Categoría Primera A

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Liga Águila
LigaAguila.png
Founded 1948
Country Colombia
Confederation CONMEBOL
Number of teams 20
Level on pyramid 1
Relegation to Categoría Primera B
Domestic cup(s) Copa Colombia
Superliga Colombiana
International cup(s) Copa Libertadores
Copa Sudamericana
Current champions Deportes Tolima (2nd title)
(2018–I)
Most championships Atlético Nacional
(16 titles)
Top goalscorer Sergio Galván Rey (224)
TV partners Win Sports (8 games by round)
RCN Colombia (2 games by round)
Website Liga Águila
DIMAYOR
2018 season

The Categoría Primera A (Spanish pronunciation: [kateɣoˈɾi.a pɾiˈmeɾa ˈa]), commonly referred to as Liga Águila[1] due to sponsorship by brewery company Bavaria (manufacturer of Águila beer), is a Colombian professional league for association football clubs. It is the country's premier football tournament and sits at the top of the Colombian football league system. The league was ranked 11th in the world and third in South America by the IFFHS in its list "The Strongest National League in The World 2015".[2]

A total of twenty clubs compete in the league's regular season. División Mayor del Fútbol Profesional Colombiano, better known as DIMAYOR, operates the league system of promotion and relegation for both Categoría Primera A and Categoría Primera B leagues. Since its founding in 1948, fourteen teams have been crowned as Colombian football champions. The most successful club is Atlético Nacional with 16 titles.

History[edit]

Before 1948 there was no professional football league in Colombia. The first clubs were formed in Barranquilla and Bogotá: Barranquilla FC, Polo Club, Escuela Militar and Bartolinos, although the game took a while to develop in popularity.[3] The 1918 Campeonato Nacional was the first tournament played between Colombian clubs, followed by the Copa Centenario Batalla de Boyacá. Independiente Medellín, founded on 15 April 1913, is the oldest club that remains as a professional club.[4] The first tournament was organised by the Colombian Football Federation and DIMAYOR in 1948. Ten teams signed up for this first tournament, paying the required fee of 1,000 pesos). Two teams each signed on from Bogotá, Cali, Manizales, and Pereira, plus one from Barranquilla.[5] 252 players were registered for that year's tournament, 182 of which were Colombians, 13 were Argentine, 8 Peruvian, 5 Uruguayan, 2 Chilean, 2 Ecuadorian, 1 Dominican, and 1 Spanish.[5]

Soon after the league's foundation, disputes between Adefútbol (the body governing amateur football in Colombia) and DIMAYOR (the organizing body behind the new national league) erupted. DIMAYOR broke away from Adefútbol, announcing that it would operate independently of FIFA rules and regulations. In response, FIFA sanctioned Colombian football, banning the national team and all its clubs from international competition. This period, which lasted from 1949 to 1954, is known as El Dorado.

Far from being a dark time in Colombian football, this was its golden age. No longer required to pay transfer fees to clubs from other nations, Colombian clubs began importing stars from all over South America and Europe. The most aggressive signer of international players was Millonarios, which won consecutive championships with stars such as Alfredo di Stéfano. Attendances boomed, and the expanding appetite for club competitions resulted in the creation of the Copa Colombia in 1950. That knockout competition was played sporadically over the next 58 years and only became an annual tournament in 2008.[6] Although the stars returned to their nations when Colombia rejoined the international fold in 1954, the era was never forgotten.[7]

In 1968 the league followed the pattern emerging in South America by replacing its year-long tournament with two shorter ones. From this point forward, Colombian clubs would compete in two tournaments a year; the Apertura from February to June and the Finalización from July to December, which became independent championships in 2002. Another league restructuring came in 1991, with the addition of second and third divisions. The third division had its 2002 edition cancelled for economic reasons, and stopped awarding promotion to the professional tiers in 2003 until it was finally dropped in 2010.

Format[edit]

The current format of Colombian football was adopted for the 2015 season. The top flight features 20 teams, all of which play through the Apertura and Finalización tournaments each year. Both tournaments are conducted according to an identical three-stage format.

The first stage is conducted on a single round-robin basis, with each team playing the other teams once for a total of 19 matches. The top eight teams then advance to a knockout round, playing four ties on a home-and-away basis. The four winners advance to the semifinals, and the winners of the semifinal then square off to determine the championship. Relegation to Categoría Primera B is determined by averaging the point totals achieved by teams over the previous three seasons. Each year, the bottom two teams drop out and are replaced by the top two from Primera B.[8]

Current teams[edit]

Teams for the 2018 season

Team City Stadium Capacity Head Coach First season
in the Primera A
Last title
Alianza Petrolera Barrancabermeja Daniel Villa Zapata 10,400 Argentina Juan Cruz Real 2013 None
América de Cali Cali Pascual Guerrero 33,130 Vacant 1948 2008–II
Atlético Bucaramanga Bucaramanga Alfonso López 28,000 Vacant 1949 None
Atlético Huila Neiva Guillermo Plazas Alcid 22,000 Argentina Néstor Craviotto 1993 None
Atlético Nacional Medellín Atanasio Girardot 40,043 Argentina Jorge Almirón 1948 2017–I
Boyacá Chicó Tunja La Independencia 20,630 Colombia Jhon Jaime Gómez 2004 2008–I
Deportes Tolima Ibagué Manuel Murillo Toro 28,100 Colombia Alberto Gamero 1955 2018–I
Deportivo Cali Cali Deportivo Cali 52,000 Uruguay Gerardo Pelusso 1948 2015–I
Deportivo Pasto Pasto Libertad 20,665 Argentina Hernán Lisi 1999 2006–I
Envigado Envigado Polideportivo Sur 11,000 Colombia Rubén Darío Bedoya 1992 None
Independiente Medellín Medellín Atanasio Girardot 40,043 Ecuador Octavio Zambrano 1948 2016–I
Jaguares Montería Jaraguay 8,000 Colombia José Manuel Rodríguez 2015 None
Junior Barranquilla Metropolitano Roberto Meléndez 49,692 Uruguay Julio Comesaña 1948 2011–II
La Equidad Bogotá Metropolitano de Techo 8,000 Colombia Luis Fernando Suárez 2007 None
Leones F.C. Itagüí Metropolitano Ciudad de Itagüí 12,000 Colombia Juan Carlos Álvarez 2018 None
Millonarios Bogotá Nemesio Camacho 36,343 Argentina Miguel Ángel Russo 1948 2017–II
Once Caldas Manizales Palogrande 32,000 Colombia Hubert Bodhert 1948 2010–II
Patriotas Tunja La Independencia 20,630 Colombia Diego Corredor 2012 None
Rionegro Águilas Rionegro Alberto Grisales 14,000 Colombia Jorge Luis Bernal 2011 None
Santa Fe Bogotá Nemesio Camacho 36,343 Uruguay Guillermo Sanguinetti 1948 2016–II

Trophy[edit]

The same trophy has been used to commemorate the annual champion since 1948. The original stays at DIMAYOR headquarters and is engraved with all the names of the champion clubs. A replica is given to the winner each year to decorate their trophy room.[9]

Clubs in international competitions[edit]

Players[edit]

Appearances[edit]

As of 13 March 2016[10]
Rank Name Years Appearances
1 Colombia Gabriel Berdugo 1973–1981 773
2 Colombia Alexis García 1980–1998 723
3 Colombia Arturo Segovia 1963–1979 706
4 Colombia Jorge Bermúdez 1989–96, 2005, 2006–07 682
5 Colombia Misael Flórez 1962–1981 652

Top scorers[edit]

As of 13 March 2016[11]
Rank Name Years Goals
1 Argentina Sergio Galván Rey 1996–2011 224[12]
2 Colombia Iván Valenciano 1988–2009 217
3 Colombia Hugo Lóndero 1969–1981 211
4 Argentina Oswaldo Palavecino 1975–1985 204
5 Colombia Jorge Ramírez Gallego 1962–1975 201
6 Argentina Omar Devanni 1962–1975 198
7 Colombia Víctor Aristizábal 1990–2007 187
8 Colombia Arnoldo Iguarán 1977–1997 186
9 Colombia Willington Ortiz 1972–1988 184
10 Uruguay José Verdún 1962–1971 184

Seasons by club[edit]

This is the complete list of the clubs that have taken part in at least one Categoría Primera A season, founded in 1948, until the 2018 season.[13][14][better source needed][15] Teams that currently play are indicated in bold.

Champions by seasons[edit]

The only tournament that was not awarded to a champion occurred on 1989, after the assassination of referee Álvaro Ortega on October 1 in Medellín. All games, post-season games and international representation for the following year were cancelled.[16][17]

Table[edit]

Season Champion (title count) Runner-up Leading goalscorer(s)[18]
1948 Santa Fe (1) Junior Argentina Alfredo Castillo (Millonarios; 31 goals)
1949 Millonarios (1) Deportivo Cali Argentina Pedro Cabillón (Millonarios; 42 goals)
1950 Deportes Caldas (1) Millonarios Paraguay Casimiro Ávalos (Deportivo Pereira; 27 goals)
1951 Millonarios (2) Boca Juniors Argentina Alfredo Di Stéfano (Millonarios; 31 goals)
1952 Millonarios (3) Boca Juniors Argentina Alfredo Di Stéfano (Millonarios; 19 goals)
1953 Millonarios (4) Atlético Quindío Argentina Mario Garelli (Atlético Quindío; 20 goals)
1954 Atlético Nacional (1) Atlético Quindío Argentina Carlos Alberto Gambina (Atlético Nacional; 21 goals)
1955 Independiente Medellín (1) Atlético Nacional Argentina Felipe Marino (Independiente Medellín; 22 goals)
1956 Atlético Quindío (1) Millonarios Colombia Jaime Gutiérrez (Atlético Quindío; 21 goals)
1957 Independiente Medellín (2) Deportes Tolima Argentina José Vicente Grecco (Independiente Medellín; 30 goals)
1958 Santa Fe (2) Millonarios Argentina José Américo Montanini (Atlético Bucaramanga; 36 goals)
1959 Millonarios (5) Independiente Medellín Argentina Felipe Marino (Cúcuta Deportivo / Independiente Medellín; 35 goals)
1960 Santa Fe (3) América de Cali Argentina Walter Marcolini (Deportivo Cali; 30 goals)
1961 Millonarios (6) Independiente Medellín Argentina Alberto Perazzo (Santa Fe; 32 goals)
1962 Millonarios (7) Deportivo Cali Uruguay José Omar Verdún (Cúcuta Deportivo; 36 goals)
1963 Millonarios (8) Santa Fe Argentina Omar Devani (Atlético Bucaramanga; 36 goals)
Uruguay José Omar Verdún (Cúcuta Deportivo; 36 goals)
1964 Millonarios (9) Cúcuta Deportivo Argentina Omar Devani (Unión Magdalena / Atlético Bucaramanga; 28 goals)
1965 Deportivo Cali (1) Atlético Nacional Argentina Perfecto Rodríguez (Independiente Medellín; 38 goals)
1966 Santa Fe (4) Independiente Medellín Argentina Omar Devani (Santa Fe; 31 goals)
1967 Deportivo Cali (2) Millonarios Argentina José María Ferrero (Millonarios; 38 goals)
1968 Unión Magdalena (1) Deportivo Cali Argentina José María Ferrero (Millonarios; 32 goals)
1969 Deportivo Cali (3) América de Cali Argentina Colombia Hugo Lóndero (América de Cali; 25 goals)
1970 Deportivo Cali (4) Junior Argentina José María Ferrero (Cúcuta Deportivo; 27 goals)
Uruguay Walter Sossa (Santa Fe; 27 goals)
1971 Santa Fe (5) Atlético Nacional Argentina Colombia Hugo Lóndero (Cúcuta Deportivo; 30 goals)
Paraguay Apolinar Paniagua (Deportivo Pereira; 30 goals)
1972 Millonarios (10) Deportivo Cali Argentina Colombia Hugo Lóndero (Cúcuta Deportivo; 27 goals)
1973 Atlético Nacional (2) Millonarios Uruguay Nelson Silva Pacheco (Cúcuta Deportivo / Junior; 36 goals)
1974 Deportivo Cali (5) Atlético Nacional Brazil Víctor Ephanor (Junior; 33 goals)
1975 Santa Fe (6) Millonarios Argentina Jorge Ramón Cáceres (Deportivo Pereira; 35 goals)
1976 Atlético Nacional (3) Deportivo Cali Argentina Miguel Angel Converti (Millonarios; 33 goals)
1977 Junior (1) Deportivo Cali Argentina Oswaldo Marcial Palavecino (Atlético Nacional; 33 goals)
1978 Millonarios (11) Deportivo Cali Argentina Oswaldo Marcial Palavecino (Atlético Nacional; 36 goals)
1979 América de Cali (1) Santa Fe Argentina Juan José Irigoyén (Millonarios; 36 goals)
1980 Junior (2) Deportivo Cali Argentina Sergio Cierra (Deportivo Pereira; 26 goals)
1981 Atlético Nacional (4) Deportes Tolima Argentina Víctor Hugo del Río (Deportes Tolima; 29 goals)
1982 América de Cali (2) Deportes Tolima Argentina Miguel Oswaldo González (Atlético Bucaramanga; 27 goals)
1983 América de Cali (3) Junior Argentina Hugo Gottardi (Santa Fe; 29 goals)
1984 América de Cali (4) Millonarios Argentina Hugo Gottardi (Independiente Santa Fe; 23 goals)
1985 América de Cali (5) Deportivo Cali Argentina Miguel Oswaldo González (Atlético Bucaramanga; 34 goals)
1986 América de Cali (6) Deportivo Cali Argentina Héctor Ramón Sossa (Independiente Medellín; 23 goals)
1987 Millonarios (12) América de Cali Chile Jorge Aravena (Deportivo Cali; 23 goals)
1988 Millonarios (13) Atlético Nacional Colombia Sergio Angulo (Santa Fe; 29 goals)
1989
Championship not awarded
1990 América de Cali (7) Atlético Nacional Colombia Antony de Ávila (América de Cali; 25 goals)
1991 Atlético Nacional (5) América de Cali Colombia Iván Valenciano (Junior; 30 goals)
1992 América de Cali (8) Atlético Nacional Colombia John Jairo Tréllez (Atlético Nacional; 25 goals)
1993 Junior (3) Independiente Medellín Colombia Miguel Guerrero (Junior; 34 goals)
1994 Atlético Nacional (6) Millonarios Colombia Rubén Darío Hernández (Independiente Medellín / Deportivo Pereira / América de Cali; 32 goals)
1995 Junior (4) América de Cali Colombia Iván Valenciano (Junior; 24 goals)
1995–96 Deportivo Cali (6) Millonarios Colombia Iván Valenciano (Junior; 36 goals)
1996–97 América de Cali (9) Atlético Bucaramanga Colombia Hamilton Ricard (Deportivo Cali; 36 goals)
1998 Deportivo Cali (7) Once Caldas Colombia Víctor Bonilla (Deportivo Cali; 37 goals)
1999 Atlético Nacional (7) América de Cali Argentina Sergio Galván Rey (Once Caldas; 26 goals)
2000 América de Cali (10) Junior Colombia Carlos Alberto Castro (Millonarios; 24 goals)
2001 América de Cali (11) Independiente Medellín Colombia Carlos Alberto Castro (Millonarios; 29 goals)
Colombia Jorge Horacio Serna (Independiente Medellín; 29 goals)
2002 Apertura América de Cali (12) Atlético Nacional Colombia Luis Fernando Zuleta (Unión Magdalena; 13 goals)
Finalización Independiente Medellín (3) Deportivo Pasto Colombia Orlando Ballesteros (Atlético Bucaramanga; 13 goals)
Colombia Milton Rodríguez (Deportivo Pereira; 13 goals)
2003 Apertura Once Caldas (2) Junior Colombia Arnulfo Valentierra (Once Caldas; 13 goals)
Finalización Deportes Tolima (1) Deportivo Cali Colombia Léider Preciado (Deportivo Cali; 17 goals)
2004 Apertura Independiente Medellín (4) Atlético Nacional Colombia Sergio Herrera (América de Cali; 13 goals)
Finalización Junior (5) Atlético Nacional Colombia Leonardo Fabio Moreno (América de Cali; 15 goals)
Colombia Léider Preciado (Santa Fe; 15 goals)
2005 Apertura Atlético Nacional (8) Santa Fe Colombia Víctor Aristizábal (Atlético Nacional; 16 goals)
Finalización Deportivo Cali (8) Real Cartagena Colombia Jámerson Rentería (Real Cartagena; 12 goals)
Colombia Hugo Rodallega (Deportivo Cali; 12 goals)
2006 Apertura Deportivo Pasto (1) Deportivo Cali Colombia Jorge Díaz Moreno (Cúcuta Deportivo; 15 goals)
Finalización Cúcuta Deportivo (1) Deportes Tolima Colombia Diego Álvarez (Independiente Medellín; 11 goals)
Colombia Jhon Charría (Deportes Tolima; 11 goals)
2007 Apertura Atlético Nacional (9) Atlético Huila Colombia Fredy Montero (Atlético Huila; 13 goals)
Argentina Sergio Galván Rey (Atlético Nacional; 13 goals)
Finalización Atlético Nacional (10) La Equidad Colombia Dayro Moreno (Once Caldas; 16 goals)
2008 Apertura Boyacá Chicó (1) América de Cali Argentina Miguel Caneo (Boyacá Chicó; 13 goals)
Colombia Iván Velásquez (Deportes Quindío; 13 goals)
Finalización América de Cali (13) Independiente Medellín Colombia Fredy Montero (Deportivo Cali; 16 goals)
2009 Apertura Once Caldas (3) Junior Colombia Teófilo Gutiérrez (Junior; 16 goals)
Finalización Independiente Medellín (5) Atlético Huila Colombia Jackson Martínez (Independiente Medellín; 18 goals)
2010 Apertura Junior (6) La Equidad Colombia Carlos Bacca (Junior; 12 goals)
Colombia Carlos Rentería (La Equidad; 12 goals)
Finalización Once Caldas (4) Deportes Tolima Colombia Wilder Medina (Deportes Tolima; 16 goals)
Colombia Dayro Moreno (Once Caldas; 16 goals)
2011 Apertura Atlético Nacional (11) La Equidad Colombia Carlos Rentería (Atlético Nacional; 12 goals)
Finalización Junior (7) Once Caldas Colombia Carlos Bacca (Junior; 12 goals)
2012 Apertura Santa Fe (7) Deportivo Pasto Paraguay Robin Ramírez (Deportes Tolima; 13 goals)
Finalización Millonarios (14) Independiente Medellín Colombia Henry Hernández (Cúcuta Deportivo; 9 goals)
Colombia Carmelo Valencia (La Equidad; 9 goals)
Argentina Germán Cano (Independiente Medellín; 9 goals)
2013 Apertura Atlético Nacional (12) Santa Fe Colombia Wilder Medina (Santa Fe; 12 goals)
Finalización Atlético Nacional (13) Deportivo Cali Colombia Dayro Moreno (Millonarios; 16 goals)
Colombia Luis Carlos Ruiz (Junior; 16 goals)
2014 Apertura Atlético Nacional (14) Junior Colombia Dayro Moreno (Millonarios; 12 goals)
Finalización Santa Fe (8) Independiente Medellín Argentina Germán Cano (Independiente Medellín; 16 goals)
2015 Apertura Deportivo Cali (9) Independiente Medellín Colombia Fernando Uribe (Millonarios; 15 goals)
Finalización Atlético Nacional (15) Junior Colombia Jefferson Duque (Atlético Nacional; 15 goals)
2016 Apertura Independiente Medellín (6) Junior Colombia Miguel Borja (Cortuluá; 19 goals)
Finalización Santa Fe (9) Deportes Tolima Colombia Ayron del Valle (Millonarios; 12 goals)
2017 Apertura Atlético Nacional (16) Deportivo Cali Colombia Dayro Moreno (Atlético Nacional; 14 goals)
Finalización Millonarios (15) Santa Fe Colombia Yimmi Chará (Junior; 11 goals)
Colombia Ayron del Valle (Millonarios; 11 goals)
Colombia Dayro Moreno (Atlético Nacional; 11 goals)
Colombia Carmelo Valencia (La Equidad; 11 goals)
2018 Apertura Deportes Tolima (2) Atlético Nacional Argentina Germán Cano (Independiente Medellín; 12 goals)
Finalización

Source for champions and runners-up by season: RSSSF[19]

List of champions and runners-up[edit]

Club Winners Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Atlético Nacional 16 11 1954, 1973, 1976, 1981, 1991, 1994, 1999, 2005–I, 2007–I, 2007–II, 2011–I, 2013–I, 2013–II, 2014–I, 2015–II, 2017–I 1955, 1965, 1971, 1974, 1988, 1990, 1992, 2002–I, 2004–I, 2004–II, 2018–I
Millonarios 15 9 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1972, 1978, 1987, 1988, 2012–II, 2017–II 1950, 1956, 1958, 1967, 1973, 1975, 1984, 1994, 1995–96
América de Cali 13 7 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1990, 1992, 1996–97, 2000, 2001, 2002–I, 2008–II 1960, 1969, 1987, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2008–I
Deportivo Cali 9 14 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1974, 1995–96, 1998, 2005–II, 2015–I 1949, 1962, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1985, 1986, 2003–II, 2006–I, 2013–II, 2017–I
Santa Fe 9 5 1948, 1958, 1960, 1966, 1971, 1975, 2012–I, 2014–II, 2016–II 1963, 1979, 2005–I, 2013–I, 2017–II
Junior 7 9 1977, 1980, 1993, 1995, 2004–II, 2010–I, 2011–II 1948, 1970, 1983, 2000, 2003–I, 2009–I, 2014–I, 2015–II, 2016–I
Independiente Medellín 6 9 1955, 1957, 2002–II, 2004–I, 2009–II, 2016–I 1959, 1961, 1966, 1993, 2001, 2008–II, 2012–II, 2014–II, 2015–I
Once Caldas 4 2 1950, 2003–I, 2009–I, 2010–II 1998, 2011–II
Deportes Tolima 2 6 2003–II, 2018–I 1957, 1981, 1982, 2006–II, 2010–II, 2016–II
Deportivo Pasto 1 2 2006–I 2002–II, 2012–I
Deportes Quindío 1 2 1956 1953, 1954
Cúcuta Deportivo 1 1 2006–II 1964
Boyacá Chicó 1 0 2008–I
Unión Magdalena 1 0 1968
La Equidad 3 2007–II, 2010–I, 2011–I
Atlético Huila 2 2007–I, 2009–II
Boca Juniors 2 1951, 1952
Real Cartagena 1 2005–II
Atlético Bucaramanga 1 1996–97

Source: RSSSF

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.golcaracol.com/futbol-colombiano/liga-postobon/articulo-325417-asi-el-nuevo-logo-del-fpc-llego-la-liga-aguila
  2. ^ "THE STRONGEST NATIONAL LEAGUE OF THE WORLD". IFFHS. IFFHS. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  3. ^ http://www.rsssf.com/tablesc/colfound.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Ruíz Bonilla, Guillermo (2008). La gran historia del Fútbol Profesional Colombiano. Ediciones Dayscript. pp. 12–14; 19. ISBN 978-958-987-1300. 
  5. ^ a b Ruíz Bonilla, Guillermo (2008). La gran historia del Fútbol Profesional Colombiano. Ediciones Dayscript. p. 51. ISBN 978-958-987-1300. 
  6. ^ Acosta, Andrés (2013-01-10). "Colombia - List of Cup Winners". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Andrés Acosta and RSSSF. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  7. ^ El Tiempo - Colombia entra en la élite del fútbol mundial con 'la época de El Dorado' (in Spanish)
  8. ^ "Balance de la Asamblea Extraordinaria de la Dimayor" (in Spanish). Dimayor.com. 12 December 2017. 
  9. ^ Caracol Radio, ed. (14 July 2012). "Estos son los trofeos que reciben los campeones" (in Spanish). 
  10. ^ http://www.semana.com/imprimir/94906
  11. ^ http://www.ligapostobon.com.co/noticia/%C2%BFmarca-inalcanzable
  12. ^ http://www.lapatria.com/deportes/hace-20-anos-empezo-la-historia-de-sergio-galvan-rey-en-el-once-caldas-248756
  13. ^ Acosta, Andrés; Ballesteros, Frank (15 January 2010). "Colombia - All-Time Table First Division". RSSSF.com. 
  14. ^ es:Anexo:Tabla histórica de la Categoría Primera A
  15. ^ dimayor.com.co/estadisticas/
  16. ^ Ruiz Bonilla, Guillermo (October 2008). La gran historia del Fútbol Profesional Colombiano [The Grand History of Colombian Professional Football] (in Spanish). Ediciones Dayscript. p. 223. ISBN 978-958-98713-0-0. 
  17. ^ The 1989 on RSSSF
  18. ^ Arteaga, José; Ballesteros, Frank (March 6, 2008). "Colombian League Top Scorers". website. RSSSF. Retrieved November 27, 2010. 
  19. ^ Juan Pablo Andres and Frank Ballesteros, 22 May 2014. "Colombia - List of Champions and Runners-Up". RSSSF. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 

External links[edit]