Digital Addressable Lighting Interface
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|International standard||IEC 60929 and IEC 62386|
|Developed by||Activity Group DALI, since 2017: Digital Illumination Interface Alliance|
|Superseded||0-10 V lighting control|
|Cable||mains-rated, with 600 V isolation, separate or part of power cable|
|Max. voltage||22V DC|
|Protocol||asynchronous, half-duplex, serial protocol over a two-wire bus|
|Pin 1||+DALI bus|
|Pin 2||-DALI bus|
Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) is a trademark for network-based systems that control lighting in building automation. The underlying technology was established by a consortium of lighting equipment manufacturers as a successor for 0-10 V lighting control systems, and as an open standard alternative to Digital Signal Interface (DSI), on which it is based.
DALI is specified by technical standards IEC 62386 and IEC 60929. Standards conformance ensures that equipment from different manufacturers will interoperate. The DALI trademark is allowed on devices that comply with the current standards when manufactured.
Members of the AG DALI (founded by Philips lighting in 1984) were freely allowed to use the DALI trademark until DALI working party was dissolved on 30th March 2017. Since 9th June 2017, Digital Illumination Interface Alliance (DiiA) certifies DALI equipment. DiiA is a Partner Program of IEEE-ISTO.
A DALI network consists of a controller, a power supply (which may be built into the controller) and one or more slave devices (e.g., electrical ballasts, LED drivers and dimmers) that have DALI interfaces. The controller can monitor and control each device by means of a bi-directional data exchange. The DALI protocol permits devices to be individually addressed and it also allows multiple devices to be addressed simultaneously via multicast and broadcast messages.
Each device is assigned a unique static address in the numeric range 0 to 63, making possible up to 64 devices in a basic system. Addresses may be arbitrarily assigned and need not be contiguous. DALI gateways can be used to implement systems that have more than 64 devices. Data is transferred between controller and devices by means of an asynchronous, half-duplex, serial protocol over a two-wire bus, with a fixed data transfer rate of 1200 bit/s.
A single pair of wires comprise the bus used for communication to all devices on a DALI network. The network can be arranged in a bus or star topology, or a combination of these. DALI is not classified as SELV (Separated Extra Low Voltage) and therefore its wiring may be run next to mains cables or within a multi-core cable which includes mains power. Data is transmitted using high voltages (±4.5 V for "0" and 0±6.5 V for "1" 16:19) enabling reliable communications in the presence of significant electrical noise.
The bus is used for both signal and power. A power supply provides 250 mA at 24 V DC; each device may draw up to 2 mA.:20,35 While many devices are line-powered, low-power devices such as motion detectors may be powered directly from the DALI bus. Each device has a bridge rectifier on its input so it is polarity-insensitive. The bus is a wired-AND configuration where signals are sent by briefly shorting the bus to a low voltage level.
The bus is also defined to be polarity-insensitive, allowing DALI wires can be connected to a device without regard for polarity (the voltage specification allows plenty of headroom for a bridge rectifier in each slave), and the speed is kept low so no termination resistors are required.:21
The network cable is required to be mains-rated, with 600 V isolation and a maximum drop of 2 volts along the cable.:19 (The required cable size depends on the length of the bus, up to a maximum of 300 m with (15.4 1.5 mm2AWG) conductors.)
Each bit is sent Manchester coded (half a bit time of the data bit, followed by half a bit time of its complement), so that power is present for half of each bit time. When the bus is idle, it is high voltage all the time, which is not the same as a "0" or a "1" data bit. Frames begin with a "0" start bit, then 8 to 16 data bits in msbit-first order (standard RS-232 is lsbit-first), followed by a minimum two bit times of idle.
Each device on a DALI network can be individually addressed, unlike DSI and 0–10V devices. Consequently, DALI networks use fewer wires than DSI or 0–10V systems.
Some devices (e.g., HF ballasts) are mains powered, and only have functional isolation between the mains and the DALI control. This means that even though the DALI control cable operates at ELV potential, it must be treated as if it were at mains potential.
DALI lighting levels are specified by an 8-bit value, where 0 means off, 1 means 0.1% of full brightness, 254 means full brightness, and other values are logarithmically interpolated between, giving a 2.77% increase per step. That is, a (non-zero) control byte x denotes a power level of 103(x−254)/253.
A DALI device, such as a HF fluorescent ballast, can be controlled individually via its short address. In addition to this method of control, DALI devices can be arranged into groups in which all devices of the same Group can interact with each other. For example, a room with 4 ballasts can be changed from off to on in three common ways:
Using the Short Address, e.g. sending the following DALI messages:
- DALI Short Address 1 go to 100%
- DALI Short Address 2 go to 100%
- DALI Short Address 3 go to 100%
- DALI Short Address 4 go to 100%
This method has the advantage of not relying on the limited number of scenes available in each ballast, or having programmed each ballast with the required group numbers and scene information. The fade rate of the transition can be chosen on the fly. This method can have an undesirable side effect called "Mexican Wave" when a single large room such as an auditorium contains many ballasts, due to network latency of the comparatively slow 1200 baud rate of DALI. For example, a transition from all on to all off may result in a visible delay between the first and last ballasts switching off. This issue is normally not a problem in rooms with smaller numbers of ballasts.
Using the DALI Group previously defined for the ballasts in the room, e.g.:
- DALI Group address 1 go to 100%
This method has the advantage of being immune to the “Mexican Wave” effect as described above. This method has the disadvantage of requiring each ballast to be programmed with the required group numbers and scene information, and has a fixed fade rate which is pre set at the time of commissioning.
Using the DALI Broadcast command all, every ballasts will change to that level, e.g.:
- DALI Broadcast go to 50%
The DALI protocol provides 254 levels of brightness between off and 100%. The brightness is translated to a ballast power level via a logarithmic dimming curve that matches eye sensitivity so that perceived brightness steps will have uniform brightness change, and to achieve a uniform brightness between units from different manufacturers.
|Set Value||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Send direct level values||R/W|
|Off||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Send the off command||R/W|
|Up||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Increase value by 1 until Max Level, honouring the fade time||W|
|Down||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Decrease value by 1 until Min Level, honouring the fade time||W|
|Step Up||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Increase value by 1 until Max Level, ignoring the fade time||W|
|Step Down||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Decrease value by 1 until Min Level, ignoring the fade time||W|
|Recall Max Level||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Output Max Value||R/W|
|Recall Min Level||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Output Min Value||R/W|
|Step Down and Off||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Decrease value by 1 /Turn off||W|
|On and Step Up||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Turn on / Increase by 1||W|
|Go to Scene x||Broadcast / Groups / Channels||Go to scene 1 - 16||W|
"OK, Lamp Failure"
"Off, Lamp Power On"
"Off, Limit Error"
"No, Reset State"
"Missing Short Address"
|Device||Channels||Status of the Device||R|
|Lamp Power On||Channels||Is the Lamp on?||R|
|Version Number||Channels||Replies: Current Version||R|
|Device Type||Channels||Replies with the device type||R|
|Actual Level||Channels||Query Current Level||R|
|Max Level||Channels||The Max level the Device can go to||R/W|
|Min Level||Channels||The Min level the Device can go to||R/W|
|Power On Level||Channels||Lamp output with voltage recovery||R/W|
|System Failure Level||Channels||Lamp output in the event of system malfunction (e.g., interrupted DALI line)||R/W|
|Scene Levels||Channels||Sets the leveles for Scene.||R/W|
|Fade time||Channels||Time in seconds for fading from the current brightness value to the new brightness value||R/W|
|Fade rate||Channels||Fade steps per second that are performed in response to an indirect fade command (Up and Down commands)||R/W|
A wireless extension to DALI is available that enables DALI networks to communicate via wireless, radio frequency communication.
DALI and Bluetooth
- "DALI - a working party of ZVEI". www.dali-ag.org. 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-07-23.
- "DiiA acquires DALI trademarks" (PDF). Digital Illumination Interface Alliance - IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization. 2017-06-09. Retrieved 2017-07-23.
- "Communication in building automation". Siemens Building Technologies. Siemens Building Technologies. 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- "Digital Addressable Lighting Interface" (PDF). DALI. DALI AG, Activity Group, ZVEI-Division Luminaires. September 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Artistic Licence. "The DALI Guide" (PDF). Artistic Licence. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- Wago. "DALI/DSI Master Module 750-641 manual" (PDF). Wago. Wago. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "WAGO-Software WAGO DALI Configurator" (PDF). Wago. Wago. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "Wireless extension for DALI". Virtual Extension. Virtual Extension. 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Mesh Professional Lighting Subgroup (mesh-lighting)". The Official Bluetooth SIG Member Website. Bluetooth Special Interest Group. 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.