Combat helmet

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Example of a modern combat helmet (British Mk 6 with cloth cover)

A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of helmet, a piece of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat.


Helmets are among the oldest forms of personal protective equipment and are known to have been worn by the Akkadians/Sumerians in the 23rd century BC, Mycenaean Greeks since the 17th century BC,[1][2] the Assyrians around 900 BC, ancient Greeks and Romans, throughout the Middle Ages, and up to the end of the 17th century by many combatants.[3] Their materials and construction became more advanced as weapons became more and more powerful. Initially constructed from leather and brass, and then bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, they soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950 AD. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from cutting blows with swords, flying arrows, and low-velocity musketry. Iron helmets were deployed into the cavalry of the Mali Empire to protect the cavalrymen and their mount.[4]

Military use of helmets declined after 1670, and rifled firearms ended their use by foot soldiers after 1700[3] but the Napoleonic era saw ornate cavalry helmets reintroduced for cuirassiers and dragoons in some armies which continued to be used by French forces during World War I as late as 1915.[5]

World War I and its increased use of artillery renewed the need for steel helmets, with the French Adrian helmet and the British Brodie helmet being the first modern steel helmets used on the battlefield,[6][7] soon followed by the adoption of similar steel helmets, such as the Stahlhelm[8][9] by the other warring nations. Such helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and fragments.

Today's militaries often use high quality helmets made of ballistic materials such as Kevlar and Twaron,[10] which offer improved protection. Some helmets also have good non-ballistic protective qualities, against threats such as concussive shock waves from explosions.[11][12]

Many of today's combat helmets have been adapted for modern warfare requirements and upgraded with STANAG rails to act as a platform for mounting cameras, video cameras and VAS Shrouds for the mounting of night vision goggles (NVG) and monocular night vision devices (NVD).

Beginning in the early 20th century, combat helmets have often been equipped with helmet covers to offer greater camouflage. There have been two main types of covers—mesh nets were earlier widely used, but most modern combat helmets use camouflage cloth covers instead.

By the late 20th century, starting in the 1970s and 1980s, new materials such as Kevlar and Twaron began replacing steel as the primary material for combat helmets, in an effort to improve weight, ballistics protection, and protection against head injuries caused by blasts. This practice still continues into the 21st century, with further advancement and refinements in the fibers used, design and shape of the helmet, and increased modularity. Early helmet systems of this new design are the American PASGT, the Spanish MARTE, the Italian SEPT-2 PLUS, and British Mk6.

List of military helmets[edit]


Model Image Origins First Issued Users Notes

 United States 2019 US Army Part of the U.S. Army Soldier Protection System (SPS)
STSh-81 Blank.png  Soviet Union Titanium helmet
6B26 Blank.png  Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B27 Blank.png  Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B28 Blank.png  Russia Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B7 Blank.png  Russia Russian Army This helmet and its variants are the standard-issue headgear of the Russian army, they also are replacing older helmets like the SSh-68; Part of Ratnik infantry system
6B7-1L Blank.png  Russia Russian Army and Russian Navy naval infantry part of Ratnik infantry system
Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) 1st MEB Helmet Insignia.jpeg  United States 2002 US Army Developed from the Modular Integrated Communications Helmet[13][14][15]
BK-3 Helmet Blank.png  Croatia Croatian Army, Swedish Army, German Army, Kuwaiti Army, French Army, Singapore Army, Israel Army, Saudi Arabian Army, Polish Armed Forces, Australian Army, Turkish Armed Forces, Czech Army, Bulgarian Army, United Arab Emirates Army, Lithuanian Armed Forces, Mexican Army, Spanish Army, Pakistan Army, Malaysian Army, Saudi Arabian Army, Finnish Army, National Army of Colombia, Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Indonesian Army, Italian Army, Military of Hungary, Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, People's Liberation Army and by the police forces of the following countries: Croatia, Turkey, UK, Spain, North Macedonia, Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Colombia, Italy, Ukraine, by Argentina and by the UN demining committee.[16] Gefechtshelm M92-style helmet produced by Šestan-Busch made from Aramid fibre, with antiballistic protection level IIIA according to NIJ 0106.01 and antiballistic protection v50≥ 650 m/s according to STANAG 2920.[17] As with the German M92, the BK-3 comes with a three-point chin strap. The BK-3 replaced the Šestan-Busch BK-9 which was the first Croatian version of the Gefechtshelm M92 except it used the original U.S PASGT suspension head system.[18]
BK-6 Blank.png  Mexico Mexican Army Kevlar helmet, adopted in the 2000s (decade). used in conjunction supplementation role with the PASGT. - Imported helmet.
BK-ACH Helmet Blank.png  Croatia Croatian Army ACH shape helmet produced by Šestan-Busch, alternative to BK-3
CABAL II Blank.png  Argentina Argentine Army Infantry PASGT style ballistic helmet M-6 for Argentine Infantry Approved by CITEFA NIJ Level II according to the standards currently in stage R3B certified to MIL-Std 662 E.[19] However it wasn't issued in large scales.
Capacete Combate Ballistico (CCB) Blank.png  Brazil Brazilian Armed Forces U.S PASGT-shape helmet in two versions: Polymer and Kevlar.[20]
CG634 US Navy 080726-N-7949W-054 A Canadian soldier assigned to 1st Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry aims his rifle in the direction of enemy fire.jpg  Canada 1997 Canadian Forces Canadian variant of the French Gallet F2 SPECTRA helmet similar to the U.S Military MICH 2000/ACH helmet (in that it has no peak) but with the U.S PASGT/French F2 helmet suspension system. Issued in 1997.[21][22][23]
Cobra Plus Combat Helmet Blank.png  United States 2013 Danish Army[24] and British Forces[25]
Enhanced Combat Helmet (Australia) Blank.png  Israel 2004 (Australia)
2009 (NZ)
Australian Defence Force, New Zealand Defence Force The RBH 303AU model was made specially for the ADF, replacing the M91 PASGT helmet. MICH 2000 style helmet made by Rabintex, Israel[26] Was adopted by NZDF from 2009-2019
Enhanced Combat Helmet (ECH) PEO Soldier Enhanced Combat Helmet profile.jpg  United States 2012 Designed as an upgrade to the Advanced Combat Helmet. Uses thermoplastics instead of ballistic fibers.
EXFIL Ballistic Helmet  United States 2016 Australian Defence Force[27][28] Tiered Combat Helmet (TCH) forms part of the Soldier Combat Ensemble and includes gun rails and night vision goggle mount.
Gefechtshelm Schuberth B826 (M92) BGS-Helm M92 - 1.png  Germany 1992 Bundeswehr, Austrian Federal Police,[29] Bahrain Defence Force M1 helmet-based suspension system.,[30] Belgian military,[31] Czech Army under license as the Petris P-3001,[32] Danish Army,[33] Dutch Army,[34][35] Estonian Defence Forces, Norwegian Army,[36] Swiss Armed Forces PASGT type helmet with a sloping peak, rather than the defined peak of the U.S PASGT helmet. Has a 3-point retention strap system.
Gefechtshelm Schuberth B828 Airborne and B828 Tactical Cut Blank.png  Germany Limited use by the paratroops in Bundeswehr like Fallschirmjäger, Spezialisierte Kräfte des Heeres mit Erweiterter Grundbefähigung für Spezielle Operationen and Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) - MICH 2000 and MICH 2001 type helmets
GIDs Ballistic Helmet Blank.png  Pakistan Pakistan Army Pakistan Army issues GIDs Ballistic Helmet similar to the Lightweight Helmet.
GK80 Two Albanian soldiers.JPEG  People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army, Albania
GOLFO Banda Ejército de Chile (cropped).jpg  Chile Military of Chile Chilean PASGT-derived helmet. The helmet is locally made by Baselli Hermanos S.A of kevlar and was introduced in 2000. It is capable of stopping a 9×19mm round at 310m.
Helm wz. 2005 Military training of Polish Army.jpg  Poland 2005 Polish Armed Forces. Supplementing the older Helm wz. 93 currently in use. PASGT-type helmet. The 2005 version, made by MASKPOL, came with a 4-point chin strap. The earlier Helm Wz.2000 helmet came with a 3-point chin strap. The peak of the helmet is closer to the original U.S PASGT helmet than other European variants in that the peak has more of the lip of the PASGT than the European-style sloping peak.[37]
Helm wz. 2000 Ćwiczenia strzeleckie 10. batalionu rozpoznawczego Strzelców Konnych (03).jpg  Poland 2000 Polish Armed Forces.
Helm wz. 93 Hełm wz.93.jpg  Poland 1993 Polish Armed Forces. Being replaced by the Helm wz. 2005.[38]
Hjälm 90 Hjälm M90 Artillerimuseet 2917.jpg  Sweden Swedish Armed Forces
Hjelm Cato Blank.png  Norway Early 2000s Norwegian Armed Forces Similar to the Swedish Hjalm 90.
M/92 Komposiittikypärä (also known as K-92)  Finland Finnish Defense Forces. Gefechtshelm M92-style PASGT helmet but with U.S PASGT style suspension system.[39] Replaced in the early 2000s (decade) by the M/02. PASGT-Hjelm style blend helmet
KASDA Blank.png  Israel Israel Defense Forces, Guatemalan Army
Kyung Chang Industry (KCI) Blank.png  South Korea Republic of Korea Armed Forces PASGT type helmet
Kolpak 2  Russia Russian army
Lightweight Helmet (LWH) USMC-LWH.jpg  United States United States Marine Corps[40] PASGT-style helmet with four-point retention strap system and velcro-attached head pad system. Also used by NZDF since the 2000s.
M02 Composite Helmet  Finland Finnish Defence Forces Upgraded PASGT-style helmet, replacing the Gefechtshelm M92-style M/92 Komposiittikypärä helmet.
M76 paratrooper helmet  United Kingdom 1976 British Armed forces Paratroopers and Airborne units
M80 Helmet Iraqhelm3300000.JPG  Iraq 1980 Iraqi Army Plastic and cloth copy of the M1 Helmet, Developed during Saddam Hussein's Iraq, Limited use on the modern Iraqi army.
M80/03 Helmet Blank.png  Iraq 1980 Iraqi Army Improved and stronger variant of the M80 helmet, this version has a distinct cover
M83 helmet Blank.png  South Africa 1983 Paratroopers of the South African Army Variant of the OR-201 helmet
M87  South Africa 1987 South African Army Similar to U.S PASGT Kevlar helmet, replacing earlier Israeli-style helmet in use since the 1980s
M90 Helmet Blank.png  Iraq Another Iraqi copy of the M1 helmet, unlike the M80 helmet the M90 helmet is composed purely of plastic
M91 helmet  Australia Australian Defence Force. PASGT-style kevlar helmet. Was made by RBR Armour Systems Pty Ltd (Australia) introduced 1991. The Australian PASGT helmet was identical to the USA PASGT helmet with the exception of a 3-point chin strap, much like the chin strap of the German B826 Gefechsthelm. Was replaced in 2004 by the Israeli-made Australian Enhanced Combat helmet.
MARTE helmet Blank.png  Spain 1985 Spanish Armed Forces, Spanish Navy Marines Versions I to IV, MARTE IV Kevlar helmet currently used by the Spanish Armed Forces. Similar to the PASGT. MICH type helmet replacing it in the Navy Marines.
Mile Dragić M-05 Blank.png  Serbia 2005 Serbian Special Forces MICH type helmet[41]
Mile Dragić M-97 Blank.png  Serbia 1997 Serbian Army PASGT type helmet[42]
Mk. 6 Helmet Mk6helmet.JPG  United Kingdom British Armed Forces.[43] being replaced by the Mk. 7 Helmet
Mk. 7 Helmet Mk VII Helmet MOD 45150536.jpg  United Kingdom British Armed Forces
MKH/PA-1 Blank.png  India Indian Armed Forces Kevlar helmet worn is a PASGT type helmet.
MICH TC-2000  United States special operations - United States Army Developed for special operations use and became the basis for the Advanced Combat Helmet
MICH TC-2001  United States special operations - United States Army "High cut" version of the MICH 2000. It removes all ear protection enabling head gear to be worn
MICH TC-2002  United States special operations - United States Army "Gunfighter cut",[44] which raises the area around the ears by about 1/2", allowing for a wider range of headsets to be used and roughly meeting the profile of the skateboard and whitewater helmets previously used by special forces.
MPC-1 Blank.png  Slovenia Variant of OR-201 helmet
NP Aerospace AC200/650  Greece Special Forces unit of the Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy and Hellenic Air Force - Gefechshelm type helmet. - Hellenic Army, Navy and Air Force primarily use the PASGT
Ops-Core FAST Helmet A U.S. Marine with a Marine special operations team assists with security during the construction of an Afghan Local Police (ALP) checkpoint in Helmand province, Afghanistan, March 30, 2013 130330-M-BO337-105.jpg  United States 2009 United States special operations, United States SWAT and Law Enforcement, German Bundeswehr, Norwegian Armed Forces, Australian Defence Force, Australian Federal Police and others.
OR-201 151st Infantry Battalion (1).jpg  Israel 1976 Israel Defense Forces, Some units of Special forces of Indian Army, Irish Defence Force, Lebanon (Lebanese Forces, South Lebanon Army, Hezbollah, Lebanese Army), Honduran Army, Guatemalan Army, Peruvian Army, Romanian Army, Nicaragua (National Guard and Police), Portugal (Portuguese Marine Corps), South African Defence Force, Chilean Army (1st Parachutists Battalion "Pelantaru" (1º Batallón de Paracaidistas "Pelantaru")), Sri Lanka, and other countries.
PATKA Blank.png  India Indian Armed Forces Indigenously built helmet. It can prevent 7.62mm AKM round
PASGT helmet News Photo 060324-A-7969G-020.jpg  United States 1983 United States Military, Argentine Army, Mexican Army, New Zealand Defence Force, Iraq First issued in 1983 to replace the M1 helmet. Former kevlar helmet used by the United States Army, Marine Corps, Navy. Used by the USAF, but is being phased out by the ACH[45] US Air Force.[46] Adopted by the Mexican Armed Forces in the 1990s to replace the M1 helmet. Replaced the M1 helmet of the Argentine army and modified with padded interiors. US-made PASGT helmets by UNICOR replaced the New Zealand M1 helmet in the 2000s. The NZ PASGT was a copy of the USMC Lightweight helmet in that it shares the 4-point retention system and head pad system.[47]
QGF02 Blank.png  People's Republic of China 1994 People's Liberation Army
QGF03 Honor guard of the People's Liberation Army.jpg  People's Republic of China 2005 People's Liberation Army
QGF11 Blank.png  People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army
RBH303IE Blank.png  Ireland Irish Defence Force Variant of the Enhanced Combat Helmet (Australia) helmet made by Rabintex
Savar SVRH01 Blank.png  Turkey Turkish Armed Forces and General Directorate of Security
Savar SVRH02 Blank.png  Turkey Police Special Operation Department of the General Directorate of Security
Sistema Compositi SEPT-2 PLUS Blank.png  Italy Italian Armed Forces[48]
Sistema Compositi SUPERUBOTT Blank.png  Italy Special Units (particularly GIS) of the Italian Law Enforcement community[49]
F2 SPECTRA Casque-spectra-2.JPG  France 1992 Danish Army, French Army, Canadian military, Austrian Army, Bangladesh Army, Malta Army, Royal Moroccan Army, Ukrainian Ground Forces, and United Nations peacekeeping forces[50] PASGT shape helmet produced by Gallet of France, introduced early 1990s. 'Spectra' is a brand-name of a type of resistant fibre, not the actual name of the helmet. Unlike most other European PASGT style helmets, the peak of the F2 has the same defined lip as the original U.S PASGT helmet, whereas other European PASGT-style helmets (such as the German M92 and the Croatian BK-3) tend to have a sloping peak.
Type 88 Helmet (レンジャー) 教育訓練等 257.jpg  Japan JSDF PASGT type helmet


Model Image Origins First issued Users
Adrian helmet Casque de Marcel Hébrard.jpg - Modèle 1915, ADRIAN Mod 1926.JPG - Modèle 1926  France 1915, 1926  France,  Belgium,  Russian Empire,  Poland, Japan Japan,  Serbia,  Yugoslavia,  United States,  Soviet Union,  Irish Free State,  Italy,  Republic of China,  Manchukuo,  Peru,  Romania,  Mexico,  Greece,  Uruguay,  Thailand,  Brazil[5]
Modèle 1951 Casques français 78125.jpg  France 1951  France,  South Vietnam,  South Africa,  Cambodia, Laos,  Lebanon,  Israel,  Portugal,  Rhodesia
Modèle 1978 FAMAS Infanterie 2REI (cropped).jpg  France 1978  France,  Senegal
Brodie helmet M1917helmet.jpg - MkI, British helmet.JPG - MkII, USMC Brodie helmet MMH.JPG  United Kingdom 1915, 1938  United Kingdom,  Canada,  United States (1917-1942),  Australia,[51]  Republic of China,  Pakistan,  Poland (Polish Armed Forces in the West),  Estonia,  Belgium,  New Zealand,  Sri Lanka,  South Africa,  India,  the Netherlands,  Portugal, Luxembourg,  Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1944)
Zuckerman helmet Zuckermanhelmet.jpg  United Kingdom 1940  United Kingdom
Helmet Steel Airborne Troop Paratroop Training in Netheravon, Britain, October 1942 TR178.jpg  United Kingdom 1941  United Kingdom,  CAN,  Poland (Polish Armed Forces in the West),  BEL,  Rhodesia
RAC helmet Men of 1st Royal Ulster Rifles, 1st Airborne Division, demonstrate the 2-inch mortar, 29 August 1942. H23359.jpg  United Kingdom 1941  United Kingdom,  Canada,  Poland (Polish Armed Forces in the West),  Belgium
Mk III Turtle helmet Stahlhelm 5 WWII Canada.jpg  United Kingdom 1944  United Kingdom,  Canada
Mk IV helmet Casque canadien Mk.IV.jpg  United Kingdom 1945  United Kingdom,  Canada
Mk V helmet  United Kingdom 1956  United Kingdom
Stahlhelm[8][9] The other side of the medal how Germany saw the First World War DSCF9953 14.JPG - M16, Stahlhelm Stirnpanzer WWI.jpg - M17, 2014-06 BLM Braunschweig WMDE (07).jpg - M18  German Empire 1916, 1917, 1918  German Empire,  Weimar Republic,  Nazi Germany,  Irish Free State,  Poland,  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  Finland
Stahlhelm M16 Wien - Leopold Museum.jpg  Austria-Hungary 1916  Austria-Hungary  German Empire,  Weimar Republic,  Poland,  Austria,  Nazi Germany
Stahlhelm M18 (Armoured warfare) Turkish Stahlhelm Wien 2.jpg  German Empire 1918  German Empire,  Turkey,  Weimar Republic
Stahlhelm M18 (Telephone and cavalry helmet) Stahlhelm M1918 à échancrures.jpg  German Empire 1918  German Empire,  Weimar Republic,  Nazi Germany
Stahlhelm M35 Duitse militaire Stahlhelm M.35, grijsgroen met rijkswapen, leren binnenhelm en kinriem met gesp 050551.JPG  Nazi Germany 1935  Nazi Germany,  Republic of China,  China,  Argentina, Chile Chile,  Colombia,  Bolivia,  Mexico,  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  Poland (Home Army)
Stahlhelm M40 Stahlhelm M40.jpg  Nazi Germany 1940  Nazi Germany,  Finland,  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  Poland (Home Army)
Stahlhelm M42 Stahlhelm2.jpg  Nazi Germany 1942  Nazi Germany,  Hungary,  Finland,  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  Poland (Home Army)
Italian M16 Lippmann helmet Casco italiano M 15 -16 Lippmann.JPG  Italy 1916  Italy,  Spain,  Spain
M31 helmet Benito Mussolini Portrait.jpg  Italy 1931  Italy,  Italy
M33 helmet Elmetto 33 da Generale di Divisione.jpg  Italy 1934  Italy,  Italy,  Finland,  Italy
Greek M1934/39 (helmet) M1934 side view.jpg  Italy 1939  Greece,  Bulgaria
M42 helmet Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-578-1931-08A, Italien, Fallschirmjäger im Wald.jpg  Italy 1942  Italy,  Italy,  Italy
M1917 helmet Helmet, Model 1917 - Fort Devens Museum - DSC07190.JPG  United States 1917  USA,  Philippines
M1 helmet Helmet-P4140438-black.jpg  United States 1941  USA,  Mexico,  Canada,[52]

 Austria,  Belgium,  Czechoslovakia,  Denmark,  West Germany (1956-1992),  Greece,  Netherlands,  Norway,  Pakistan,  Poland,  Spain,  Turkey,  Republic of China,  Egypt,  Iran,  Iraq,  South Korea,  Philippines (1944-1991),  Singapore,  Saudi Arabia,  Thailand,  Australia,  New Zealand,  Guatemala,  Argentina, Brazil,  Chile,  Peru,  Venezuela,  Uruguay,  Republic of South Vietnam

Swiss M1918,
Swiss M1918/40
Casque suisse mg 1704.jpg   Switzerland 1918   Switzerland,  Argentina
Swiss M1971 Helm Innenseite.JPG   Switzerland 1971   Switzerland
Danish M1923 helmet M-23 steel helmet (cropped).jpg  Denmark 1923  Denmark
Belgian M26/32  Belgium 1926  Belgium,  Luxembourg
Swedish M1926 Casque mg 1705.jpg  Sweden 1926  Sweden,  Finland
Swedish M1937 Swedish M1937-65 helmet.jpg  Sweden 1937  Sweden,  Finland
Spanish M1921 M21S-2.png  Spain 1926 (?)  Spain,  Spain
Spanish M1926 Casco español M 26.jpg  Spain 1930 (?)  Spain,  Spain
Spanish M1934 Casco español mº 38.jpg  Spain ?  Spain,  Spain
M1942 Modelo Z M42Z.png  Spain ?  Spain,  Spain
M1942/79 Modelo Z  Spain ?  Spain
Netherlands M23/27, Netherlands M34 Dutch military helmet, 1940.jpg  Netherlands 1928  Netherlands,  Romania
Hełm wz. 28 Hełm polski wz. 28.jpg  Poland 1928  Poland
Hełm wz. 30 Hełm polski wz. 30.jpg  Poland 1930  Poland
Hełm wz. 31 Hełm polski wz. 31.jpg  Poland 1931  Poland,  Nazi Germany,  Finland
Hełm wz. 31/50 CascPol-m31.jpg  Poland 1945  Poland
Hełm wz. 50 Hełm wz. 50.jpg  Poland 1950  Poland,  Albania,  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq
Hełm wz. 63 (Paratrooper helmet) Hełm wz. 63 2.jpg  Poland 1963  Poland,  DDR
Hełm wz. 64 Hełm żandarmerii.JPG  Poland 1964  Poland
Hełm wz. 65 Hełm wz. 65.jpg  Poland 1964  Poland
Hełm wz. 67 Hełm wz. 67 1.jpg  Poland 1967  Poland,  Egypt,  Afghanistan
Hełm wz. 70 Hełm wz. 64.jpg  Poland 1967  Poland
Irish M1928  Ireland 1928  Ireland
Norwegian M31 Norwegian Army 7.5 cm field gun.jpg  Norway 1931  Norway
Type 90 (also called: Type 30-32, Type 92) WW II IJA helmet MMH.JPG  Japan 1931  Japan,  Thailand,  China
Type 66 Type 66 Helmet liner.jpg  Japan 1966 Variant of M1 Helmet used by some elements of the JSDF Ground Forces
Czechoslovakian M32 helmet Field winter uniform - Czechoslovak Army (1930-35).jpg  Czechoslovakia 1932  Czechoslovakia,  Nazi Germany Flag of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Flag of Slovakia (1939–1945).svg Slovak Republic,  Finland
Czechoslovakian M53 helmet Vz. 53 Helmet.jpg  Czechoslovakia 1953  Czechoslovakia
Hungarian M35 Vatrogasna oprema, vatrogasni radni šlem.jpg  Hungary 1935  Hungary
Hungarian M38 Vänrikki Brandt testing the vigilance of the Soviets, 1941.jpg  Hungary 1938  Hungary,  Finland
Hungarian M50  Hungary 1950  Hungary
Hungarian M70 MH rohamsisak.JPG  Hungary 1970  Hungary
Soviet helmets during World War II
СТАЛЬНОЙ ШЛЕМ (КАСКА) обр. 1936 г..jpg  Soviet Union 1936  Soviet Union
SSh-39 Casque sovietique mg 1699.jpg  Soviet Union 1939  Soviet Union,  Poland
SSh-40 45th Separate Engineer-Camouflage Regiment - soldiers (2).jpg  Soviet Union 1940  Soviet Union (Warsaw Pact),  Poland,  People's Republic of China,  North Korea,  North Vietnam,  Finland,  Afghanistan
SSh-60 Artillery training (26559937940).jpg  Soviet Union 1960  Soviet Union (Warsaw Pact),  Afghanistan
SSh-68 Helmet Perforated by Shrapnel in Donbass Fighting - Regional History Museum - Zaporozhye - Ukraine (29173988157).jpg  Soviet Union 1968  Soviet Union (Warsaw Pact),  Afghanistan,  Syria (Russian army, Afghanistan Army, Armenian Army, Azerbaijan Army, Belarus Army, Georgia Army, Moldovia Army, Nicaragua Army, Philippines (Army reservists), Syria Army, Ukraine Army, Uzbekistan Army, Vietnam Army)
Bulgarian M36 helmet Bulgarian M36 Helmet side.jpg  Bulgaria 1936  Bulgaria[53]
Portuguese M1940  Portugal 1940  Portugal
M42 Duperite helmet (Paratrooper helmet) Australian paratrooper with Austen gun.jpg  AUS 1942  AUS
Mº 44 E.T.A. de Paracaidista used by Argentine Paratroopers  Argentina 1944  Argentina
M63 Staaldak  South Africa 1963  Rhodesia,  South Africa

Medieval and early Modern[edit]

Model Origin Users
Armet 15th century Western Europeans.
Barbute 15th century Italian states.
Bascinet c. 1300 Europeans during the Hundred Years' War(1337 to 1453) amid the kingdoms of Proposed flag of Île-de-France.svg France,  Aquitaine, Flag of Bourgogne.svg Burgundy and  England
Burgonet[54] c. 1600 Europeans, especially by militias of  Poland &   Switzerland
Capeline late 16th century Europeans during the 17th century, including the English Civil War in  England & Thirty Years' War across the  Holy Roman Empire
Cervelliere late 13th century Christian Europeans in Crusades during the 14th century
Close helmet late 15th century Western Europeans.
Dragoon helmet late 18th century  France .
Enclosed helmet late 12th century Western Europeans.
Frog-mouth helm c. 1600 Western Europeans.
Great helm[55] 1189 Christian Europeans in Third Crusade; other Europeans until 1540
Hounskull 14th century Western Europeans.
Kabuto c. 1600 Samurai especially during the 17th century of the Edo-period Tokugawa shogunate in Medieval  Japan.
Kettle hat 12th century Common all over medieval Europe.
Morion 16th and early 17th centuries Europeans (esp. associated with Spanish Conquistadores)
Nasal helmet Early Middle Ages Byzantine Empire, later common all over Europe.
Pickelhaube[8][9] 1842 especially by  Prussia &  German Empire and other Europeans until 1918; revived for 2006 FIFA World Cup in  Germany
Raupenhelm c. 1800-1870 High crested leather helmet used primarily by  Kingdom of Bavaria and  Württemberg
Sallet c. 1450 used in Northern Europe &  Hungary until the mid-16th century
Secrete 17th century Western Europeans
Spangenhelm[56] 5th century Central Asia, Near East & Europe; espec. by Scythians, Sarmatians, Persians, & Germans until 1000
Tarleton c. 1770-1800 Crested, peaked leather helmet used by cavalry and light infantry by  Great Britain,  France and  USA in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Qing parade helmet after 1655 till 1911 China
Zischagge c. 1600-1780 Originated in Ottoman Empire, used by the most of the Europe.

See also headgear listing within Components of medieval armour.

Ancient militaries[edit]

Model Origin Users
Attic helmet ancient Greeks
Boar's tusk helmet 17th century BCE Mycenaean Greeks until the 10th century BCE
Boeotian helmet ancient Greek cavalry
Chalcidian helmet ancient Greeks
Corinthian helmet[57] ancient Greeks
Disc and stud helmet c. 400 BCE ancient Illyrians & Adriatic Veneti until 167 BCE
Galea (helmet) ancient Romans
Horned helmet c. 1000 BCE Celtic Europeans until 700 CE
Illyrian type helmet ancient Greeks
Kegelhelm ancient Greeks
Negau helmet ancient Etruscans in Negau, Slovenia
Montefortino helmet ancient Romans
Pilos ancient Greeks
Pot helmet ancient Illyrians
Phrygian/Thracian helmet 5th century BCE ancient Greeks in Thrace, Dacia, Italia & Hellenistic Europe until c. 200 CE


Cushioning is used to negate concussive injuries. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory published a study in 2011 that concluded that the addition of an eighth of an inch/3 millimetres of cushion decreased the impact force to the skull by 24%.[58]


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