The club was established in 1904, making their first final appearance in the 1913 season, where they defeated S.C.U.F. 31-8 at the Stade Yves-du-Manoir. The national domestic championship was replaced by the Coupe de l'Espérance during World War I. The competition was played for four seasons, with Aviron Bayonnais contesting the last final, which they lost to Stadoceste Tarbais 4 to 3.
With the French championship resumed, the club made their next championship game in the 1922 season where they met Toulouse. Aviron Bayonnais lost the final 6 to nil. The two clubs would meet again the next season to again contest the championship final, which Toulouse won again, 3 to nil.
Aviron Bayonnais enjoyed success during the mid-1930s, defeating Biarritz 13 to 8 in Toulouse to win their second championship, and first since 1913. They also won the Challenge Yves du Manoir in 1936, defeating Perpignan in the final. The club saw similar results during the mid-1940s as well, with two championship final appearances; defeating SU Agen in the 1943 final at Parc des Princes in Paris and losing the 1944 season final to Perpignan.
Since the 1940s the club did not find a lot of success over the coming years, as they would have to wait until the 1980s until they would again reach any of the championship finals. In 1980 they contested the final of the Challenge Yves du Manoir, defeating AS Béziers 16 to 10 to gain their second title of that competition. They made it to the final of the 1982 season, although they were defeated by SU Agen, 18 to 9.
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