Wat

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A wat (Khmer: វត្ត wōat; Lao: ວັດ vat; Thai: วัด, RTGSwat, pronounced [wát]) is a type of Buddhist temple and Hindu temple in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. The word wat is borrowed from Sanskrit vāṭa (Devanāgarī: वाट), meaning 'enclosure'.[1][2]

Introduction[edit]

Wat Mahathat, Luang Prabang

Strictly speaking a wat is a Buddhist sacred precinct with vihara (quarters for bhikkhus), a temple, an edifice housing a large image of Buddha and a facility for lessons. A site without a minimum of three resident bhikkhus cannot correctly be described as a wat although the term is frequently used more loosely, even for ruins of ancient temples. As a transitive or intransitive verb, wat means to measure, to take measurements; compare templum, from which temple derives, having the same root as template.

In Cambodia, a wat is any place of worship. "Wat" generally refers to a Buddhist place of worship, but the precise term is វត្តពុទ្ធសាសនា wat putthasasana. A Christian church can be referred as វិហារយេស៊ូ vihear Yesaou or "Jesus vihear". Angkor Wat អង្គរវត្ត means 'city of temples'.

In everyday language in Thailand, a "wat" is any place of worship except a mosque (Thai: สุเหร่า; RTGSsurao ) or (Thai: มัสยิด; RTGSmatsayit ) or a synagogue (Thai: สุเหร่ายิว; RTGSsurao yio ). Thus a wat chin (วัดจีน) or san chao (ศาลเจ้า) is a Chinese temple (either Buddhist or Taoist), wat khaek (วัดแขก) or thewasathan (เทวสถาน) is a Hindu temple and bot khrit (โบสถ์คริสต์) or wat farang (วัดฝรั่ง) is a Christian church, though Thai โบสถ์ (โบสถ์ bot) may be used descriptively as with mosques.

Types[edit]

The facade of Phra Wihan Luang (meeting hall), Wat Suthat, Bangkok

According to Thai law, there are two types of Thai Buddhist temples:

  • Wats (วัด; wat) are temples which have been endorsed by the state and have been granted wisungkhammasima (วิสุงคามสีมา), or the land for establishing central hall, by the king. These temples are divided into:[3]
    • Royal temples (Thai: พระอารามหลวง; RTGSphra aram luang ): established or patronised by the king or his family members.
    • Public temples (Thai: วัดราษฎร์; RTGSwat rat ): established by private citizens. Despite the term "private", private temples are open to the public and are sites of public religious activities.
  • Samnak song (Thai: สำนักสงฆ์): are temples without state endorsement and wisungkhamasima.

Structure[edit]

Preah chaedai (royal stupa) Kuntha Bopha was built by using Khmer architectural style during the Angkor period in the form of temple shrine, Silver Pagoda, Phnom Penh

A typical Buddhist wat consists of the following buildings:

  • Bell tower (Khmer: ប៉មជួង; Lao: ຫໍລະຄັງ; Thai: หอระฆัง)
  • Bot (Thai: โบสถ์) or ubosot (Lao: ອຸໂປສົດ; Thai: อุโบสถ; from Pali uposatha) or sim (Lao: ສິມ): the holiest prayer room, also called the "ordination hall" as it is where new monks take their vows. Architecturally it is similar to the vihara. The main difference is the eight cornerstones placed around the bot to ward off evil. The bot is usually more decorated than the wihan.
  • Chedi (Thai: เจดีย์; Lao: ເຈດີ) or Chaedai (Khmer: ចេតិយ), from Sanskrit: chaitya, temple or that (Lao: ທາດ): It is also known as a stupa. Usually conical or bell-shaped buildings, but many Cambodian stupas are constructed in the style of temple shrine. They often contain relics of Buddha. The urns containing the ashes of the cremated dead are kept here and serve as memorials for those ancestors.
  • Chantakhara (Thai: ชันตาฆร): a room in which fire and water are kept.
  • Drum tower (Khmer: រោងស្គរ; Lao: ຫໍກອງ; Thai: หอกลอง)
  • Hong Song Nam (Thai: ห้องสรงน้ำ): toilet.
  • Ho trai (Khmer: ហោត្រ័យ; Lao: ຫໍໄຕ; Thai: หอไตร): library where Buddhist texts are kept.
  • Kappapiya Kudi (Thai: กัปปิยกุฎี) utility and storage room.
  • Kod (Khmer: កុដិ), Kut, Kutti, Kuti or Kati (Lao: ກຸຕິ, ກະຕິ; Thai: กุฏิ): the living quarters of monks separated from the sacred buildings.
  • Mondop (Thai: มณฑป; from Sanskrit: Mandapa): usually an open, square building with four arches and a pyramidal roof, used to worship religious texts or objects.
  • Pond (Khmer: ស្រះ - Srah; Lao: ສະນ້ໍາ Sa Nam; Thai: สระน้ำ Sa Nam): is rectangular in shape and sometimes decorated with lotus flowers, the emblematic flower of Buddhism. In addition, some wats illustrate the figure of Buddha being sheltered by a seven headed naga, named Mucalinda (Khmer: មុជ្ជលិន្ទ), in the middle of the pond. The pond itself is called Mucalinda Pond.
  • Sala (Khmer: សាលា; Lao: ສາລາ; Thai: ศาลา; from Sanskrit: Shala: School, from an earlier meaning of "shelter"). A pavilion for relaxation and miscellaneous activities. In Cambodia, the sala also serves as the Buddhist educational center in a wat, but not every wat has one. It can be found outside the wat proper.
    • Oupadthan Sala or Sala Bonn (Khmer: ឧបដ្ឋានសាលា ឬ សាលាបុណ្យ) or Sala Wat (Thai: ศาลาวัด): a hall for people gathering together to make a donation or for ceremonies.
    • Sala Baley or Sala Putthikakseksa (Khmer: សាលាបាលី ឬ សាលាពុទ្ធិកសិក្សា): literally means 'Pali school' or 'Buddhist educational school', is the place to teach Buddhist Dharma and other subjects in both Pali and Khmer languages. Sala Baley is divided into three levels. They are: Buddhist elementary school (Khmer: ពុទ្ធិកបឋមសិក្សា Putthikakpathamaseksa); Buddhist high school (Khmer: ពុទ្ធិកវិទ្យាល័យ - Putthikakvityealay); and Buddhist university (Khmer: ពុទ្ធិកសកលវិទ្យាល័យ Putthikaksakalvityealay). Beside Buddhist Dharma, Buddhist university includes subjects such as philosophy, science, information technology, Sanskrit, and other foreign languages. These schools may be constructed outside the wat and laypersons are also permitted to study there.
    • Sala Chhann (Khmer: សាលាឆាន់), Sala Bat (Thai: ศาลาบาตร), or Ho Chan (Thai: หอฉัน): cafeteria for monks.
    • Sala Chhatean (Khmer: សាលាឆទាន), Sala Klang Yan (Thai: ศาลากลางย่าน) or Sala Rong Tham (Lao: ສາລາໂຮງທໍາ; Thai: ศาลาโรงธรรม): is usually smaller than other halls and can be built outside the wat, especially along the roads or even in the center of villages. It is used to celebrate Buddhist events as well as for dining and relaxation.
    • Sala Kan Parian (Thai: ศาลาการเปรียญ) or Ho Chaek (Lao: ຫໍແຈກ; Thai: หอแจก): study hall, In the past this hall was restricted to monks.[citation needed]
    • Sala Song (Thai: ศาลาสรง): the room where monks receive holy water blessings.
    • Sala Thormmasaphear or Thormmasala (Khmer: សាលាធម្មសភា ឬ ធម្មសាលា), Sala Fang Tham (Thai: ศาลาฟังธรรม): Dharma assembly pavilion, however some assume this hall to be Sala Bonn.
    • Sala Tha Nam (Thai: ศาลาท่าน้ำ): pier pavilion.
  • Vihear (Khmer: វិហារ) or wihan (Lao: ວິຫານ; Thai: วิหาร) from Sanskrit: vihara: a meeting and prayer room.
  • Wachak Kod (Khmer: វច្ចកុដិ) or Watcha Kudi (Thai: วัจจกุฎี) or than (Lao: ຖານ; Thai: ถาน): toilet.

Almost all Buddhist temples in Cambodia were built in Khmer architectural style. Most temples were finely decorated with a spiked tower (bosbok) (Khmer: បុស្បុក)(some temples have three or five spiked towers; some have none) on the rooftop along with pediments, naga heads, and chovear (Khmer: ជហ្វា) (a decorative ridge-piece that is placed at each topmost edge of the roof, just above the tip of each pediment). Below the edge of the roof and at the top of external columns, garuda or kinnari figures are depicted supporting the roof. There are a pair of guardian lions and one head or several (three, five, seven, or nine). naga sculptures are beside each entrance of the temple. Inside the main temple (vihara) and the multipurpose hall (lunch hall), mural paintings depict the life of Gautama Buddha and his previous life.

The roofs of Thai temples are often adorned with chofas.

Examples[edit]

Some well-known wats include:

Cambodia[edit]

At the end of 2017, there were 4,872 wats with 69,199 Buddhist monks supporting Buddhism in Cambodia.[4] As of 2010 it was estimated that 96.9 percent of the Cambodian population was Buddhist.[5]

Laos[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Despite being only 3.8 percent Buddhist, the northern Malayasian state of Kelantan has numerous Thai wats.[6]

Thailand[edit]

As of 2016 Thailand had 39,883 wats. Three hundred-ten were royal wats, the remainder were private (public). There were 298,580 Thai Buddhist monks, 264,442 of the Maha Nikaya order and 34,138 of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya order. There were 59,587 Buddhist novice monks.[7]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "wat". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  2. ^ "Wat". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  3. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา,ประกาศกระทรวงธรรมการ แผนกกรมสังฆการี เรื่อง จัดระเบียบพระอารามหลวง, เล่ม ๓๒, ตอน ๐ ก, ๓ ตุลาคม พ.ศ.๒๔๕๘, หน้า ๒๘๔
  4. ^ 26th annual Buddhist monk summit of Cambodia in Chaktomuk conference hall, Phnom Penh, December, 2017.
  5. ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center. 2015-04-02. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  6. ^ "Thai temples that can be found in The State of Kelantan Darul Naim, Malaysia". Malaysian Internet Resources. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  7. ^ "Educational Statistics 2016". Ministry of Education Thailand (MOE). p. 14. Retrieved 29 July 2018.