A German gymnastic movement was started by Turnvater ("father of gymnastics") Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the early 19th century when Germany was occupied by Napoleon. The Turnvereine ("gymnastic unions") were not only athletic, but also political, reflecting their origin in similar "nationalistic gymnastic" organizations in Europe. The Turner movement in Germany was generally liberal in nature, and many Turners took part in the Revolution of 1848.
After its defeat, the movement was suppressed and many Turners left Germany, some emigrating to the United States. Several of these Forty-Eighters went on to become Civil War soldiers, the great majority in the Union Army, and American politicians. Besides serving as physical education, social, political and cultural organizations for German immigrants, Turners were also active in the American public education and the labor movements. Eventually the German Turner movement became involved in the process leading to German unification.
History in the USA
The Turnvereine made a contribution to the integration of German-Americans into their new home. The organizations continue to exist in areas of heavy German immigration, such as Iowa, Texas, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Missouri, Syracuse, NY, Kentucky, New York City, and Los Angeles.
Together with Carl Schurz, the American Turners helped support the election of Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States. They provided the bodyguard at his inauguration on March 4, 1861, and at his funeral in April, 1865. In the Camp Jackson Affair, a large force of German volunteers helped prevent Confederate forces from seizing the government arsenal in St. Louis just prior to the beginning of the war.
Like other German-American groups, the American Turners experienced discrimination during World War I. The German language was banned in schools and universities, and German language journals and newspapers were shut down, but the Turner societies continued to function.
Cultural assimilation and the two World Wars with Germany took a gradual toll on membership, with some halls closing and others becoming regular dance halls, bars or bowling alleys. Fifty-four Turner societies still existed around the U.S. as of 2011. The current headquarters of the American Turners is in Louisville, Kentucky.
Vintage photos of the Milwaukee Turnverein
Other Wisconsin Turners in 1915
Jahn Monument in Berlin with memorial plaques from American Turnvereine
Turn Verein, Syracuse Turners, Inc., 619 N Salina St, Syracuse, NY (May 15th, 1854)
Turner Hall, Boonville, Missouri
Pilsen Turner Hall, Chicago, Illinois
Central Turner Hall (1848), Cincinnati, Ohio
Germania Singing and Sport Society, Columbus, Ohio
Central Turner Hall (1888), Davenport, Iowa
Northwest Turner Hall (1882), Davenport, Iowa
Turner Hall (1888), Duluth, Minnesota
Elgin Turners, Elgin, Illinois
Turner Hall, Galena, Illinois
Independent Turnverein, Indianapolis, Indiana
Germania Turnverein, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Turner Hall (1868), Madison, Wisconsin
Turners Hall (1868), New Orleans, Louisiana
Turner Hall, New Ulm, Minnesota
Turn-Verein, East 4th Street, New York, New York
Central Turn-Verein, East 67th Street, New York, New York
Turner Hall, Postville, Iowa
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to
- Claire E. Nolte. "The German Turnverein". Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
- Gruen, Mardee. "Milwaukee Turners, local Jews go back 141 years." Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle April 29, 1994; p. 6, col. 1
- Annette R. Hofmann (August 3, 1998). "150 years of Turnerism in the United States". Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Max Kade Center.
- John B. Jentz. "Turnvereins". Encyclopedia of Chicago.
- Mary Lou LeCompte. "TURNVEREIN MOVEMENT". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
- Scott Williams. "THE ROLE OF GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN CIVIL WAR - MISSOURI". The Missouri Civil War Museum. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- "Welcome to American Turners". American Turners. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
- "Indiana State Historic Architectural and Archaeological Research Database (SHAARD)" (Searchable database). Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology. Retrieved 2015-07-01. Note: This includes Karen Anderson (November 1979). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Hugh McCulloch House" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-07-01. and Accompanying photographs.
- Staff (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Gertrud Pfister. "The Role of German Turners in American Physical Education," International Journal of the History of Sport 26 (no. 13, 2009) 1893-925
- Website of the American Turners
- History of the American Turners By Henry Metzner
- Archives of the American Turners
- American Turner Topics newsletter
- Website of the Los Angeles Turners with history, photos, newsletters, and links to other Turners Organizations
- The American Turners, Wilmington Records and the Roxborough Turners Records, including by-laws, correspondence, minutes and photographs, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.