This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2021)
Helmets are among the oldest forms of personal protective equipment and are known to have been worn by the Akkadians/Sumerians in the 23rd century BC, Mycenaean Greeks since the 17th century BC, the Assyrians around 900 BC, ancient Greeks and Romans, throughout the Middle Ages, and up to the end of the 17th century by many combatants. Their materials and construction became more advanced as weapons became more and more powerful. Initially constructed from leather and brass, and then bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, they soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950 AD. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from cutting blows with swords, flying arrows, and low-velocity musketry. Iron helmets were deployed into the cavalry of the Mali Empire to protect the cavalrymen and their mount.
Military use of helmets declined after 1670, and rifled firearms ended their use by foot soldiers after 1700 but the Napoleonic era saw ornate cavalry helmets reintroduced for cuirassiers and dragoons in some armies which continued to be used by French forces during World War I as late as 1915.
World War I and its increased use of artillery renewed the need for steel helmets, with the French Adrian helmet and the British Brodie helmet being the first modern steel helmets used on the battlefield, soon followed by the adoption of similar steel helmets, such as the Stahlhelm by the other warring nations. Such helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and fragments.
Today's militaries often use high quality helmets made of ballistic materials such as Kevlar and Twaron, which offer improved protection. Some helmets also have good non-ballistic protective qualities, against threats such as concussive shock waves from explosions.
Many of today's combat helmets have been adapted for modern warfare requirements and upgraded with STANAG rails to act as a platform for mounting cameras, video cameras and VAS Shrouds for the mounting of night vision goggles (NVG) and monocular night vision devices (NVD).
Beginning in the early 20th century, combat helmets have often been equipped with helmet covers to offer greater camouflage. There have been two main types of covers—mesh nets were earlier widely used, but most modern combat helmets use camouflage cloth covers instead.
By the late 20th century, starting in the 1970s and 1980s, new materials such as Kevlar and Twaron began replacing steel as the primary material for combat helmets, in an effort to improve weight, ballistics protection, and protection against head injuries caused by blasts. This practice still continues into the 21st century, with further advancement and refinements in the fibers used, design and shape of the helmet, and increased modularity. Early helmet systems of this new design are the American PASGT, the Spanish MARTE, the Italian SEPT-2 PLUS, and British Mk6.
Cushioning is used to negate concussive injuries. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory published a study in 2011 that concluded that the addition of an eighth of an inch/3 millimetres of cushion decreased the impact force to the skull by 24%.
- "Shaft Graves, Mycenae". Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- Nobuo Komita, The Grave Circles at Mycenae and the Early Indo-Europeans[permanent dead link]
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Robin Law (1976). "Horses, Firearms, and Political Power in Pre-Colonial West Africa, Past and Present". Past and Present. 72 (1): 112–132. doi:10.1093/past/72.1.112.
- Heaumes Page Archived 30 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "The first modern steel combat helmet: the French 'Adrian' - Military Trader". 2 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- Military headgears Archived 27 May 2012 at archive.today
- "German-Helmets.com". Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2007.
- "German Pickelhaube Spiked Helmet Evolution Guide". www.kaisersbunker.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2007.
- "Differences Between Kevlar and Twaron | Difference Between". www.differencebetween.net. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Kevlar PASGT Helmet".
- "combat helmet upgrade,tbi,brain injury,military,charity". Operation Helmet.
- Regg Zoroya (17 April 2011). "Larger helmet could guard against brain injury to troops". USA Today. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military helmets.|
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 247–248. .