  • 1968, TV U.S. and Canada, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Starring Jack Palance, directed by Charles Jarrott and produced by Dan Curtis of Dark Shadows fame. Nominated for several Emmy awards, it follows Hyde on sexual conquests and hack and slash murders. The TV-movie aired on CBC in Canada on January 3, 1968; and on ABC in the US on January 7.[17]
  • 1973, TV U.S. and England, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a musical made-for-TV version starring Kirk Douglas in one of his few singing roles. No relation to the later musical version, the songs for this one were by Lionel Bart, who wrote Oliver.
  • 1977, The Incredible Hulk, pilot episode. Dr. Banner is horrified when he realizes that the Hulk can neither be controlled nor safely studied. As he tells his colleague, Dr. Elaina Marks, "I want to make sure it never happens again. I want to be Dr. Banner, not Dr. Jekyll."
  • 1979, The Incredible Hulk episode "Married." Dr. Banner reveals his secret to a clinical psychologist, Dr. Carolyn Fields, whose technique might help him control the Hulk. Explaining his problem, Dr. Banner asks, "Have you ever read Robert Louis Stevenson?" To which Dr. Fields replies, "Treasure Island?" Dr. Banner says, "No...Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde."
  • 1989, TV UK, with Laura Dern and Anthony Andrews in the dual role. This version, adapted by J. Michael Straczynski.
  • 1990, TV U.S., Jekyll & Hyde, a four-hour, two-part, made-for-television film starring Michael Caine in the title roles. Adds in the story Jekyll's sister-in-law character (Cheryl Ladd), who is raped by Hyde.
  • 1999, TV film USA. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde starring Adam Baldwin. In this modern-day re-imagining, plastic surgeon Henry Jekyll learns ancient Chinese herbal medicine to give himself superhuman powers, which he uses to exact revenge for his wife's murder. Francis Ford Coppola produced.
  • 2002, TV film UK Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde starring John Hannah as both characters, with body language and wardrobe the only distinction between the appearance of the two. The narrative is chronologically disjointed, beginning with the end of the story then returning to the beginning via narrated flashbacks with the occasional brief glimpse of the reading of Jekyll's confession by Utterson.
  • 2007, TV serial UK, Jekyll. A six-part BBC serial, aired from 16 June 2007, starring James Nesbitt as Tom Jackman, a modern Jekyll whose Hyde wreaks havoc in modern London.
  • 2008, TV film. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, starring Dougray Scott, Tom Skerritt, and Krista Bridges.
  • 2013, TV U.S., Do No Harm, an NBC series. This is a contemporary take on the story, with actor Steven Pasquale in dual roles as Dr. Jason Cole/Ian Price. Cole is a successful neurosurgeon who has long been able to suppress Price, his evil, alternate personality with an experimental drug. However, Price develops an immunity to the drug and subsequently wreaks havoc on Cole's life, when in control.
  • 2015, TV UK, Jekyll & Hyde a "superhero-themed" "Jekyll & Hyde" 10-episode series, produced by ITV Studios for ITV, being filmed between February and July 2015.[18] Beginning on 25 October 2015, the series takes place in the 1930s and centred around Robert Jekyll, the grandson of Henry Jekyll, who has inherited his grandfather's curse to become Mr. Hyde when angry, but could keep this from happening by taking special tablets. In the course of the series, Robert finds himself caught between MIO, a British organisation created to hunt the supernatural, and the ruthless Tenebrae, an organisation that seeks to use the supernatural for power, as well as his own attempts to control the Hyde within him by researching his family history, finding his long-hidden grandmother and previously-unknown sister (Who has a Hyde of her own).
  • 2015, TV film. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, starring Gianni Capaldi, Shaun Paul Piccinino and Mickey Rooney in his final role.[19]
  • 2015, TV romance-thriller South Korean television series. Hyde, Jekyll, Me , starring Hyun Bin as both Hyde and Jekyll, renamed Seo-jin and Robin. In this version, Hyde is the main personality, while Jekyll is the new personality resulted by an accident.
  • 2016, TV UK. Penny Dreadful season 3, with Shazad Latif as Dr. Henry Jekyll. Here, Jekyll is an old medical school friend of Victor Frankenstein's, who once schemed with him to upend the medical establishment. He comes to Victor's aid after the latter has lost control of his creations.
  • 2016, TV U.S., Once Upon a Time season 5 and 6, with Hank Harris as Dr. Jekyll and Sam Witwer as Mr. Hyde. In this version, Rumplestiltskin helps Dr. Jekyll to create his formula, hoping to benefit from Dr. Jekyll's work. Dr. Jekyll still has evil tendencies at times, and Hyde can be nice. The characters separate and appear in the present day.
  • In Season 3; The Flash: Episode "Magenta", Barry Allen mentions Frankie Kane is Dr. Jekyll & Magenta is Mr. Hyde.
  • In 1999, every CSI episodes: Charles DiMesa aka Dr. Jekyll but he tells Ray Langston knows who Serial Killer Dr. Jekyll is Nathan "Nate" Haskell who was born: Warner Thorne on CSI Episodes "19 Down" to "Modus Operandi"
  • Heckyl's name referred as Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde with split personality whose share same bodies with Snide on Power Rangers Dino Super Charge.

Music[edit]

Book[edit]

  • 1979, Dr. Jekyll and Mr Holmes, by Loren D. Estleman, is a 'retelling' of the story based on the idea that Utterson hired Sherlock Holmes to investigate Hyde's connection to Jekyll in the belief that Hyde is a blackmailer. The novel is written in a manner that suggests it was essentially taking place 'behind the scenes' of the tale we know, until it culminates in Holmes and Watson confronting Hyde just as he consumes the last sample of the potion to turn back into Jekyll, Jekyll telling them his story before forcing Holmes to kill him as he recognizes that Hyde will never commit suicide. The novel ends with Holmes sharing the story with Robert Louis Stevenson, but asking that he leave Holmes and Watson out of his version of the story to prevent anyone realizing that it is a chronicle of real events and to avoid facing the legal issue of Holmes killing Jekyll even if in self-defence.
  • 1990, Robert Bloch's The Jekyll Legacy acts as a sequel to the novel, in which Hester Lane, a reporter from Canada, discovers that she's Jekyll's heir. However, someone is continuing Jekyll's experiments. The novel takes an even more sinister turn as Jekyll's butler Poole and Mr. Utterson are bludgeoned to death.
  • 2001, Ludovic Debeurme's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde illustrated edition adapted for young readers.
  • The Robert Swindells book Jacqueline Hyde concerns the protagonist's struggle with her 'Hyde' after smelling a bottle, the contents of which releases her bad side.
  • Strange Case of Mr. Bodkin and Father Whitechapel, by Elias Keller, re-creates Stevenson's narrative structure in a novel about a banker who takes Jekyll's drug and releases his repressed saint, Father Whitechapel. The novel integrates true events from 1888 about Jack the Ripper and the Charity Organisation Society. In Keller's novel, the perspective originally held by Utterson is taken on by Charles Loch, Secretary of the Charity Organisation Society.[22]
  • The 2014 Daniel Levine book, Hyde, acts as the original book's companion, telling it from Hyde's perspective, adding new elements to the plot

Appearances in other fiction[edit]

  • Mad Monster Party, a 1967 American animated comedy film, features Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as guests at a party thrown by Baron Boris von Frankenstein.
  • 1988, video game, Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde for the NES, created by Toho. Considered one of worst video games ever made.
  • 1990 novel Mary Reilly by Valerie Martin, a reworking of Stevenson's plot, told from the viewpoint of a maid in Jekyll's household, named Mary Reilly in this novel.
  • 1993, animated film, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Mr. Hyde appears as one of the citizens of Halloween Town. Only seen in his "Hyde" form, he keeps two smaller versions of himself underneath his hat.
  • 1994, movie U.S., The Pagemaster, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde play as supporting characters, both voiced by Leonard Nimoy, Hyde threatening the main characters before they drop him down a pit.
  • 2000, film Monster Mash, during main character's trial for "failure to scare", their lawyer, a bumbling, mummy-type monster, according to Drac, once "got millions for Mr. Hyde, when he sued Dr. Jekyll for malpractice."
  • 2001, video game, Jekyll and Hyde for Windows platform, created by Cryo Interactive.
  • 2003, film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, adapted from Alan Moore's eponymous comic book series. The film adaptation stars Jason Flemyng as both Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the latter using prosthetic makeup. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are employed by The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen to combat The Fantom. The version of Hyde depicted in both comic and movie bears more resemblance to the Hulk than the malevolent dwarf of the novel, possessing great strength and size. As in the comic book on which it is based, this is attributed to Hyde "growing, free from boundaries, free from limitations" (Although the film version is still dependent on Jekyll drinking the serum to transform rather than Hyde no longer requiring the potion to manifest).
  • 2004, film Van Helsing. Robbie Coltrane provides the voice of a CGI animated Mr. Hyde, who Van Helsing unintentionally kills at the cathedral of Notre Dame when pursuing him through Paris. Like in The League of Extraordinary Gentleman, Mr. Hyde is also portrayed as a large, hulking brute. When Hyde dies, he transforms back into Dr. Jekyll.
  • 2008, animated film, Igor: a major character is Jacqueline and Heidi.
  • 2010, television series, Sanctuary, the character Adam Worth's story was stolen by a former friend and retold under the "fictional" title of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Adam's psychological disorder is one of "split personality" at a time before modern psychiatry.
  • 2012, Sony Pictures animated film, Hotel Transylvania, Mr. Hyde can be seen as one of the monsters in Hotel Transylvania. This version has an underbite, has pale yellow skin, and wears a suit and a top hat.
  • 2014, In Fate/Prototype: Fragments of Blue & Silver, a light novel series based on the original drafts of Fate/stay night, Dr. Jekyll appears as the Servant of the Berserker class, portrayed as a gentle and good looking young man. His Noble Phantasm allows him to transform into Mr. Hyde.

Spoofs and parodies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Indie Groundbreaking Book: The Strange Case of Mr. Bodkin & Father Whitechapel". Independent Publisher - gbbook. Retrieved 2017-05-24. 
  2. ^ The Beast Within The Guardian, 13-Dec-2008
  3. ^ Derivative works of Robert Louis Stevenson
  4. ^ http://www.tabardweb.co.uk/jekyl.htm
  5. ^ Frayling, Christopher (1997). "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde". Nightmare: The Birth of Victorian Horror. 42 minutes in. BBC. 
  6. ^ http://www.digitaldeliftp.com/DigitalDeliToo/dd2jb-Weird-Circle.html
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-18. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  11. ^ https://archive.org/details/cbs_radio_mystery_theater
  12. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01hxn39
  13. ^ http://www.amazon.co.uk/The-Strange-Case-Jekyll-Mr-Hyde/dp/1900912651
  14. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00773qr
  15. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b082sz7r
  16. ^ "Climax - Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1955)". Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  17. ^ Thompson, Jeff (2010). House of Dan Curtis: The Television Mysteries of the Dark Shadows Auteur. Nashville, TN: Westview, Inc. p. 24. ISBN 9781935271604. 
  18. ^ Evry, Max. "Full Cast Announced for ITV’s Jekyll & Hyde". comingsoon.net. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  19. ^ Hill, Kristen (2014-04-07). "Mickey Rooney: 1920-2014". Paste. 
  20. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/album/bonnie-and-clyde-mw0000803674
  21. ^ Jekyll and Hyde (Petra album)
  22. ^ "Indie Groundbreaking Book: The Strange Case of Mr. Bodkin & Father Whitechapel". Independent Publisher - gbbook. Retrieved 2017-05-24. 
  23. ^ Mrs Hyde by Belladonna "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-07. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 

External links[edit]