Almighty Black P. Stone Nation
|Founding location||Chicago, Illinois, United States|
|Ethnicity||predominantly African American|
|Criminal activities||Drug trafficking, robbery, extortion, murder|
|Allies||Vice Lords, People Nation|
|Rivals||Folk Nation, Gangster Disciples|
|Notable members||Jeff Fort
Eugene "Bull" Hairston
The Black P. Stone Nation aka BPSN is a Chicago-based street gang estimated to have more than 30,000 members. The gang was originally formed in the late 1950s as the Blackstone Rangers. In later years, an Islamic faction of the gang emerged, naming themselves the "El Rukn tribe of the Moorish Science Temple of America" (or simply El Rukn, Arabic for “the foundation”). The group's founder is Jeff Fort.
Considered by law enforcement authorities to be Chicago's most powerful and sophisticated street gang, the BPSN finances itself through a wide array of criminal activities and is part of the large Chicago gang alliance known as the People Nation. Under Fort's command, the BPSN assumed an increasingly revolutionary outlook as it became associated with the black nationalism movement, eventually attracting the attention of the Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, who introduced them to Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi and Nicaragua's Sandinistas. In 1986 four of its members were indicted for conspiring to commit terrorist acts in the United States for the Libyan Government. The verdict marked the first time American citizens had been found guilty of planning terrorist acts for a foreign government in return for money.
The BPSN originated, and is based, on the South Side of Chicago in the Woodlawn neighborhood. As of today, the gang has a strong presence in the Northwest Indiana communities of Gary and Merrillville with a growing presence in Portage, the northern area of Crown Point, as well as the western area of Hobart and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
The Blackstone Rangers were founded at the St. Charles Institution for Troubled Youth by Jeff Fort and Eugene Hairston as a community organization for black youth in the Woodlawn area of South Chicago. Between 1961 and 1963, they evolved into one of the most dangerous and powerful gangs in Chicago. Fort seized upon the gang's changed mission, renaming it the Black P. (Pyramid) Stone Nation. He transformed the BPSN into a black nationalistic group, and continued to involve the gang in street crime and drug trafficking. BPSN co-founder Eugene Hairston was incarcerated on drug charges in June 1966 and was eventually murdered in the early 1980s. Fort was arrested for mismanagement of government grants totaling $927,000 from the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in March 1972. Fort was released in the early 1980s, but was later re-incarcerated on drug charges. At some time in the 1980s, Fort converted to Islam and imbued the BPSN with Islamic overtones. It was then that he adopted the name of Abdullah-Malik and the rank of "caliph".
According to former gang member Lance Williams, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan was responsible for introducing Fort to Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi. Following meetings during 1986 with Libyan operatives from Colonel Gaddafi's government, Fort was arrested. In 1987, Fort was tried and convicted for conspiring with Libya to perform acts of domestic terrorism. He was sentenced to 80 years imprisonment and transferred to the USP Marion, the federal supermax prison in Marion, Illinois. In 1988, Fort was also convicted of ordering the 1981 murder of a rival gang leader and was sentenced to 75 years in prison to be served after the completion of his terror conspiracy sentence. While Fort continues to exercise considerable influence over the BPS from prison, the various Black Stones splinter groups suffer from rampant infighting without a clear leader. There are two major groups that have split with the BPSN The Mickey Cobras were supporters of Mickey Cogwell, a co-founder of BPSN killed by Jeff Fort. The Titanic Stones were supporters of Eugene Hairston who had a falling-out with Fort.
- The FBI investigation into Jeff Fort and his El Rukns gang for terrorism was featured in an episode of The FBI Files entitled "Terror For Sale", such as the gang's purchase of a LAW Rocket (actually a dummy rocket) from an undercover agent posing as an arms dealer.
- Malik Yusef, the spoken word artist, poet, musician, film producer and actor based in Chicago, Illinois is a former member of the widespread Islamic street gang.
- "National Gang Threat Assessment 2009". United States Department of Justice. January 2009. Archived from the original on 5 February 2011.
- Malcolm, Andrew H. (October 31, 1986). "4 In Chicago Gang Indicted In Libyan Terror Plot". The New York Times.
- Blau, Robert and O`Brien, John (September 8, 1991). "Rise And Fall Of El Rukn: Jeff Fort`s Evil Empire". Chicago Tribune.
- Florida Department of Corrections. "Street Gangs — Chicago Based or Influenced: People Nation and Folk Nation". State of Florida. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- Maurice Possley and William B. Crawford Jr. (October 31, 1986). "El Rukns Indicted In Libya Scheme". Chicago Tribune.
- Kenneth O'Reilly, Racial Matters: The FBI's File on Black America, 1960 - 1972 (New York: Free Press, 1991), 409.
- Klein, Aaron (2011-03-03). "Farrakhan, Gadhafi supported U.S. terrorist group". WND.
- "Gaddafi's Goons". Time Inc. December 7, 1987.
- Lance Williams, "The Black Pyramid Stone: Black Power, Politics, and Gangbanging," University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, February 12, 2001.
- Knox, George W. (2003). "GANG PROFILE UPDATE: The Black P. Stone Nation (BPSN)". National Gang Crime Research Center.
- McPherson, James A. (May 1969). "Chicago's Blackstone Rangers (I)". Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- Dart, Robert W. (1992). "Views from the Field: The Future is Here Today: Street Gang Trends". Journal of Gang Research 1.1: 87–90.
- "Five Draw Long Sentences for Terrorism Scheme". The New York Times (Associated Press). 1987-12-31. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Don Terry (1991-05-19). "In Chicago Courtroom, Nation's First Super Gang Fights for Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-28.
- "Rossi, Rosilind (1992-08-24). "How the Law Won War With El Rukns". Chicago Sun-Times. "Jeff Fort, serving 155 years at the federal prison in Downstate Marion"
- "GANG CHIEF GUILTY IN RIVAL'S SLAYING". The New York Times. 1988-10-20. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Rossi, Rosalind (1988-11-15). "75 more years for Fort 4 other Rukns draw stiff terms". Chicago Sun-Times: pp. 3.
- 2011 The Almighty Black P Stone Nation: The Rise, Fall, and Resurgence of an American Gang Natalie Y. Moore (Author), Lance Williams (Author) ISBN 978-1-55652-845-3
- Cooley, Will. "'Stones Run It': Taking Back Control of Organized Crime in Black Chicago, 1940-1975," Journal of Urban History 37:6 (November, 2011), 911-932.