Kellerman in her famous one-piece bathing suit
|Born||Annette Marie Sarah Kellerman
6 July 1886
Marrickville, New South Wales, Australia
|Died||6 November 1975
Southport, Queensland, Australia
|Great Barrier Reef|
|Other names||Annette Marie Sarah Kellerman|
|Education||Mentone Girls' Grammar School|
|Occupation||Swimmer, actress, writer|
|Known for||Swimmer, actress, writer, Inventor of Synchronised Swimming, Pioneer of women's swimwear|
|Spouse(s)||James Raymond Louis Sullivan (m. 1912–75)|
Annette Marie Sarah Kellerman (6 July 1886 – 6 November 1975) was an Australian professional swimmer, vaudeville star, film actress and writer. She was one of the first women to wear a one-piece bathing costume, instead of the then-accepted pantaloons, and inspired others to follow her example.
Kellerman was born in Marrickville, New South Wales, Australia, on 6 July 1886, to Australian-born violinist Frederick William Kellerman, and his French wife, Alice Ellen Charbonnet, a pianist and music teacher.
At the age of 6, a weakness in Kellerman's legs necessitated the wearing of painful steel braces to strengthen them. To further overcome her disability, her parents enrolled her in swimming classes at Cavill's baths in Sydney. By the age of 13, her legs were practically normal, and by 15, she had mastered all the swimming strokes and won her first race. At this time she was also giving diving displays.
In 1902, Kellerman decided to take her swimming seriously and subsequently won the ladies' 100 yards and mile championships of New South Wales in the record times of 1 minute, 22 seconds and 33 minutes, 49 seconds respectively. In that same year, her parents decided to move to Melbourne, and she was enrolled at Mentone Girls' Grammar School where her mother had accepted a music teaching position.
During her time at school, Kellerman gave exhibitions of swimming and diving at the main Melbourne baths, performed a mermaid act at Princes Court entertainment centre and did two shows a day swimming with fish in a glass tank at the Exhibition Aquarium. In June–July 1903 she performed sensational high dives in the Coogee scene of Bland Holt's spectacular, The Breaking of the Drought, at the Melbourne Theatre Royal.
On 24 August 1905, aged 19, Kellerman was the one of first women to attempt to swim the English Channel. After three unsuccessful swims she declared, "I had the endurance but not the brute strength." (The first woman to attempt a Channel crossing was Baroness Walburga von Isacescu, an Austrian, in September 1900. Kellerman later challenged and defeated Isacescu in a Danube race.)
Kellerman was famous for advocating the right of women to wear a one-piece bathing suit, which was controversial at the time. According to an Australian magazine, "In the early 1900s, women were expected to wear cumbersome dress and pantaloon combinations when swimming. In 1907, at the height of her popularity, Kellerman was arrested on Revere Beach, Massachusetts, for indecency – she was wearing one of her fitted one-piece costumes."
The popularity of her one-piece suits resulted in her own line of women's swimwear. The "Annette Kellermans", as they were known, were the first step to modern swimwear. It may be argued that the "Annette Kellerman" is the direct ancestor of the unitard.
In 1916, Kellerman became the first major actress to do a nude scene when she appeared fully nude in A Daughter of the Gods. Made by Fox Film Corporation, Daughter of the Gods was the first million-dollar film production. Like many of Kellerman's other films, this is now considered a lost film as no copies are known to exist.
The majority of Kellerman's films had themes of aquatic adventure. She performed her own stunts including diving from ninety-two feet into the sea and sixty feet into a pool of crocodiles. Many times she would play mermaids named Annette or variations of her own name. Her "fairy tale films", as she called them, started with The Mermaid (1911), in which she was the first actress to wear a swimmable mermaid costume on film, paving the way for future screen sirens such as Glynis Johns (Miranda), Esther Williams and Daryl Hannah (Splash). She designed her own mermaid swimming costumes and sometimes made them herself. Similar designs are still used by The Weeki Wachee Springs Mermaids, including her aquatic fairy costume first introduced in Queen of the Sea (1918).
Kellerman appeared in one of the last films made in Prizma Color, Venus of the South Seas (1924), a US/New Zealand co-production where one reel of the 55-minute film was in colour and underwater. Venus of the South Seas was restored by the Library of Congress in 2004 and is the only feature film starring Kellerman known to exist in its complete form.
In addition to her film and stage career, Kellerman wrote several books including How To Swim (1918), Physical Beauty: How to Keep It (1919), a book of children's stories titled Fairy Tales of the South Seas (1926), and My Story, an unpublished autobiography. She also wrote numerous mail order booklets on health, beauty and fitness.
A lifelong vegetarian, Kellerman owned a health food store in Long Beach, California. She and her husband returned to live in Australia in 1970, and in 1974 she was honoured by the International Swimming Hall of Fame at Fort Lauderdale, Florida. She remained active well into old age continuing to swim and exercise until a short time before her death.
Preceded by her husband in death, Kellerman died in the hospital at Southport, Queensland, Australia, on 6 November 1975, aged 89 and was cremated with Roman Catholic rites. Her remains were scattered in the Great Barrier Reef. She had no children.
Kellerman's large collection of costumes and theatrical memorabilia was bequeathed to the Sydney Opera House. Today, many of her original costumes and personal items are held by the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, Australia.
An award-winning Australian documentary called The Original Mermaid about Kellerman was produced in 2002.
A brand new swimming complex in Marrickville opened December 2010 has been named after her.
- The Bride of Lammermoor: A Tragedy of Bonnie Scotland (1909)
- Jephtah's Daughter: A Biblical Tragedy (1909)
- The Gift of Youth (1909)
- Entombed Alive (1909)
- Siren of the Sea (1911)
- The Mermaid (1911)
- Neptune's Daughter (1914)
- A Daughter of the Gods (1916)
- National Red Cross Pageant (1917)
- Queen of the Sea (1918)
- What Women Love (1920)
- Venus of the South Seas (1924)
- Miss Kellerman's Diving Feats (1907)
- Miss Annette Kellerman (1909)
- The Perfectly Formed Woman (1910)
- The Universal Boy (1914/I)
- The Art of Diving (1920)
- Annette Kellerman Performing Water Ballet (1925)
- Annette Kellerman Returns to Australia (1933)
- Water Ballet: Sydney (1940)
- Water Ballet (1941)
- The Love Goddesses (1965)
- The Original Mermaid (2002)
- Reader's Digest Services, "Record-breaking swimmers", Australia's Yesterdays: a Look at Our Recent Past, 2nd edition, 1974 p.193
- Walsh, G. P (1983). "Kellerman, Annette Marie Sarah (1886–1975)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- Bohn, Michael (2009). Heroes & Ballyhoo: How the Golden Age of the 1920s Transformed American Sports. Potomac Books Inc.
- "Herstory: Annette Kellerman". The Dawn (54). March 2004. Archived from the original on 18 November 2005. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- Nelson, Judy (2005). "Kerr, Beatrice Maude (1887–1971)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Modern Woman Getting Nearer The Perfect Figure. Sunday Magazine. 4 December 1910
- Robertson, James Crighton (1993). The Hidden Cinema: British Film Censorship in Action, 1913–1975. Routledge. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-415-09034-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Annette Kellerman.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Annette Kellerman|
- Kellerman, Annette (1886–1975) in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in the Twentieth Century
- Annette Kellerman at Women Film Pioneers Project
- Annette Kellerman Costume Collection at the Powerhouse Museum
- Hollywood Star Walk for Annette
- ADB biography
- Article & Photo used in crucial trial on decency between Esquire and the Postmaster General
- Photo on the beach
- Photo: Head Profile circa 1926
- Photo: Face
- Article: Scroll Down to article on Neptune's Daughter and other of her lost films
- Annette Kellerman at the Internet Movie Database
- Annette Kellerman photo gallery at NYP Library
- Christine Schmidt, Second Skin: Annette Kellerman, the modern swimsuit, and an Australian contribution to global fashion, Queensland University of Technology PhD thesis, 2008.
- 1923 passport photo , Annette Kellerman
- 1917 Advertisement for A Daughter of the Gods
- Article "Miss Kellerman Remarkable Lady", Vancouver Daily Sun / 27 December 1917
- "A Daughter of the Gods" promotion piece: "Masterpiece of the Film Art", Vancouver Daily Sun / 29 December 1917