Buddhism in Canada
Buddhism is among the smallest minority-religions in Canada, with a very slowly growing population in the country, partly the result of conversion, with only 4.6% of new immigrants identifying themselves as Buddhist. As of 2001, the census recorded 300,345 Canadian Buddhists (about 1% of the population).
Buddhism has been practised in Canada for more than a century. Buddhism arrived in Canada with the arrival of Chinese labourers in the territories during the 19th century. Modern Buddhism in Canada traces to Japanese immigration during the late 19th century. The first Japanese Buddhist temple in Canada was built at the Ishikawa Hotel in Vancouver in 1905. Over time, the Japanese Jōdo Shinshū branch of Buddhism became the prevalent form of Buddhism in Canada and established the largest Buddhist organization in Canada.
A substantial expansion of Buddhism in Canada began in the last half of the 20th century. Changes in Canadian immigration and refugee policies corresponded to increasing communities from Sri Lanka, Japan, and Southeast Asian nations with Buddhist traditions. In addition, the popularity and goodwill ushered in by Tibet's Dalai Lama (who has been made an honorary Canadian citizen) put Buddhism in a favourable light. Many non-Asian Canadians (Namgyal Rinpoche, Glenn H. Mullin, and Richard Barron for instance) have embraced Buddhism in various traditions and some have become leaders in their respective sanghas.
In 2012, there were 489 Buddhist organizations in Canada, including temples, centres, associations, retreats, charities and businesses. All lineages (Theravada, Mahayana, Vajrayana and Novayana newer schools) are represented. The following universities in Canada have incorporated Buddhist Studies either as a sub-discipline of religious studies, or as a subsidiary to Asian Studies: the University of Toronto has two professors specialized in Buddhism, and the University of Calgary also maintains two professorships related to Buddhism. Smaller universities in Canada will typically have just one professor assigned to Buddhism (sometimes the same professor responsible for all Asian Religions) as, e.g., at the U. of Lethbridge.
Although the temples constructed by immigrant communities in the major cities are more visible (e.g., the Sinhalese "Maha-Vihara" of Toronto), there are also examples of small Buddhist temples constructed by immigrants and refugees in Canada's smaller cities, such as Regina, Saskatchewan's tiny Lao temple.
Various immigrant and refugee populations (Chinese, Tibetan, Lao, Japanese, Korean, Burmese/Myanmar, and Vietnamese) have tried to replicate or maintain their traditions in Canada, while small numbers of Canadians of non-Asian ancestry have also been converting to Buddhism.
The Buddhist Population in Canada according to the 2011 Census.
|Newfoundland and Labrador||400|
|Prince Edward Island||560|
Prison statistics for the year 2011 indicated that 2% of inmates are Buddhist in Canada's federal prison system.
- Birken Forest Buddhist Monastery
- Chögyam Trungpa
- Gampo Abbey
- Glenn H. Mullin
- International Buddhist Temple
- Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Temples of Canada
- Ling Yen Mountain Temple
- Montreal Zen Center
- Pema Chödrön
- Raymond Buddhist Church
- Richard Hayes (professor)
- Samu Sunim
- Kampo Gangra Drubgyud Ling
- Diamond Way Buddhism
- Dharma Drum Vancouver Center
- Dharma Drum Mountain (Ontario) Buddhist Association
- Mountain Rain Zen Community Vancouver
- The Zen Centre of Vancouver
- North Shore Zen Association
- Vancouver Shambhala Meditation Centre
- Great Enlightenment Buddhist Institute Society
- Dhamma Surabhi-Vancouver Vipassana Meditation Centre
- Vancouver Island Vipassana Meditation Centre
- Thrangu Monastery Canada
- Tung Lin Kok Yuen Canada Society
- Birken Forest Buddhist Monastery
- Waves and Water Sangha Vancouver-Thich Nhat Hanh
- SOKA GAKKAI CANADA
- Lions Gate Buddhist Priory
- 1991 & 2001 Canadian Census data, summarized and displayed as a bar-chart at the following blog: http://a-bas-le-ciel.blogspot.ca/2012/08/religious-identity-in-canadian-census.html
- Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)
- The Canadian Encyclopedia: Buddhism
- A Journalist's Guide to Buddhism
- Negru, John H. (2013). Highlights from the Survey of Canadian Buddhist Organizations, Journal of Global Buddhism 14, 1-18
- (1) Prof. Frances Garret & (2) Prof. Christoph Emmrich. http://www.religion.utoronto.ca/people/faculty/frances-garrett/ & "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-03. Retrieved 2012-11-28.
- John S. Harding, Victor Sogen Hori and Alexander Soucy (2010). Wild Geese: Buddhism in Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-3666-3.
- "Non-Christian prison chaplains chopped by Ottawa". CBC News.
- Harding, John, Victor Sogen Hori and Alexander Soucy, Eds. Wild Geese: Buddhism in Canada (2010)
- Harding, John, Victor Sogen Hori and Alexander Soucy, Eds. Flowers on the Rock: Local and Global Buddhisms in Canada (2014)
- Matthews, Bruce, Ed. Buddhism in Canada (2006)
- McLellan, Janet Many Petals of the Lotus: Five Asian Buddhist Communities in Toronto (1999)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Buddhist temples in Canada.|
- canadianbuddhism.info 2012 edition of the Sumeru directory of Canadian Buddhist organizations
- Sumeru Canadian Buddhist news blog
- Early history of Japanese in Canada
- Buddhactivity Dharma Centres database
- Toronto's Yoga, Meditation and Wellness Community
- Buddhist Education Foundation for Canada
- History of Kampo Gangra Drubgyudling in Toronto
- Westend Buddhist Center
- Canadian Journal of Buddhist Studies