Bengkulu

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This article is about the Indonesian Province. For the city, see Bengkulu (city). For the language, see Bengkulu language.
Bengkulu
بڠكولو
Province
Bengkulu (province) banner.JPG
Bengkulu Traditional Dance.png Grand Mosque of Curup.jpg
Rafflesia arnoldi - panoramio.jpg Soekarno's residence in Bengkulu.jpg
Danau Dusun Besar, Cagar Alam yang harus dijaga.. - panoramio.jpg Thomas Parr Monument, Bengkulu, 2015-04-19 01.jpg
From top, left to right : Lake Dendam Tak Sudah, Bengkulu Traditional Dance, Grand Mosque of Curup, Rafflesia arnoldi, Soekarno's house while in exile in Bengkulu, Lake Dusun Besar, Thomas Parr Monument
Flag of Bengkulu
Flag
Seal of Bengkulu
Seal
Nickname(s): Bumi Rafflesia
Land of Rafflesia
Motto: Sekundang setungguan seio sekato (Malay)
(Any hard jobs would be easier if it is done by teamwork)
Location of Bengkulu (marked in light green) in Indonesia
Location of Bengkulu (marked in light green) in Indonesia
Location of Bengkulu
Country  Indonesia
Established 18 November 1968
Capital and Largest City Kota Bengkulu.png Bengkulu
Government
 • Body Bengkulu Regional Government
 • Governor Dr. H. Ridwan Mukti, M.H
 • Vice Governor Dr. H. Rohidin Mersyah, M.M
Area
 • Total 19,919.33 km2 (7,690.90 sq mi)
Area rank 24th
Population (2014 Estimate)
 • Total 1,828,291
 • Rank 26th
 • Density 92/km2 (240/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Bengkulunese
Warga Bengkulu (id)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Rejang (60,4%), Javanese (22,3%), Serawai (17,9%), Lembak (4,9%), Pasemah (4,4%), Minangkabau (4,3%), Malay (3,6%), Sundanese (3%), Batak (2%)[1]
 • Religion Islam 95,27%, Christianity 3,59%, Hindu 0,73%, Buddhism 0,41%
 • Languages Indonesian (official language), Rejangese, Javanese language, Serawai, Lembak language, etc.
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Area code(s) 0732 (Kepahiang, Curup or Rejang Lebong), 0736 (Bengkulu, Central Bengkulu, Seluma), 0737 (Muko-Muko, North Bengkulu), 0738 (Lebong), 0739 (Kaur, South Bengkulu)
Vehicle registration BD
HDI Increase 0.686 (medium)[2]
HDI rank 11th (2013)[3]
Largest city by area Bengkulu - 144.52 square kilometres (55.80 sq mi)
Largest city by population Bengkulu - (308,756 - 2010)
Largest regency by area North Bengkulu Regency - 5,548.54 square kilometres (2,142.30 sq mi)
Largest regency by population North Bengkulu Regency - (256,358 - 2010)
Website Government official site

Bengkulu (Jawi: بڠكولو), historically known as Bencoolen or British Bencoolen,[4][5] is one of the Provinces of Indonesia and is located in the southwest coast of Sumatra. It was formed on 18 November 1968 by separating out the former Bengkulu Residency area from South Sumatra (Sumatra Selatan) province under Law No. 9 of 1967 and was realized by Government Regulation No. 20 of 1968. Spread over 19,813 km2, it is bordered by the provinces of West Sumatra (Sumatra Barat) to the north, Jambi to the northeast, Lampung to the southeast, South Sumatra (Sumatra Selatan) to the east, and the India Ocean to the northwest, south, southwest, and west.

Bengkulu is the 25th largest province by area; it is divided into nine regencies and the separate city of Bengkulu, the capital and largest city. Bengkulu is also the 26th largest province by population in Indonesia. According to a release by Badan Pusat Statistik, it has the eleventh highest Human Development Index among the provinces, with a score about 0.744 in 2013. By 2014, the province positions 28th highest in gross domestic product and 20th highest in life expectancy, 70.35 years.

Bengkulu Province comprises not only land on southwest Sumatra, but also includes Mega Island and Enggano Island in the Indian Ocean. Bengkulu has 525 kilometres of coastline along the Indian Ocean on its western side, from Dusun Baru Pelokan in Muko-Muko Regency to Tebing Nasal in Kaur Regency. Bengkulu is home to many natural resources such as coal and gold, and has big and potential geothermal resources. In addition, it is less developed than other provinces in Sumatra.

Geography[edit]

Geographically, Bengkulu is located between 2° and 5° South Latitude and between 101° and 104° Eastern Longitude. The western part of Bengkulu province bordering the Indian Ocean coast that has a length of about 576 km and the eastern part of the condition is hilly with a plateau that is prone to erosion. Bengkulu Province is located in the west side of the Bukit Barisan mountains. The total area of Bengkulu province reached approximately 1.97887 million hectares or 19788.7 square kilometers. Bengkulu Province area extends from the border province of West Sumatra to the border province of Lampung and the distance is approximately 567 kilometers. Judging from its geographical situation, Bengkulu Province lies between 2 ° 16 '- 03 ° 31' latitude and 101 ° 01 '-103 ° 41' east longitude. Bengkulu province in the north bordering the province of West Sumatra, in the southern Indian Ocean and Lampung province, in the west bordering the Indian Ocean and in the east with the province of Jambi and South Sumatra Province.Bengkulu province bordered by the Indian Ocean coastline of approximately 525 kilometers. Its western part is hilly with fertile plateaus, while the western part is lowland relatively narrow, elongated from north to south and punctuated selangi bumpy areas.

The total area of Bengkulu province is 19 788.7 km², in public administration Bengkulu province is divided into 8 districts and 1 town, consisting of 93 districts.

History[edit]

European women dressed in sarongs in front of Fort Marlborough (early 20th century)

The region formed part of the Buddhist Srivijaya empire in the 8th century, but this south-west Sumatran part was never under any big local patronage as of neighboring Palembang or Jambi Sultanates. There were only few smalls ‘kedatuan’ based on ethnicity such as in Sungai Serut, Selebar, Pat Petulai, Balai Buntar, Sungai Lemau, Sekiris, Gedung Agung and Marau Riang. It was then once a vassal region of Banten Sultanate (from Western Java) and since 17th century was ruled by Minangkabau’s Inderapura Sultanate (today’s in Pesisir Selatan, West Sumatra Province).

The first European visitors to the area were the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch in 1596. The English East India Company established a pepper-trading center and garrison at Bengkulu (Bencoolen) in 1685.[citation needed] In 1714 the British built Fort Marlborough, which still stands. The trading post was never profitable for the British, being hampered by a location which Europeans found unpleasant, and by an inability to find sufficient pepper to buy.[citation needed] It became an occasional port of call for the EIC's East Indiamen.

If anything the rest of Sumatra and for the most part of Indonesia was under Dutch East Indies, then Bengkulu was the lone exception in that it belonged to British (English East India) until an Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824. So Stamford Raffles was here, as were other British governors, as well as a number of monuments and forts. Despite their difficulties, the British persisted, maintaining their presence for roughly 140 years before ceding it to the Dutch as part of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Malacca.[6] Bengkulu then remained part of the Dutch East Indies until the Japanese occupation in World War 2.

During Sukarno's imprisonment by the Dutch in the early 1930s, the future first president of Indonesia lived briefly in Bengkulu.[citation needed] Here he met his wife, Fatmawati, who bore him several children, one of whom, Megawati Sukarnoputri, became Indonesia's first female President. During early independence, Bengkulu was included in the older 'South Sumatera' Province with Lampung, the Bangka-Belitung Archipelago and what became South Sumatera itself, as a Residency. It finally gained its provincial status in 1968 as the 26th province (prior to the last province: East Timor). ’27’ was the famous number of provinces (27 provinces) during New Order Regime which would last for the next thirty years until 1998. As of today, the number of administrative provinces has expanded rapidly (now 34 provinces).

Bengkulu lies near the Sunda Fault and is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis. The June 2000 Enggano earthquake killed at least 100 people. A recent report predicts that Bengkulu is "at risk of inundation over the next few decades from undersea earthquakes predicted along the coast of Sumatra"[7] A series of earthquakes struck Bengkulu during September 2007, killing 13 people.[8]

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 519,316 —    
1980 768,064 +47.9%
1990 1,179,122 +53.5%
1995 1,409,117 +19.5%
2000 1,567,436 +11.2%
2010 1,715,568 +9.5%
2014 1,828,291 +6.6%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010

The 2010 census reported a population of 1,715,568[9] including 875,663 males and 837,730 females,[10] by January 2014 this had risen to 1,828,291.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Bengkulu is home to various indigenous ethnic groups. The Rejangs form the majority of the province with 60,4% of the population. The second largest ethnic group is the Javanese forming around 24%. Other minority indigenous ethnic groups includes Lembak, Serawai, Pekal, Enggano, Pasemah, Minangkabau and Malays. There is also non-indigenous ethnic groups that mostly came from other parts of Indonesia such as Sundanese, Javanese, Acehnese, Madurese, Batak, Chinese and others.

Religion[edit]

Religion in Bengkulu
religion percent
Islam
  
95.27%
Christianity
  
3.59%
Hinduism
  
0.73%
Buddhism
  
0.41%

Islam forms majority of the population in the province with more than 95%. Christianity is the second largest religion with around 3% while the rest are Buddhist, Hindus (mostly Balinese migrants) and traditional beliefs.

Languages[edit]

As with other parts of Indonesia, Indonesian language is the official language in all formal occasions, institutions, and government affairs. However, local languages is still widely used in daily life. Most indigenous languages in Bengkulu belongs to Malayan group of Austronesian languages such as Bengkulu Malay, Lembak, Pekal and Minangkabau varieties. The most widely spoken language in the province that is Rejang is unusual as it is the only Bornean language to be spoken in Sumatra (and one of three outside of Borneo other than Malagasy in Madagascar and Yakan in Basilan). Enggano's linguistic classification is still a debatable subject but currently it is classified as a highly divergent branch of Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian. Besides Enggano, there is also one less-studied language that is Nasal language, it maybe related to Rejang or forms its own branch of Malayo-Polynesian. Non-indigenous ethnic groups also speak their own language/dialects.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Bengkulu Province is subdivided into nine regencies and the independent city of Bengkulu, which lies outside any regency. The regencies and city are listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census and at the latest (January 2014) estimates.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
Population
Estimate 2014
Capital HDI[11]
2014 Estimates
Bengkulu City 144.52 308,756 328,827 Bengkulu 0.764 (High)
Central Bengkulu Regency
(Bengkulu Tengah)
* 98,570 104,797 Karang Tinggi 0.641 (Medium)
Kaur Regency 2,369.05 107,627 114,992 Bintuhan 0.637 (Medium)
Kepahiang Regency 704.57 125,011 133,073 Kepahiang 0.652 (Medium)
Lebong Regency 1,929.24 97,091 105,737 Tubei 0.639 (Medium)
Mukomuko Regency 4,036.70 156,312 165,992 Mukomuko 0.653 (Medium)
North Bengkulu Regency
(Bengkulu Utara)
5,548.54 256,358 274,614 Arga Makmur 0.672 (Medium)
Rejang Lebong Regency 1,475.99 246,378 263,010 Curup 0.665 (Medium)
Seluma Regency 2,400.44 172,801 184,913 Pasar Tais 0.629 (Medium)
South Bengkulu Regency
(Bengkulu Selatan)
1,179.65 142,722 152,336 Manna 0.682 (Medium)
Totals 19,919.33 1,715,568 1,828,291 0.680 (Medium)

* – The area of Central Bengkulu Regency is included in the figure for North Bengkulu Regency, of which it was formerly part.

Bengkulu warriors.

Economy[edit]

Three active coal mining companies produce between 200,000 and 400,000 tons of coal per year, which is exported to Malaysia, Singapore, South Asia, and East Asia.[citation needed] Fishing, particularly tuna and mackerel, is an important activity.[citation needed] Agricultural products exported by the province include ginger, bamboo shoots, and rubber.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bengkulu Lumbung Nasionalis yang Cair. http://epaper.kompas.com. February 11, 2009.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  2. ^ "Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Metode Baru 2010–2014". Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  3. ^ May 2016 "Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Menurut Provinsi, 1996–2013" Check |url= value (help). 
  4. ^ 10, 2016 "A History on the Honourable East India Company's Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685–1825" Check |url= value (help). 
  5. ^ 10, 2016 "Bencoolen (Bengkulen)" Check |url= value (help). 
  6. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 34. 
  7. ^ Andrew C. Revkin (2006-12-05). "Indonesian Cities Lie in Shadow Of Cyclical Tsunami". New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)) p. A.5. 
  8. ^ New York Times
  9. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik : Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995 and 2000 Retrieved 5 April 2010
  10. ^ Jumlah Penduduk Bengkulu 1,7 Juta Jiwa | Harian Berita Sore
  11. ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014

References[edit]

  • Reid, Anthony (ed.). 1995. Witnesses to Sumatra: A traveller's anthology. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. pp. 125–133.
  • Wilkinson, R.J. 1938. Bencoolen. Journal of the Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society. 16(1): 127–133.
    • Overview of the British experience in Bencoolen