6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)
|6th Armoured Division|
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 6th Armoured Division.
|Size||Second World War
343 tanks[nb 1][nb 2]
|Sir John Crocker
Sir Gerald Templer
The 6th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, created in September 1940 during World War II. The unit was initially supplied with Matilda and Valentine tanks, which were replaced by Crusader tanks and then finally with the M4 Sherman tank. It participated in the Operation Torch assault landings in Algeria and Morocco in November 1942, and saw its first action as part of V Corps of the British First Army in the Tunisia Campaign. After Tunisia it participated in the Italian Campaign as part of the British Eighth Army, and ended the war in Austria, again under the command of V Corps.
The division was formed in the United Kingdom under Northern Command on 12 September 1940, commanded by Major-General John T. Crocker, an officer of the Royal Tank Regiment. The division initially had the 20th and 26th Armoured Brigades under command, as well as the 6th Support Group. In late April 1942, however, the 20th Armoured Brigade was transferred out of the division and replaced by the 38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade and the 6th Support Group was disbanded in June.
Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the joint Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War in the North African Campaign, starting on 8 November 1942.
The run for Tunis
On 22 November the North African Agreement finally placed Vichy French North Africa on the side of the Allies, allowing the Allied garrison troops to be sent forward to the front. By this time the Axis powers had been able to build up their forces resulting in them outnumbering their Allied counterparts in almost all ways.
The Allies had available only two brigade groups and some additional armour and artillery for an attack on Tunisia. Nevertheless, they believed if they moved quickly, before the newly arrived Axis forces were fully organised, they would still be able to capture Tunisia at relatively little cost.
The plan called for the Allies to advance along the two roads and take Bizerte and Tunis. Once Bizerte was taken Torch would come to an end. Attacking in the north towards Bizerte would be British 36th Infantry Brigade, supported by Hart Force, a small armoured group from the 6th Armoured Division, and to the south British 11th Infantry Brigade supported on their left by "Blade Force", an armoured regimental group commanded by Colonel Richard Hull (later destined to become a Field Marshal) which included the tanks of 17th/21st Lancers, a U.S. light tank battalion plus motorised infantry, paratroops, artillery, anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns and engineers. Both the infantry brigades were from the British 78th Battleaxe Infantry Division whose commander, Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh, was in overall command of the offensive. Evelegh was later to command 6th Armoured Division.
The operation narrowly failed with the modest attacking forces getting to within 10 miles (16 km) of Tunis before the Axis troops which had mainly been flown in were able to organise their defenses and repel the Allied advance. By the end of 1942 a stalemate had set in as both sides built up their forces.
On 30 January 1943, the German 21st Panzer Division (veterans of the Afrika Korps under Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel) and three Italian divisions met elements of the French forces near Faïd, the main pass from the eastern arm of the mountains into the coastal plains. They overran them and surrounded two U.S. units near them. Several counterattacks were organized, including a number by the U.S. 1st Armored Division, but all of these were beaten off with ease. After three days the Allied forces had been forced to pull back and were withdrawn into the interior to make a new forward defensive line at the small town of Sbeitla.
The Germans and Italians started forward once again the following week to take Sbeitla. They were held up for two days, but eventually the defence started to collapse on the night of 16 February 1943, and the town lay empty by midday on the 17th (see also the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid). This left the entirety of the interior plains in Axis hands, and the remaining Allied forces retreated further, back to the two passes on the western arm of the mountains into Algeria, at Sbiba and Kasserine. It was during this time that the 38th (Irish) Brigade left the division, to be replaced by the 1st Guards Brigade from the 78th Battleaxe Division.
Their offensive stopped, even as Major General Lloyd Fredendall's U.S. II Corps retreated in disarray. Eventually Rommel decided his next course of action was to simply take the American supplies on the Algerian side of the western arm of the mountains. Although doing little for his own situation, it would seriously upset any possible American actions from that direction.
On 19 February 1943, Rommel launched what would become the Battle of Kasserine Pass. After two days of advances through the American defences, the Afrika Korps and the Italians had suffered few casualties, while the American forces lost 16,000 men and two-thirds of their tanks. During the battle the Italian 131st Centauro Armoured Division captured more than 3,000 American soldiers. On the night of 21 February 1943, British troops, the 6th Armoured and 46th Infantry Divisions, arrived to bolster the American defence, having been pulled from the British lines facing the Germans at Sbiba. Counter-attacks by Italian troops were also ordered both on the British and Americans. Two battalions of experienced Bersaglieri soldiers are recorded by the 23rd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery as having made a daylight counterattack through the Ousseltia Plain, which was repelled. Nevertheless, the following day opened with yet another successful German counter-attack against the Americans until the arrival of four U.S. artillery battalions made offensive operations difficult.
Faced with stiffening defences and the news that the British Eighth Army's had reached Medenine, only a few kilometers from the Mareth Line, Rommel decided to call off the attack and withdraw on the night of 22 February 1943 to support the Mareth defences, hoping that the Kasserine attack had caused enough damage to deter any offensive action from the west in the immediate future. The Axis forces from Kasserine reached the Mareth line on 25 February.
It was after the battle of Kasserine Pass that the 6th Armoured Division was reorganized and equipped with the M4 Sherman tank.
In March 1943 the division was assigned to the recently arrived IX British Corps. The corps, commanded by a former GOC of the division, Lieutenant-General John Crocker (later wounded in a training accident and replaced by Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks), was the spearhead of the British First Army's final assault in May 1943, breaking through to Tunis. The division went on to take the surrender of the famous 90th German Light Infantry Division and participated in the round up and capitulation of all Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943.
Italy was to prove completely different from North Africa. No more mobile warfare in wide open spaces. The Division would spend much of its time supporting the Infantry as the Allies came across defensive line after defensive line.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four battles.
In the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Gustav Line was being anchored by Germans holding the Rapido, Liri and Garigliano valleys and certain surrounding peaks and ridges, but not the historic abbey of Monte Cassino, founded in AD 524 by St. Benedict, although they manned defensive positions set into the steep slopes below the abbey walls. On 15 February the monastery, high on a peak overlooking the town of Cassino, was destroyed by American B-17, B-25, and B-26 bombers. The bombing was based on the fear that the abbey was being used as a lookout post for the Axis defenders (this position evolved over time to admit that Axis military was not garrisoned there). Two days after the bombing, German paratroopers poured into the ruins to defend it. From 17 January to 18 May, the Gustav defenses were assaulted four times by Allied troops. These operations resulted in casualties of over 54,000 Allied and 20,000 German soldiers.
Operation Diadem was the final battle at Cassino, during which the Division was a part of the British XIII Corps. The plan was that U.S. II Corps on the left would attack up the coast along the line of Route 7 towards Rome. The French Corps to their right would attack from the bridgehead across the Garigliano originally created by X Corps in the first battle in January into the Aurunci Mountains which formed a barrier between the coastal plain and the Liri Valley. British XIII Corps in the centre right of the front would attack along the Liri valley whilst on the right 2nd Polish Corps, would attempt to isolate the monastery and push round behind it into the Liri valley to link with XIII Corps' thrust and pinch out the Cassino position. The division took part in the advance north through central Italy under command variously of XIII Corps and X Corps.
The next major engagements were along the Gothic Line defences. The Division was now part of XIII Corps which had been assigned to Fifth Army to form its right flank and fight in the high Apennine mountains during Operation Olive in August and September 1944.
The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of Nazi Germany's forces in Italy.
6th Armoured captured the San Godenzo Pass on Route 67 to Forlì on 18 September during these battles.
Spring 1945 Offensive
In the fertile plains of Northern Italy the mountains gave way to ditches, canals and flood banks. As wet winter weather, which had turned the rivers into torrents and made the ground into quagmires, receded the Allied Fifth and Eighth Armies were able to launch their final offensive in Italy in March 1945. 6th Armoured Division had been reattached to Eighth Army as part of V Corps. On the right wing of the armies, V Corps attacked across the Senio river and then the Santerno river. Elements of 56th and 78th divisions then drove on towards the town of Argenta where the dry land narrowed to a front of only 3 miles (4.8 km) bounded on the right by Lake Comacchio, a huge lagoon running to the Adriatic coast, and on the left by marshland. By 19 April the Argenta Gap had been forced, and 6th Armoured, were released through the left wing of the advancing 78th Battleaxe Division, to swing left to race north west along the line of the river Reno to Bondeno and link up with units of the Fifth Army advancing north from west of Bologna to complete the encirclement of the German divisions defending Bologna. On all fronts the German defense continued to be determined and effective, but Bondeno was captured on 23 April. 6th Armoured linked with US IV Corp's 10th Mountain Division the next day at Finale. US IV Corps had broken through onto the plains on 19 April, bypassing Bologna on their right. Bologna was entered by the Poles advancing up the line of Route 9 on 21 April followed two hours later by US II Corps from the south.
US IV Corps had continued their northwards advance and reached the river Po at San Benedetto on 22 April. The river was crossed the next day, and they advanced north to Verona which they entered on 26 April. The British XIII Corps crossed the Po at Ficarolo on 22 April while further east V Corps were crossing the Po by 25 April heading towards the Venetian Line, a defensive line built behind the line of the river Adige. British V Corps, met by lessening resistance, traversed the Venetian Line and entered Padua in the early hours of 29 April to find that partisans had locked up the German garrison of 5,000.
As April came to an end Army Group C, the Axis forces in Italy, retreating on all fronts and having lost most of its fighting powers, was left with little option but surrender. General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, who had taken command of Army Group C, signed the instrument of surrender on behalf of the German armies in Italy on 29 April formally bringing hostilities in Italy to an end on 2 May 1945.
The Division was reformed in May 1951 in the UK and later assigned to the British Army of the Rhine in Germany. It consisted of the 20th Armoured Brigade and 61st Lorried Infantry Brigade. It was disbanded in June 1958.
General Officer Commanding
|Appointed||General Officer Commanding|
|27 September 1940||Major-General John Crocker|
|9 January 1941||Brigadier Evelyn Fanshawe (acting)|
|22 February 1941||Major-General John Crocker|
|15 October 1941||Major-General Herbert Lumsden|
|29 October 1941||Major-General Charles Gairdner|
|19 May 1942||Major-General Charles Keightley|
|19 December 1943||Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh|
|15 February 1944||Brigadier William Edward Gordon Hemming (acting)|
|19 March 1944||Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh|
|24 July 1944||Major-General Gerald Templer (wounded 5 August 1944)|
|5 August 1944||Brigadier C.A.M.D. Scott (acting)|
|13 August 1944||Brigadier Francis Mitchell (acting)|
|21 August 1944||Major-General Horatius Murray|
|27 July 1945||Brigadier Adrian Clements Gore|
|Appointed||General Officer Commanding|
|1951||Major-General George Prior-Palmer|
|October 1953||Major-General Francis Mitchell|
|1955||Major-General Roderick McLeod|
|1957||Major-General Denis O'Connor|
Order of battle
6th Armoured Division was constituted as follows during the war:
- 1st Royal Gloucestershire Hussars
- 1st Northamptonshire Yeomanry
- 2nd Northamptonshire Yeomanry
- 2nd Battalion, The Rangers (became 10th Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps 21 March 1941)
- 16th/5th Lancers (detached 9 January 1944, rejoined 29 March 1944)
- 17th/21st Lancers
- 2nd Lothians and Border Horse (left 17 July 1945)
- 4th Queen's Own Hussars (from 28 July 1945)
- 2nd Battalion, Tower Hamlets Rifles (from 16 October 1940, became 10th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) 15 January 1941, left 29 May 1944)
- 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps (from 22 July 1945)
- 12th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (Honourable Artillery Company) (left 31 May 1942)
- 72nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (left 31 May 1942)
- 51st Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment,Royal Artillery (left 31 May 1942)
- 9th Battalion, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment (left 24 April 1942)
- 2nd Battalion, London Irish Rifles
- 1st Battalion, Royal Irish Fusiliers
- 6th Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
- 2nd Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
- 7th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
- 10th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) (from 30 May 1944, disbanded 20 March 1945)
- 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps (from 8 March 1945, left 22 July 1945)
- 1st Battalion, Welch Regiment (from 29 June 1945)
- 2nd Battalion, Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders (from 19 July 1945)
- 1st Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment (from 19 July 1945)
- 1st Derbyshire Yeomanry (Reconnaissance Regiment, from 10 November 1940)
- 12th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (Honourable Artillery Company)
- 152nd (Ayrshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 72nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 51st Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 5th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 19 November 1940, left 6 March 1944)
- 8th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 15 December 1940)
- 625th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 7 March 1944)
- 144th Field Park Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 19 November 1940)
- 6th Bridging Troop, Royal Engineers (from 25 December 1943, left 21 August 1945)
- 6th Armoured Divisional Signals Regiment, Royal Corps of Signals
These Brigades were at times attached
- 63 light tanks, 205 medium tanks, 24 close support tanks, 25 anti-aircraft tanks, and 8 artillery observation tanks.
- These two figures are the war establishment, the on-paper strength, of the division for 1944/1945; for information on how the division size changed over the war please see British Army during the Second World War and British Armoured formations of World War II.
- Joslen, p. 129
- Joslen, p. 9
- "17th/21st Lancers". BritishEmpire.co.uk website.
- Ford (1999), p.15
- Watson (2007), p.61
- BBC Peoples War website
- Blaxland, p277
- Army Comnmands
- Joslen, p. 17
- 'PRIOR-PALMER, Maj.-Gen. George Erroll', in Who Was Who 1971–1980 (London: A. & C. Black, 1989 reprint, ISBN 0-7136-3227-5)
- Joslen, p. 166.
- Joslen, pp. 176-177.
- Joslen, p. 217.
- Joslen, p. 373.
- Joslen, pp. 225-226.
- Joslen, p. 297.
- Blaxland, Gregory (1979). Alexander's Generals (the Italian Campaign 1944–1945). London: William Kimber & Co. ISBN 0-7183-0386-5.
- Ford, Ken (1999). Battleaxe Division. Stroud (UK): Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1893-4.
- Joslen, Lt-Col H.F. (2003) . Orders of Battle: Second World War, 1939–1945. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84342-474-1.
- Watson, Bruce Allen (2007) . Exit Rommel: The Tunisian Campaign, 1942–43. Stackpole Military History Series. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3381-6.