Boston Scientific

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Boston Scientific Corporation
TypePublic
ISINUS1011371077
IndustryMedical device
FoundedJune 29, 1979; 43 years ago (1979-06-29) in Watertown, Massachusetts
Founders
HeadquartersMarlborough, Massachusetts, U.S.
Key people
Michael F. Mahoney, Chairman and CEO
Daniel Brennan, CFO
RevenueIncrease US$11.89 billion (2021)[1]
Increase US$1.20 billion (2021)[1]
Increase US$1.04 billion (2021)[1]
Total assetsIncrease US$32.23 billion (2021)[1]
Total equityIncrease US$16.62 billion (2021)[1]
Number of employees
c. 41,000[1] (2021)
Websitewww.bostonscientific.com

Coordinates: 42°21′37.3″N 71°33′32.6″W / 42.360361°N 71.559056°W / 42.360361; -71.559056 Boston Scientific Corporation ("BSC"), incorporated in Delaware, is a biomedical/biotechnology engineering firm and multinational manufacturer of medical devices used in interventional medical specialties, including interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, peripheral interventions, neuromodulation, neurovascular intervention, electrophysiology, cardiac surgery, vascular surgery, endoscopy, oncology, urology and gynecology. Boston Scientific is widely known for the development of the Taxus Stent, a drug-eluting stent which is used to open clogged arteries.[2] With the full acquisition of Cameron Health in June 2012, the company also became notable for offering a minimally invasive implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) which they call the EMBLEM subcutaneous implantable defibrillator (S-ICD).[3][4]

History[edit]

Boston Scientific was formed forty-three years ago, on June 29, 1979, in Watertown, Massachusetts, as a holding company for the medical products company, Medi-Tech, Inc., and to position the company for growth in interventional medicine.[5] Medi-Tech was the brainchild of Itzhak Bentov, a Czech-born emigre to Israel and then to the United States, who worked at the Arthur D. Little think tank in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and ran a contract research company from his rented house in Belmont, Massachusetts, a venture he founded in 1965 with a business friend, Dan Singer. In 1967 he was asked by Boston Beth Israel Hospital radiologists to design a steerable, remotely controlled catheter; a series of engineering designs, polymer improvements and prototypes led to the release of a new steerable angiography catheter in 1969. That year John Abele joined the small company with an option to buy, and a year later he exercised his option with Cooper Labs as business partner, and the operation was moved – out of Bentov's lab in the basement of the rectory of a Catholic church[6] in Belmont – to Watertown. After a decade of steady growth, by chance Abele met Pete Nicholas in their neighborhood in Concord, Massachusetts. Their partnership hinged on Nicholas' goal to build business enterprises and Abele's predilection for the vision and potential in noninvasive surgical instrumentation; they gathered backers in the Boston banking community to buy out the Cooper Labs interest and form the new corporation.

Less than a year later Kimray Medical Associates (later Mansfield Scientific, Inc.) was acquired, adding vena cava filters and cardiac output computers to the product line. By 1982 a renovated mill building in Watertown was transformed into a manufacturing plant. Acquisitions continued, with Endo-Tech (Microvasive, Inc.: gastrointestinal and pulmonary) in 1981 and then Van-Tec (urology) in 1988, and an international presence was expanded. Mansfield Scientific, Microvasive, and Medi-Tech merged into Boston Scientific December 31, 1988.[7]

Initial public offering (1992)[edit]

Thirty years ago – May 19, 1992 – Boston Scientific launched an initial public offering of 23.5 million shares, of which, 18.8 million were offered in the U.S. and 4.7 million were offered outside the U.S. The initial offering amounted to 23% of Boston Scientific's outstanding stock. The opening price was $17 per share.[5] Goldman, Sachs & Co. (lead) and PaineWebber Inc. were the underwriters and Abbott Laboratories held a 20% stake (23.5 million shares). The market capitalization was about $1.6 billion[8] (equivalent to about $3.09 billion in 2021).[9][10] The U.S. shares were listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

Post–IPO[edit]

From 1995 through 1997, Boston Scientific increased its technology R&D and product offerings following several substantial acquisitions that included Cardiovascular Imaging Systems (intravascular ultrasound), SCIMED (cardiovascular), Vesica Medical (urology), Meadox (textile vascular prostheses), EP Technologies (cardiac ablation controllers),[11] MinTec (abdominal aortic aneurysm grafts), Symbiosis Corporation (specialty medical product manufacture), and Target Therapeutics (on neurology).[12] Boston Scientific acquired Target Therapeutics in a tax-free stock swap for about $1.1 billion, more than 10 times Target's earnings, in contrast to the usual multiple of 10 times earnings.[13]

The Taxus Stent was approved in 2003 in Europe and other countries and, in the United States, by the FDA in March 2004. It was the second drug-eluting stent approved in the United States.[2]

In April 2004 the company announced that it had exercised an exclusive option to acquire Precision Vascular Systems, Inc., as part of a series of agreements between Boston Scientific and Precision Vascular in 2002 – for an undisclosed sum.[14] In June Boston acquired Advanced Bionics Corporation for $740 million in cash, plus earn out payments.[15] In December Boston completed its acquisition of Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc., for $120 million payable in Boston Scientific stock, plus the possibility of future contingent payments. AST had been developing stent and stent delivery systems specifically designed to address the anatomical needs of coronary artery disease in bifurcated vessels.[16]

In April 2005, Boston exercised an exclusive option to acquire TriVascular, Inc., for an undisclosed sum and renamed it as Boston Scientific Santa Rosa Corporation, or BSSR. TriVascular was founded in January 1998 to develop less-invasive medical devices and procedures for treating abdominal aortic aneurysms, but BSC discontinued its endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) program in 2006.[17][18] Also, in April 2005, BSC announced it had exercised its option to acquire CryoVascular Systems, Inc., and its proprietary angioplasty device to treat atherosclerotic disease of the legs and other peripheral arteries.[19] In June Boston Scientific announced that its wholly owned subsidiary, Nemo I Acquisition, Inc., had successfully acquired Salt Lake City-based Rubicon Medical Corporation, with Rubicon became a wholly owned subsidiary of Boston Scientific.[20]

In March 2008, BSC sold BSSR to TV2 Holding Company of Santa Rosa. Terms of the sale include $30 million in cash paid at the closing to BSC and a warrant allowing BSC to purchase a minority interest in TV2.[21][18]

Guidant merger[edit]

In January 2006, the company announced an offer for its longtime competitor, Guidant, for $72 per share or $25 billion.[22] The offer, however, was rejected. On April 21, 2006, BSC acquired Guidant for $27.2 billion. Guidant was split between BSC and Abbott Laboratories.[23][24] Four years later, in 2010, when moving its heart-rhythm business from its acquisition of Guidant, Boston Scientific eliminated 1300 jobs.[25]

Post-merger[edit]

In December 2007, Boston Scientific announced it would sell its Fluid Management and Venous Access businesses for $425 million to Avista Capital Partners.[26]

In April 2008, the company acquired CryoCor, Inc., for $1.35 per share, $17.6 million in total.[27][28] Navilyst Medical was formed in February 2008 from Boston Scientific's Fluid Management and Vascular Access business units.[29]

In January 2009, Boston announced it would acquire Labcoat Limited, whose primary development was that of a development-stage drug-eluting stent – for an undisclosed sum.[30]

In October 2010, the company was fined $600,000 by the US Department of Justice for paying a US Army doctor to use their devices and recommend them to others.[31] In the same month Boston Scientific acquired Asthmatx, Inc., for $193.5 million, with payments of up to $250 million being paid on the achievement of specified revenue-based criteria through 2019.[32]

In January 2011, Boston acquired Atritech, Inc., for $100 million plus additional potential payments of up to $275 million. Atritech developed a novel device called the Watchman® designed to close the left atrial appendage in patients with atrial fibrillation who are at risk for ischemic stroke.[33] In the same month, Boston Scientific acquired Intelect Medical, Inc., for $78 million[34] and the remaining 86% of Sadra Medical, Inc., not already owned for $193 million plus contingent payments.[35] At the same time, the business divested its neurovascular business to Stryker Corporation for $1.5 billion.[35]

In June 2012, Boston Scientific officially acquired Cameron Health for a total sum of $1.3 billion, paid out incrementally as various revenue milestones were achieved.[3] In September the company announced it would acquire BridgePoint Medical, Inc., developer of a catheter-based system to treat coronary chronic total occlusions.[36] In October, the company acquired Rhythmia Medical, Inc., developer of mapping and navigation methods for use in cardiac catheter ablations and other electrophysiology procedures.[37] A month later the business acquired catheter-based renal denervation system developer, Vessix Vascular, Inc.[38]

In November 2013, Boston announced it would acquire Bard EP, the electrophysiology business of C.R. Bard, Inc.,[39] for $275 million.[40]

In May 2014, Boston acquired hysteroscopic intrauterine tissue removal specialist, IoGyn, Inc.[41] In September, the business announced it would acquire the Interventional business of Bayer.[42]

In March 2015, the company announced it would acquire Endo International Plc's American Medical Systems urology business for at least $1.6 billion, expanding the company's health and prostate treatments.[43] In April, Boston announced its intention to acquire Xlumena, Inc.[44] In October Boston announced it had invested further in percutaneous mitral valve replacement system developer, MValve Technologies, gaining a right to acquire the business in the future.[45]

As of 2016, it operates in more than 100 countries, employs more than 24,000 people, and manufactures around 13,000 diverse products.[46] In July 2016 the business acquired the manufacturer of radiofrequency ablation systems, Cosman Medical, Inc.[47] In September, Boston announced it had acquired EndoChoice Holdings, Inc., becoming part of the Boston Scientific Endoscopy business for $8.00 per share or $210 million in total.[48] In November the company acquired the gynecology and urology portfolio of Distal Access, LLC, a company that designs minimally invasive medical devices.[49] In December 2016, the business acquired a 15% stake in Neovasc, Inc., for $75 million.[50]

In May 2017, the company acquired Symetis SA, a developer of minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation devices.[51] In October Boston acquired Apama Medical Inc. for up to $300 million.[52]

In April 2018, Boston Scientific announced the triple closure of its acquisitions of women's health company, nVision Medical Corporation,[53] NxThera[54] and Securus Medical Group, Inc., for up to $50 million.[55] In July, Boston Scientific announced it would acquire Cryterion Medical, Inc,[56] Veniti, Inc.,[57] in August Augmenix, Inc., and Claret Medical, Inc.[58] and in October[59] In late November Boston announce they would acquire UK medical device maker, BTG plc, for $4.2 billion.[60] BTG, before being acquired, was publicly traded and a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. In late December, the company announced it would acquire Millipede, Inc for $325 million – after previously investing $90 million in the company.[61]

In May 2019, the company announced it would acquire Vertiflex, Inc., with the aim of increasing its interventional pain therapy offerings. Vertiflex principally developed treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis.[62]

In January 2021, Boston announced it would acquire Minneapolis-based Preventice Solutions, Inc., and its portfolio of mobile cardiac health solutions for up to $1.2 billion.[63] In March, the business announced it would acquire Lumenis Ltd. for $1 billion from an affiliate of Baring Private Equity Asia, who, in 2019, had acquired it from XIO Group.[64][65] In June, the company announced it would acquire the 73% of Farapulse, Inc., it did not already own, for $295 million. Farapulse was a University of Iowa startup. The deal complimented Boston Scientific's existing electrophysiology portfolio.[66] In September, the business announced it would acquire Devoro Medical, Inc., and its blood clot capturing technology.[67] Boston Scientific had been a strategic investor in Devoro since 2019. In October, the company announced it would acquire Baylis Medical Company Inc. for $1.75 billion, expanding its electrophysiology and heart product portfolios (see Frank Baylis).[68][69]

In June 2022, the business announced it would acquire M.I.Tech Co., Ltd., of South Korea, for around $230 million.[70]

Boston Scientific mergers & acquisitions
  • Boston Scientific
    • Precision Vascular Systems, Inc. (Acq 2004)
    • Advanced Bionics Corporation (Acq 2004)
    • Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. (Acq 2004)
    • TriVascular, Inc. (Acq 2005)
    • CryoVascular Systems, Inc. (Acq 2005)
    • Nemo I Acquisition, Inc.
      • Rubicon Medical Corporation (Acq 2005)
    • Guidant (Acq 2006 and split between Boston and Abbott Laboratories)
    • CryoCor, Inc. (Acq 2008)
    • Labcoat Limited (Acq 2009)
    • Asthmatx, Inc. (Acq 2010)
    • Atritech, Inc. (Acq 2011)
    • Intelect Medical, Inc. (Acq 2011)
    • Sadra Medical, Inc. (Acq 2011)
    • Cameron Health (Acq 2012)
    • BridgePoint Medical, Inc. (Acq 2012)
    • Rhythmia Medical, Inc. (Acq 2012)
    • Vessix Vascular, Inc. (Acq 2012)
    • Bard EP (Acq 2013)
    • IoGyn, Inc. (Acq 2014)
    • Bayer (Interventional business, Acq 2014)
    • Endo International (Urology business, Acq 2015)
    • Xlumena, Inc. (Acq 2015)
    • Cosman Medical, Inc. (Acq 2016)
    • EndoChoice Holdings, Inc. (Acq 2016)
    • Distal Access, LLC (Gynecology and Urology business, Acq 2016)
    • Symetis SA (Acq 2017)
    • Apama Medical Inc. (Acq 2017)
    • nVision Medical Corporation (Acq 2018)
    • NxThera (Acq 2018)
    • Securus Medical Group, Inc. (Acq 2018)
    • Cryterion Medical, Inc. (Acq 2018)
    • Veniti, Inc. (Acq 2018)
    • Augmenix, Inc. (Acq 2018)
    • Claret Medical, Inc. (Acq 2018)
    • BTG plc (Acq 2018)
    • Millipede, Inc. (Acq 2018)
    • Vertiflex, Inc. (Acq 2019)
    • Preventice Solutions, Inc. (Acq 2021)
    • Lumenis Ltd (Acq 2021)
    • Farapulse, Inc (Acq 2021)
    • Devoro Medical, Inc. (Acq 2021)
    • Baylis Medical Company Inc (Acq 2021)
    • M.I.Tech Co., Ltd (Acq 2022)

Organizational culture[edit]

BSC has been assessed favorably by its employees. In Glassdoor annual Best Places to Work – Employee's Choice Survey, BSC earned scores of:

  • 2018: #35 (of 100). 4.4 stars (of 5).
  • 2019: #56 (of 100). 4.3 stars (of 5).
  • 2022: #52 (of 100). 4.3 stars (of 5).[71]

The feedback for this survey is given by current and former employees. As of 2018, BSC had 43% women among its employees, 38% among management positions, and 23% among corporate top management positions (data for US workforce, as of 2018).[72]

Social commitment[edit]

Boston Scientific has set a standard for implementing an integrative organizational culture and states that it actively strives to further improve this by, among other things, increasing diversity among its employees – and in particular, among its managers, executives, and directors. To this end, the company has set itself the following goals in 2018:[73][74]

  • Leadership role by belonging to the top 10 companies in the integration of employees of the following groups: women, people of color, disabled persons and members of the LGBTQ community.
  • Increase the proportion of people of color with supervisor or managerial functions to 20% in the USA including Puerto Rico (end of 2018: 19.6%, +1.8% compared to 2017).
  • Increase the proportion of women in supervisor or managerial positions to 40% worldwide (end of 2018: 38.4%, +1.0% against 2017).

Success for these objectives has been chronicled and ranked by publications and organizations, including:

  • Forbes added the company in 2019 to its list of Best Employers For Diversity for its efforts to foster a corporate culture that welcomes and supports all employees. That year, BSC ranked 85th out of 500 companies.[75] Forbes included BSC in its 2021 and 2022 lists as well – ranking it 6th in 2021 and 171st in 2022, out of 500 for both years.[76][77]
  • Bloomberg recognized BSC for its inclusion in the Gender-Equality Index in 2019, which includes companies that publicly demonstrate their commitment to equality and the advancement of women in the workplace. The index lists a total of 230 companies from ten economic sectors and 36 countries and regions.[78]
  • The US magazine Working Mother, in 2017, listed BSC, for the first time, along with 9 other companies, as one of the "100 Best Companies for Working Mothers." The publication, again, listed BSC in 2018, 2019, and 2020.[72] The magazine ceased publication in 2021.
  • The Human Rights Campaign ("HRC") named BSC as a Best Place to Work for LGBTQ Equality in its 2019 edition of the eponymous list. HRC has given BSC a ranking of 100 (of 100) every year from 2015 through 2022 in its annual CEI Index (Corporate Equality Index) rankings of Fortune 1000 companies.[79]
  • The journal, US Black Engineer & Information Technology (USBE & IT), in its "2021 Top Supporters of HBCU Engineering," ranked BSC No. 6 among the "Top 20 Industry Supporters."[80]

Litigation[edit]

Johnson & Johnson patent litigation[edit]

Beginning in 2003, Boston Scientific and Johnson & Johnson were involved in a series of litigations involving patents covering heart stent medical devices. Both parties claimed that the other had infringed upon their patents. The litigation was settled once Boston Scientific agreed to pay $716 million to Johnson & Johnson in September 2009 and an additional $1.73 billion in February 2010.[81]

It was announced in November 2014 that Johnson & Johnson would have another chance for payback after a multibillion-dollar trial was set for November 20, 2014. A New York federal court judge would hear the case without a jury to decide whether Boston Scientific should be held liable for the contract breach.[82]

Transvaginal mesh[edit]

Boston Scientific is one of several manufacturers of a medical device called transvaginal mesh, a type of surgical mesh used to treat pelvic organ prolapse. Experts concluded that the medical company had used cheap, counterfeit resin, which was both toxic and degraded when exposed to oxygen.[83][84] When this was announced on 60 Minutes, Boston Scientific responded by saying the broadcast was "irresponsible and misleading,"[85] citing a 2017 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) report stating that although they found variability in the polypropylene resin, "these differences do not present new safety or effectiveness concerns."[86] One woman, who sued in 2011, was awarded $100 million. Two operations had failed to remove all the parts of the mesh and she was still in pain. The company appealed the decision and had the amount reduced to $10M.[87] In 2015, Boston Scientific announced it would pay $119 million to 2,970 lawsuit plaintiffs, who had been injured by the mesh.[88] On March 23, 2021, the company agreed to pay $189 million to settle allegations that it had seriously misrepresented the risks related to the vaginal mesh.[89] As of Jan. 27, 2021, around 54,000 lawsuits related to transvaginal meshes had been filed against Boston Scientific.[90]

In April 2019, the FDA ordered Boston Scientific and Coloplast to remove all of their vaginal mesh products from the United States market.[89]

In 2020, Johnson & Johnson was required to pay $344 million for failing to disclose the serious product risks of its transvaginal mesh product.[89]

NIR stent[edit]

In 2005, Boston Scientific paid $74 million to settle allegations that it had continued to sell NIR stents (flexible stents) after learning that many of them were defective. Twenty-six injuries and one death may have been caused by malfunctioning stents.[91]

Defective defibrillators[edit]

Guidant Vitalilty™ AVT™ implantable cardioverter-defibrillator – Model A135 (the model illustrated was not the subject of the charge)

In 2011, Guidant, a subsidiary of Boston Scientific, was criminally convicted of a failure to report defibrillator safety problems to the FDA.[92] The company was forced to pay more than $296 million in criminal fines and had to submit to the supervision of the U.S. Probation Office for three years. Even though Guidant knew the devices were defective, they continued to sell the defibrillators anyway.[93] Guidant LLC had also advised its sales representatives to tell physicians that nothing was wrong with the defibrillators, and told the FDA that the proposed corrections were not being done to correct life-threatening device flaws, but were rather to improve process throughout. Not until three deaths had occurred and ten months had passed did the company reveal the defects in 2005. The directives for these wrongdoings had been implemented prior to Boston Scientific’s acquisition of Guidant in 2006.[94]

In 2013, BSC and three of its subsidiaries – Guidant LLC, Guidant Sales LLC, and Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. – agreed to pay $30 million to settle allegations that, according to the Justice Department, between 2002 and 2005, Guidant knowingly sold defective heart devices to health care facilities that in turn implanted the devices into Medicare patients.[95][96]

Bribery allegations[edit]

Boston Scientific Altrua™ 50 Dual-Chamber Cardiac Pacemaker – Type DDDR; Model S502

In 2009, Boston Scientific agreed to pay $22 million to settle allegations that its subsidiary Guidant LLC had used kickback schemes to boost sales for its pacemakers (cardiac rhythm management or CRM devices) and defibrillators (implantable cardioverter-defibrillators or ICD devices). Allegedly, Guidant paid doctors between $1,000 and $1,500 each to participate in one of its four post-studies known as RaCE ($1,500), RaCE II ($1,000), RaCE III ($1,000), and MERITS ($1,000).[97]

Financial restatement[edit]

On November 3, 1998, Boston Scientific restated its financial results for 1997, as well as its quarterly results for the first three quarters of 1998, due to the occurrence of business irregularities in the operations of its Japanese subsidiary.[98]

Notable people[edit]

  • Donald Steven Baim, MD (1946–2009), served Chief Medical and Scientific Officer for Boston Scientific from 2006 until his death in 2009.
  • Ian Meredith, MD, PhD, AM (born 1956), has been Global Chief Medical Officer and Executive Vice President since January 2017.
  • Ursula Burns (born 1958), who served as a Member of Boston Scientific's 13-seat Board of Directors since 2002, resigned after being named Chief Executive Officer of the Xerox Corporation, taking effect July 1, 2009, and becoming the first African-American female CEO of a Fortune 500 company.
  • Kristina M. Johnson (born 1957), PhD, who served as a Member of BSC's Board since May 2006, resigned in May 2009 after being confirmed by the U.S. Senate to serve as Under Secretary in the Department of Energy (see Under Secretary of Energy for Infrastructure & Under Secretary of Energy for Science and Innovation). Johnson was re-elected to BSC's board January 1, 2011, and served in that position until May 2017.
  • Yoshiaki Fujimori (born 1951), BSC Board Member since July 2016.
  • James Robert Tobin, Jr. (born 1944), President & CEO of BSC from 1999 through 2009.
  • John Raymond Elliott "Ray" (born 1950), served as a Board Member from September 2007 to 2009, then, in July 2009, re-joined the Board and became President & CEO, a position held until to December 31, 2011. Before, he had served as Chairman of Zimmer Holdings, Inc., from August 6, 2001, to November 30, 2007, and President & CEO from March 20, 2001, to May 2007.

Locations[edit]

Headquarters and regional centers[edit]

Manufacturing plants[edit]

Customer fulfillment centers[edit]

Institutes for Advancing Science[edit]

In June 2022, Boston Scientific announced that it would invest $62.5 million in a manufacturing and supply chain facility in Johns Creek, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta.[99] In 2016, Boston Scientific had acquired EndoChoice, located in Alpharetta, 10.8 mi (17.4 km) from its proposed Johns Creek facility.

Subsidiaries[edit]

BSC, as of December 31, 2019, wholly owns or has a majority interest in all of the below mentioned entities.[100]

  • Acurate Industria e Comercio Ltda. (Brazil)
  • American Medical Systems Europe B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • Apama Medical, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Augmenix K.K. (Japan)
  • Augmenix, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Biocompatibles International Limited (England)
  • Biocompatibles UK Limited (England)
  • Biocompatibles, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Boston Scientific (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. (Malaysia)
  • Boston Scientific (South Africa) Proprietary Limited (South Africa)
  • Boston Scientific (Thailand) Ltd. (Thailand)
  • Boston Scientific (UK) Limited (England)
  • Boston Scientific AG (Switzerland)
  • Boston Scientific Argentina S.A. (Argentina)
  • Boston Scientific Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd. (Singapore)
  • Boston Scientific Benelux NV (Belgium)
  • Boston Scientific Canada Limited (Canada)
  • Boston Scientific Ceska republika s.r.o. (Czech Republic)
  • Boston Scientific Chile SpA (Chile)
  • Boston Scientific Clonmel Limited, in liquidation (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific Colombia Limitada (Colombia)
  • Boston Scientific Comercial de Costa Rica BSCR, S.R.L. (Costa Rica)
  • Boston Scientific Cork Limited, in liquidation (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific de Costa Rica S.R.L. (Costa Rica)
  • Boston Scientific de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)
  • Boston Scientific del Caribe, Inc. (Puerto Rico)
  • Boston Scientific do Brasil Ltda. (Brazil)
  • Boston Scientific Far East B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • Boston Scientific Gesellschaft m.b.H. (Austria)
  • Boston Scientific Group plc (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific Hellas S.A. (Greece)
  • Boston Scientific Hong Kong Limited (Hong Kong)
  • Boston Scientific Iberica, S.A. (Spain)
  • Boston Scientific India Private Limited (India)
  • Boston Scientific International B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • Boston Scientific International Finance Limited (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific International S.A. (France)
  • Boston Scientific Ireland Limited, in liquidation (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific Israel Ltd. (Israel)
  • Boston Scientific Japan K.K. (Japan), Tokyo, Japan (wholly owned subsidiary)
  • Boston Scientific Korea Co., Ltd. (Korea)
  • Boston Scientific Lebanon SAL (Lebanon)
  • Boston Scientific Limited (England)
  • Boston Scientific Limited (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific Ltd./Boston Scientifique Ltee. (Canada)
  • Boston Scientific Medical Device (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. (Malaysia)
  • Boston Scientific Medical Device Limited (Ireland)
  • Boston Scientific Medizintechnik GmbH (Germany)
  • Boston Scientific Middle East FZ-LLC (UAE)
  • Boston Scientific Middle East SAL (Offshore) (Lebanon)
  • Boston Scientific Nederland B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation (Delaware), headquartered in Valencia, California, founded 1993
  • Boston Scientific New Zealand Limited (New Zealand)
  • Boston Scientific Nordic AB (Sweden)
  • Boston Scientific Peru S.A.C. (Peru)
  • Boston Scientific Philippines, Inc. (Philippines)
  • Boston Scientific Polska Sp. z o.o. (Poland)
  • Boston Scientific Portugal - Dispositivos Medicos, Lda (Portugal)
  • Boston Scientific Pty Ltd (Australia)
  • Boston Scientific Romania S.R.L. (Romania)
  • Boston Scientific S.A.S.(France)
  • Boston Scientific S.p.A. (Italy)
  • Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. (Minnesota), headquartered in Maple Grove, Minnesota
  • Boston Scientific Services Private Limited (India)
  • Boston Scientific Technology & Engineering Services Private Limited (India)
  • Boston Scientific TIP Gerecleri Limited Sirketi (Turkey)
  • Boston Scientific Uruguay S.A. (Uruguay)
  • Boston Scientific Vietnam Company Limited (Vietnam)
  • Bravo Bidco Limited (England)
  • BSC International Medical Trading (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (China)
  • BSC Medical Device Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (China)
  • BTG Australasia Pty Ltd (Australia)
  • BTG Europe B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • BTG IM Holdings Ltd. (Israel)
  • BTG International (Holdings) Limited (England)
  • BTG International Asia Limited (Hong Kong)
  • BTG International Canada Inc. (Canada)
  • BTG International Germany GmbH (Germany)
  • BTG International Healthcare Inc. (Delaware)
  • BTG International Healthcare Limited (Delaware)
  • BTG International Healthcare LLC (Delaware)
  • BTG International Inc. (Delaware)
  • BTG International Limited (England)
  • BTG Limited (England)
  • BTG Management Services Limited (England)
  • BTG Medikal Limited Sirketi (Turkey)
  • Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. (Minnesota), headquartered in Saint Paul, Minnesota (publically traded)
  • CeloNova BioSciences Germany GmbH, in liquidation (Germany)
  • Claret Medical, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Cosman Medical, LLC (Massachusetts), based in Marlborough and Burlington, Massachusetts
  • Cryterion Medical, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Cryterion Medical Ireland, Limited (Ireland)
  • EKOS LLC (Delaware)
  • Electron Acquisition Corporation (Delaware)
  • EMcision International Inc. (Canada)
  • EndoChoice GmbH, in liquidation (Germany)
  • EndoChoice Holdings, Inc. (Delaware)
  • EndoChoice, Inc. (Delaware), based in Alpharetta, Georgia
  • EndoChoice Innovation Center Ltd. (Israel)
  • EndoChoice Israel Ltd. (Israel)
  • EP Technologies, Inc. (Delaware), based in Sunnyvale, California
  • Galil Medical Inc. (Delaware)
  • Galil Medical Ltd. (Israel)
  • Galil Medical UK Limited (England)
  • Guidant Delaware Holding Corporation (Delaware)
  • Guidant Europe NV (Belgium)
  • Guidant Puerto Rico B.V. (The Netherlands)
  • Hong Kong Medtech Trading Limited (Hong Kong)
  • Millipede, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Notebook Merger Sub, Ltd. (Delaware)
  • Novate Medical Limited (Ireland)
  • nVision Medical Corporation (Delaware)
  • NXT Merger Corp. (Delaware)
  • NxThera, Inc. (Delaware)
  • PneumRx GmbH (Germany)
  • PneumRx Liimited (England)
  • PneumRx LLC (Delaware)
  • Protherics Medicines Development B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Protherics Medicines Development Limited (England)
  • Protherics UK Limited (England)
  • Provensis Limited (England)
  • PT Boston Scientific Indonesia (Indonesia)
  • RMI Acquisition Corp. (California)
  • Robert S. Smith, M.D., Inc. (Georgia), based in Alpharetta, Georgia
  • Roxwood Medical, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Sadra Medical, Inc. (Delaware), based in Los Gatos, California, founded 2003
  • Securus Medical Group, Inc. (Delaware)
  • SNS Merger Corp (Delaware)
  • Special K Merger Corp. (Delaware)
  • StarMedTec GmbH, in liquidation (Germany)
  • Stream Enterprises LLC (Delaware)
  • Symetis SA (Switzerland)
  • Target Therapeutics, Inc. (Delaware), headquartered in Fremont, California, founded 1991
  • Veniti, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Vertiflex, Inc. (Delaware)
  • Zuma Investment Pty Ltd (Australia)
  • 34 Biomedical Merger Corp. (Delaware)
  • 9357-1867 Quebec Inc. (Canada)

Bibliography[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Wood, March 4, 2004.
  3. ^ a b Cameron Health, June 8, 2012.
  4. ^ "EMBLEM S–ISC System," 2020.
  5. ^ a b "About Boston Scientific".
  6. ^ MassDevice, June 9, 2010.
  7. ^ Corporations Division, Boston Scientific.
  8. ^ Chicago Tribune, April 4, 1992, p. 2.
  9. ^ Federal Reserve Bank, Minneapolis.
  10. ^ McCusker, John, October 1991.
  11. ^ New York Times, October 10, 1995, p. 4D.
  12. ^ Rodengen, 2001, p. 163.
  13. ^ Lee, 2018, p. 116.
  14. ^ Precision Vascular Systems, April 7, 2004.
  15. ^ Advanced Bionics Corporation, June 1, 2004.
  16. ^ Advanced Stent Technologies, December 16, 2004.
  17. ^ TriVascular, April 18, 2005.
  18. ^ a b Sacramento Business Journal, March 23, 2008.
  19. ^ CryoVascular Systems, April 18, 2005.
  20. ^ Rubicon Medical Corporation, June 14, 2005.
  21. ^ TriVascular (sale of BSSR), March 31, 2008.
  22. ^ Guidant, January 8, 2006.
  23. ^ NBC News, January 25, 2006.
  24. ^ Guidant, April 21, 2006.
  25. ^ Karim, November 2012.
  26. ^ Fluid Management & Venous Access, December 13, 2007.
  27. ^ CryoCor, May 28, 2008.
  28. ^ CryoCor Merger, April 16, 2008.
  29. ^ Xconomy, August 5, 2008.
  30. ^ Labcoat Ltd., January 6, 2009.
  31. ^ Seattle Times, August 13, 2011.
  32. ^ Asthmatx, October 26, 2010.
  33. ^ Atritech, January 19, 2011.
  34. ^ Intelect Medical, January 5, 2011.
  35. ^ a b Sadra Medical, January 4, 2011.
  36. ^ BridgePoint Medical, September 19, 2012.
  37. ^ Rhythmia Medical, October 8, 2012.
  38. ^ Vessix Vascular, November 8, 2012.
  39. ^ Bard Electrophysiology, November 1, 2013.
  40. ^ C.R. Bard Electrophysiology, June 28, 2013.
  41. ^ IoGyn, May 6, 2014.
  42. ^ Bayer Interventional Business, September 2, 2014.
  43. ^ Bloomberg News, March 2, 2015.
  44. ^ Xlumena, April 1, 2015.
  45. ^ MValve Technologies, October 8, 2015.
  46. ^ Market Realist, May 13, 2016.
  47. ^ Cosman Medical, July 27, 2016.
  48. ^ EndoChoice, November 22, 2016.
  49. ^ Resectr™ Tissue Resection Device, November 15, 2016.
  50. ^ Neovasc Advanced Biological Tissue, December 12, 2016.
  51. ^ Symetis, May 16, 2017.
  52. ^ Apama Medical, October 2, 2017.
  53. ^ nVision Medical, April 16, 2018.
  54. ^ NxThera, April 30, 2018.
  55. ^ Securus Medical Group, April 3, 2018.
  56. ^ Cryterion Medical, July 5, 2018.
  57. ^ VENITI, August 8, 2018.
  58. ^ Claret Medical, August 2, 2018.
  59. ^ Augmenix, October 16, 2018.
  60. ^ BTG – Keown, November 20, 2018.
  61. ^ Millipede – Terry, December 28, 2018.
  62. ^ Vertiflex, May 9, 2019.
  63. ^ Preventice Solutions, January 21, 2021.
  64. ^ Lumenis Surgical Business, March 3, 2021.
  65. ^ NS Medical Devices, November 20, 2019.
  66. ^ Farapulse, June 24, 2021.
  67. ^ Devoro Medical, September 21, 2021.
  68. ^ Reuters, October 6, 2021.
  69. ^ Globe and Mail, October 6, 2021.
  70. ^ M.I.Tech Co., June 15, 2022.
  71. ^ Glassdoor.
  72. ^ a b Working Mother.
  73. ^ "Diversity & Inclusion".
  74. ^ "2021 Performance Report".
  75. ^ Forbes, January 19, 2019.
  76. ^ Diversity, May 2, 2022.
  77. ^ 3BL CSRwire, May 5, 2022.
  78. ^ Bloomberg – "Gender-Equality Index".
  79. ^ Human Rights Campaign.
  80. ^ US Black Engineer & IT, 2021, pp. 24–27.
  81. ^ Wall Street Journal, February 2, 2010.
  82. ^ Reuters, November 19, 2014.
  83. ^ CBS News, April 17, 2019.
  84. ^ CNN Business, January 14, 2016.
  85. ^ MassDevice, May 14, 2018.
  86. ^ APOPS, May 14, 2018.
  87. ^ Reuters, October 9, 2015.
  88. ^ Reuters, May 28, 2015.
  89. ^ a b c MetTech Intelligence, March 23, 2021.
  90. ^ Boston Business Journal, March 23, 2021.
  91. ^ Boston, June 21, 2011.
  92. ^ U.S. Department of Justice, January 12, 2011.
  93. ^ U.S. Department of Justice, January 27, 2011.
  94. ^ MassDevice, April 6, 2010.
  95. ^ Strom Law Firm, January 25, 2020.
  96. ^ GlobalData, June 2022.
  97. ^ MassDevice, December 23, 2009.
  98. ^ Irregularities in Japanese Subsidiary, November 3, 1998.
  99. ^ Atlanta Business Chronicle, June 30, 2022.
  100. ^ BSC Annual Report, 2020, Exhibit 21.

References[edit]

Books, journals, magazines, papers, rating organizations, blogs, government (alphabetical)
  • APOPS (May 14, 2018). "60 Minute Mesh Expose: One-Sided Noise Generates Fear on Mother's Day". Racine, Wisconsin: Association for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Support (APOPS). Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  • Glassdoor. "Best Places to Work". icon of an open green padlock. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link) Originally retrieved April 19, 2019.
    1. GlobalData Company Deals and Alliances Profiles – Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare. "Boston Scientific Corp (BSX)". Report Code GDPH519D. June 2022. ProQuest 2479649577 (ABI/INFORM Collection).
    2. GlobalData Company Profiles – Medical Devices Product Pipeline Summary. "Boston Scientific Corp (BSX)". Report Code GDME519PR. June 2022. ProQuest 2455689963 (ABI/INFORM Collection); OCLC 1264916328 (all editions), 1135539675.
    1. 2014 (PDF).
    2. 2015 (PDF).
    3. 2016 (PDF).
    4. 2017 (PDF).
    5. 2018 (PDF).
    6. 2019 (PDF).
    7. 2020 (PDF).
    8. 2021 (PDF).
    9. 2022 (PDF).
    1. "Addenda et Corrigenda" (PDF). Vol. 106, Part 2. October 1996. pp. 327–334. OCLC 53347080 (all editions) (article).
    1. October-November 2017. 40(4). pp. 28–29, 82. ProQuest 1942180289
    2. October-November 2018. 41(4). pp. 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70. ProQuest 2130239079
    3. October-November 2019. 42(4). pp. 39–42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62. ProQuest 2305786349
    4. October-November 2020. 43(4). pp. 18–20, 22–24, 26, 28–30, 32, 34–41. ProQuest 2448689559
    5. (ProQuest GenderWatch & Research Library databases).
News media (alphabetical)
Primary sources via Boston Scientific
Primary sources via PR Newswire (by date)
Primary sources via BioSpace (by date)
Primary sources – financials
  • Boston Scientific Annual Reports.
    1. 2019 (PDF). Retrieved July 7, 2022.
    2. 2020 (PDF). Retrieved July 7, 2022.
    3. 2021 (PDF). Retrieved July 7, 2022.
    1. December 31, 2021 (filed February 23, 2022). Retrieved May 10, 2022.

External links[edit]