Joint

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For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation).
Joint
Joint.svg
Diagram of a typical synovial joint
Gray298.png
Details
System Musculoskeletal system
Articular system
Identifiers
Latin Articulus
Junctura
Articulatio
TA A03.0.00.000
FMA 7490
Anatomical terminology

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body.[1][2] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement. The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.[3]

Classification[edit]

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

A facet joint is the joint between two articular processes between two vertebrae.[4][5]

Structural classification (binding tissue)[edit]

Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other.[1] There are three structural classifications of joints:[6]

  • fibrous joint – joined by dense regular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers [7]
  • cartilaginous joint – joined by cartilage
  • synovial joint – not directly joined – the bones have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue that forms the articular capsule that is normally associated with accessory ligaments.[7]

Functional classification (movement)[edit]

Joints can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow:[1][8]

Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial.[12] Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom.[12] A further classification is according to the number and shapes of the articular surfaces: flat, concave and convex surfaces.[12] Types of articular surfaces include trochlear surfaces.[13]

Biomechanical classification[edit]

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[14]

  1. Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex joint: two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)

Anatomical[edit]

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Joints of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Clinical significance[edit]

Further information: Arthropathy and Arthritis

A joint disorder is termed an arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called an arthritis. Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis.

Arthropathies are called polyarticular (multiarticular) when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only a single joint.

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The English word joint is a past participle of the verb join, and can be read as joined.[15] Joint is derived from Latin iunctus,[15] past participle of the Latin verb iungere, join together, unite, connect, attach.[16]

The English term articulation is derived from Latin articulatio.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Whiting, William Charles and RuggDynatomy, Stuart (2006) Dynamic Human Anatomy, Volume 10 p.40
  2. ^ "Articulation definition". eMedicine Dictionary. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Standring, ed.-in-chief Susan (2006). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. (39th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. p. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "isbn0-443-07168-3" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^ "Medilexicon - Medical Dictionary - Articular Facet". Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Foundational Model of Anatomy". Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3) - Joints - Classification by Tissue Joining Bones". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  7. ^ a b Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Tortora & Derrickson, Pub: Wiley & Sons
  8. ^ a b "Introduction to Joints (2) - Joints - Classification by Movement". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  9. ^ Samuel George Morton (1849) An Illustrated System of Human Anatomy p.119
  10. ^ Henry Gray (1859) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.136
  11. ^ Henry Gray (1887) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.220
  12. ^ a b c Platzer, Werner (2008) Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Volume 1, p.28
  13. ^ Armen S Kelikian, Shahan Sarrafian Sarrafian's Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle: Descriptive, Topographic, Functional p. 94
  14. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  15. ^ a b c Klein, E. (1971). A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
  16. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

External links[edit]