Digital radio in Australia

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Digital radio in Australia' uses the DAB+ standard and is available in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Canberra and Darwin.[1] The national government owned networks, the ABC and SBS, and the commercial radio stations in each market provide many of their services and a few digital-only services on the digital platform. Australia uses the AAC+ codec provided with upgraded DAB+ standard.[2]

History[edit]

Despite testing in Sydney and Melbourne from as early as 1999, the first genuine plan for digital radio was released in October 2005, as Helen Coonan, the then Australian Minister for Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, announced that Australia would adopt the Eureka 147 system. The Australian Government had set a launch date for digital radio in the six state capital cities, originally 1 January 2009, but this launch date was subsequently shifted back to no later than 1 July 2009[3] and the list of cities starting digital radio excluded Hobart. The peak industry body, Commercial Radio Australia, began coordinating the tests as well as organising the commercial multiplexes.

The major radio networks commenced a staged roll-out of commercial DAB+ services during May 2009 with Perth launching on 4 May 2009; Melbourne on 11 May 2009; Adelaide on 20 May 2009; Brisbane on 25 May 2009; and Sydney on 30 May 2009 (later delayed to 15 June due to weather conditions and kept on low power until 30 June). The roll-out of DAB+ services by the Government-owned ABC and SBS networks was delayed until 1 July 2009 due to funding delays and management issues.[4] Testing has been planned for other major cities, with a trial multiplex in Canberra commencing broadcasting on 14 July 2010,[5] and a trial multiplex running in Darwin since 13 August 2010.[6] Similar trials are being considered for Townsville and Hobart, and, as of December 2010, commercial broadcasters in regional markets have begun planning to introduce digital radio into regional population centres, possibly as soon as 2011 or 2012.[7] However, it is expected that it will be some years before digital radio is extended to the bulk of the Australian continent. Australia's vast distances and low population density are not well suited to the propagation characteristics of DAB+ and it is therefore likely that a standard other than DAB+ will be adopted for serving areas outside the major cities (leading to customer acceptance issues with receivers that can only receive one of the likely two standards).

Community digital radio services were rolled out to capital cities in late 2010 to May 2011 and were formally launched in May 2011.[8] The roll out of community digital radio services represents the largest ever infrastructure project conducted by the community broadcasting sector in Australia. The project was managed by the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia.

Current services[edit]

National broadcasters[edit]

The ABC and SBS operate digital radio services in all current DAB+ broadcasting markets on frequency block 9C (206.352 MHz),[9] While most services are national, the ABC provides the local ABC Local Radio station for their respective location.

Canberra is not part of the official DAB+ rollout, but is part of the technical trials on regional broadcasting happening in Canberra and Darwin. In Canberra, where due to bandwidth limitations, only a subset of ABC and SBS stations are broadcast, on frequency block 10B (211.648 MHz) - along with commercial stations. The Darwin trial includes only commercial stations, and ABC and SBS are unavailable.[10]

In Tasmania currently no digital radio services are operating.

The local radio services are mostly a simulcast of their AM radio equivalents, however alternate programming is aired pre-empting most sports coverage (which is moved to digital-only station ABC Grandstand). This programming is also on the ABC's online streams, where sporting rights may prevent international coverage. The ABC also have a number of digital only radio stations,[11] including ABC Jazz,[12] Double J,[13] ABC Country,[14] and special events station ABC Extra,[15] which is used to provide additional coverage for special events, otherwise not able to be covered.

9C National Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner Service ID Bitrate
ABC Local Radio Talk, News, Music and more. Labelled as the name of the local station, e.g. 702 ABC Sydney or 891 ABC Adelaide ABC 0x3005 64kbit/s
ABCRadioNational National talk and arts radio AM Simulcast ABC 0x3006 64kbit/s
ABC Classic FM Classical Music FM Simulcast ABC 0x3007 80kbit/s
ABC NEWS News and Parliamentary Broadcasts AM Simulcast ABC 0x3000 48kbit/s
Triple J Youth focused music station FM Simulcast ABC 0x3009 80kbit/s
Double J Adult Contemporary Music DAB+, DTV, Online ABC 0x3001 80kbit/s
ABC Country Country Music DAB+, Online ABC 0x3003 80kbit/s
ABC Jazz Jazz Music DAB+, DTV, Online ABC 0x3002 80kbit/s
ABC Grandstand Live Sports Coverage Digital Only ABC 0x3008 40kbit/s
ABC Extra Special Event Radio Digital Only ABC 0x3004 72kbit/s
triplejUnearthed Australian independent music station Digital Only ABC 0x300A 72kbit/s
SBS Radio 1 Multilingual Radio SBS AM Service (Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra), AM 1485 (Wollongong), DAB+, DTV SBS 0x3800 40kbit/s
SBS Radio 2 Multilingual Radio SBS FM Service (Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra), AM 1035 (Wollongong), DAB+, DTV SBS 0x3801 40kbit/s
SBS Radio 3 Multilingual Radio DAB+, DTV SBS 0x3806 40kbit/s
SBS Radio 4 BBC World Service Simulcast. Some opt outs, including sports coverage & special events.[16] Digital Only SBS 0x3808 48kbit/s
SBS Chill World Chillout Music Digital Only SBS 0x3802 56kbit/s
SBS PopAsia Asian Pop Music Digital Only SBS 0x3803 64kbit/s
SBS Arabic24 News and information in Arabic Digital Only SBS 0x3804 48kbit/s
SBS PopDesi South Asian Pop Music Digital Only SBS 0x3805 48kbit/s

Commercial and community radio[edit]

Each region with access to digital radio has a number of multiplexes set aside for commercial and community radio services. In these multiplexes, two-ninths of the bandwidth are reserved for community broadcasters, while the rest is used for commercial broadcasters. Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane have been provided with two such multiplexes, which broadcast on frequency blocks 9A (202.928 MHz) and 9B (204.640 MHz), allowing a greater number of stations, while Adelaide and Perth currently have just one commercial/community multiplex each, both broadcasting on frequency block 9B. Canberra has only one frequency block, 10B (211.648 MHz) which is shared with ABC and SBS, and Darwin's trial multiplex also broadcasts on frequency block 10B.

Commercial services on digital radio include simulcasts of both AM and FM stations, as well as new digital-only services. While most commercial radio services in Australia are provided by a small number of companies, there are no true national commercial stations. However, since these commercial broadcasters have been given extra bandwidth on the digital platform, some new digital-only stations are available nationally, including NovaNation (DMG),[17] Triple M Classic Rock (Austereo) and The Edge Digital (ARN).

Community Radio stations with a city wide licence have reserved spectrum, equalling 2/9s of the capacity on each commercial multiplex.[18] The Federal Government has promised $10.1 Million in funding to help community broadcasters with the costs of beginning digital broadcasts. During late 2010 and early 2011 most of the eligible community stations in Melbourne and several in Sydney and Brisbane began test transmissions. Melbourne's community radio stations officially launched their digital services on 14 April 2011,[19] followed by Adelaide's community radio stations on 15 April 2011,[20] Brisbane's on 14 May 2011,[21] and Sydney's on 24 May 2011.[22] Services in Perth are broadcasting in digital. Community Digital Radio services were formally launched by Senator the Hon. Stephen Conroy, Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy on Friday 13 May 2011 in Melbourne.[22]

Adelaide[edit]

9B Adelaide Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner Bitrate
Cruise 1323 Oldies Simulcast of 1323 AM ARN 48kbit/s
Mix 102.3 Classic hits / Hot adult contemporary Simulcast of 102.3 FM ARN 48kbit/s
Pure Gold 80's 80's music Digital only ARN 32kbit/s
Chemist Warehouse Remix Classic hits / Hot adult contemporary Digital only ARN 32kbit/s
The Edge Rhythmic contemporary Digital only, related to Edge 96.1 ARN 32kbit/s
Elf Radio Christmas music Digital only, during Christmas season ARN 32kbit/s
FIVEaa Talk radio Simulcast of 1395 AM NOVA 64kbit/s
Nova 91.9 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 91.9 FM NOVA 64kbit/s
Coles Radio[17] Pop music Digital only NOVA 40kbit/s
smoothfm Easy listening Digital only NOVA 88kbit/s
Triple M Classic rock Simulcast of 104.7 FM Southern Cross Austereo 56kbit/s
HIT 107 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 107.1 FM Southern Cross Austereo 56kbit/s
Buddha Radio[23] Chill-out music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 48kbit/s
MyOMG Radio Adult contemporary Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 48kbit/s
Easy Radio Easy listening Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 48kbit/s
Oldskool Hot adult contemporary Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 48kbit/s
The Range Country music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 32kbit/s
Kinderling Kids Children's radio Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 48kbit/s
IRIS Radio reading service Digital only Community 32kbit/s
5RPH Adelaide Radio reading service Simulcast of 1197 AM Community 32kbit/s
EBI Digital World Multicultural Simulcast of 103.1 FM Community 64kbit/s
Fresh Digital Dance music Simulcast of 92.7 FM Community 64kbit/s
Three D Radio Progressive Simulcast of 93.7 FM Community 64kbit/s
Radio Adelaide Varied Simulcast of 101.5 FM Community 64kbit/s
Lift Digital Adult contemporary / Christian Digital only, related to Life FM (Adelaide) Community 64kbit/s
EON Sports Radio Sports Digital only 32kbit/s

Brisbane[edit]

9A Brisbane Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner
4KQ Classic hits Simulcast of 693 AM ARN
97.3 Hot adult contemporary Simulcast of 97.3 FM ARN/NOVA joint venture
The Edge Digital Rhythmic contemporary Digital only, related to Edge 96.1 ARN
4KQ Plus Classic hits, monthly featured artist Digital only ARN
Pure Gold 80's 80's Music Digital only ARN
Chemist Warehouse Mix 90's Music Digital only ARN
Nova 106.9 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 106.9 FM NOVA
Koffee Chill-out music Digital only NOVA
Radio TAB Horse racing, sport Simulcast of 1008 AM UNITAB
4TAB 2 Horse racing, sport Digital only UNITAB
Switch Digital Various Digital only, related to Switch 1197 Community
96.5 Inspire DAB Christian Digital only, related to 96five Family FM Community
Global (4EB) Ethnic Programming and World Music Digital Only Community
9B Brisbane Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner
Triple M Active rock Simulcast of 104.5 FM Southern Cross Austereo
Triple M Classic Rock Classic rock Digital only Southern Cross Austereo
HIT 105 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 105.3 FM Southern Cross Austereo
Buddha Radio[23] Chill-out music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo
Love Land Love Songs Digital only Southern Cross Austereo
Stardust Timeless classics Digital only Southern Cross Austereo
Magic 882 Easy listening Simulcast of 882 AM Macquarie
4BC Talk radio Simulcast of 1116 AM Macquarie
4AAA 989 Country Indigenous Simulcast of 98.9 FM Community
Zed Digital Independent music Digital only, related to 4ZZZ Community
4MBS Light Classical music Digital only Community

Canberra[edit]

10B Canberra Trial Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner
666 ABC Canberra Talk, News, Music and more. Simulcast of 666 AM ABC
ABC Jazz Featuring releases from Australia's best jazz musicians and from around the world Digital Only ABC
ABC Radio Grandstand Coverage of Australian and international sport. Digital Only ABC
ABC Radio National National talk and arts radio Simulcast of 846 AM ABC
Triple J Unearthed Australia independent and unsigned artists Digital Only ABC
Double J Adult Contemporary Music Digital Only ABC
2CA Classic hits Simulcast of 1053 AM Capital Radio Network/Grant Broadcasters joint venture
2CC Talk radio Simulcast of 1206 AM Capital Radio Network/Grant Broadcasters joint venture
Kix Country Country music Digital Only Grant Broadcasters
My Canberra Digital Hot adult contemporary Digital only Capital Radio Network
Canberra 100 Celebrating Canberra's 100th Birthday and unsigned local artists Digital Only ARN/Southern Cross Austereo joint venture
HIT104.7 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 104.7 FM ARN/Southern Cross Austereo joint venture
Mix 106.3 Hot adult contemporary Simulcast of 106.3 FM ARN/Southern Cross Austereo joint venture
Classic Hits Plus Classic Hits Digital Only ARN
SBS Radio 1 Multilingual Radio Simulcast of 105.5 FM SBS
SBS Radio 2 Multilingual Radio Simulcast of 1440 AM SBS
SBS Chill World Chillout Music Digital Only SBS
SBS Pop Asia Asian Pop Music Digital Only SBS
Note: The Canberra multiplex (10B) is shared with SBS and ABC. Details of the Canberra trial (including coverage area) are available from the ACMA website[24]

Darwin[edit]

10B Darwin Trial Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner
Hot 100 FM Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 100.1 FM Grant Broadcasters
Mix 104.9 Hot adult contemporary Simulcast of 104.9 FM Grant Broadcasters
Kix Country Digital Country music Digital only version of KIX Country Grant Broadcasters
Radio TAB Horse racing, sport Simulcast of 1242 AM* UNITAB
Classic Rock Digital Rock music Digital Only Grant Broadcasters
Note: KIX Country and Radio TAB broadcast on limited licences, and as a result are treated as digital only stations.

Melbourne[edit]

9A Melbourne Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner Bitrate
RSN Racing & Sport Racing Simulcast of 927 AM Racing Victoria 64kbit/s
RSN Carnival Racing Digital Only Racing Victoria 64kbit/s
Radio TAB Horse racing, sport Digital only UNITAB 24kbit/s
SEN 1116 Sports/talk Simulcast of 1116 AM Pacific Star 64kbit/s
Classic Rock Radio Classic rock Simulcast of 1377 AM Pacific Star 64kbit/s
Aussie Australian rock music Digital only Pacific Star 64kbit/s
Koool Adult contemporary/Classic hits Digital only Pacific Star 64kbit/s
smooth 91.5 Easy listening Simulcast of 91.5 FM NOVA 64kbit/s
Nova 100 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 100.3 FM NOVA 64kbit/s
Koffee Chill-out music Digital only NOVA 64kbit/s
NovaNation Dance music Digital only NOVA 64kbit/s
Light Digital Christian Contemporary Digital only, related to 89.9 Light FM Community 64kbit/s
3ZZZ Ethnic Simulcast of 92.3 FM Community 64kbit/s
3RRR Varied Simulcast of 102.7 FM Community 64kbit/s
3MBS Classical Music Simulcast of 103.5 FM Community 64kbit/s
TAB Live Racing/sport Digital only Sky 24kbit/s
9B Melbourne Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner Bitrate
3AW Talk Simulcast of 693 AM Macquarie 80kbit/s
Talking Lifestyle Talk Digital Only Macquarie 48kbit/s
NTS[disambiguation needed] Talk Digital only Macquarie 48kbit/s
Magic 1278 Easy listening Simulcast of 1278 AM Macquarie 64kbit/s
KIIS 101.1 Hot adult contemporary Simulcast of 101.1 FM ARN 48kbit/s
Gold 104.3 80's Music Simulcast of 104.3 FM ARN 48kbit/s
The Edge Digital Rhythmic contemporary Digital only, related to The Edge 96.ONE ARN 48kbit/s
iheartradio: The 80's 80's Music Digital only ARN 48kbit/s
iheartradio: The 80's 90's Music Digital only ARN 48kbit/s
Chemist Warehouse Remix Classic Hits & Hot Adult Contemporary Digital only ARN 32kbit/s
Fox FM Old School Music Simulcast of 101.9 FM Southern Cross Austereo 64kbit/s
Triple M Active rock Simulcast of 105.1 FM Southern Cross Austereo 64kbit/s
OMG! Classic rock Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 64kbit/s
Buddha Radio[23] Chill-out music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 64kbit/s
EASY Easy Listening Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 48kbit/s
Old Skool Old School Music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 56kbit/s
3CR Varied Simulcast of 855 AM Community 64kbit/s
3KND Indigenous Simulcast of 1503 AM Community 64kbit/s
SYN Nation Youth/Student Digital only Community 64kbit/s
PBS Digital Varied Simulcast of 106.7 FM Community 64kbit/s
IRIS Radio reading service Digital only Community 64kbit/s

Perth[edit]

9B Perth Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner
6PR Talk Simulcast of 882 AM Macquarie
96fm Mainstream rock Simulcast of 96.1 FM ARN
6IX Classic hits Simulcast of 1080 AM Capital Radio Network/Grant Broadcasters joint venture
My Perth Digital Hot adult contemporary Digital only Capital Radio Network
DJFM Perth Dance/Electronic Digital only BrantMedia
KIX Country Digital Country music Digital only Grant Broadcasters
Nova 93.7 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 93.7 FM NOVA
smoothfm Easy Listening Digital only NOVA
HIT 92.9 Top 40 (CHR) Simulcast of 92.9 FM Southern Cross Austereo
X Digital Top 40 (CHR) Digital only Capital Radio Network
Mix 94.5 Modern adult contemporary Simulcast of 94.5 FM Southern Cross Austereo
Buddha Radio[23] Chill-out music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo
Triple M Classic Rock Classic rock Digital only Southern Cross Austereo
990 6RPH Information Radio Information Simulcast of 990 AM Community
RTRFM Public Radio and Music & Arts Community Simulcast of 92.1 FM Community
6EBA Ethnic radio Simulcast of 95.7 FM Community
98.5 Sonshine FM Christian Community Radio Simulcast of 98.5 FM Community
Curtin FM University Community Radio (Music, Talk, News) Simulcast of 100.1 FM Community
Noongar Radio 100.9 Indigenous Simulcast of 100.9 FM Community
Capital 101.7FM Seniors community Simulcast of 101.7 FM Community

Sydney[edit]

9A Sydney Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner Service ID Bitrate
2UE LIFESTYLE Lifestyle & Home Shopping Simulcast of 954 AM Macquarie 0x11B2 80kbit/s
News Talk Sport Talk Digital only Macquarie 0x11B3 32kbit/s
SkySportsRadio1 Racing/sport Simulcast of 1017 AM Sky 0x11E4 64kbit/s
SkySportsRadio2 Racing/sport Digital only Sky 0x11E5 32kbit/s
Sky Tbred Cent Racing/sport Digital only Sky 0x11E6 32kbit/s
2SM Talk & Sport Talk Simulcast of 1269 AM Broadcast Operations Group 0x1194 64kbit/s
GorillaDanceHits Dance music Digital only Broadcast Operations Group 0x1195 48kbit/s
OMG! Gay Music Digital only Broadcast Operations Group 0x11A1 48kbit/s
FUN Classic Hits Hot AC: 1960s-1980s Digital only Broadcast Operations Group 0x1198 48kbit/s
ZOO MusicVariety Hot AC: 1990s-Top 40 (CHR) Digital only Broadcast Operations Group 0x1196 48kbit/s
1041 2DayFM Old School Hits Simulcast of 104.1 FM Southern Cross Austereo 0x119E 88kbit/s
Triple M Active rock Simulcast of 104.9 FM Southern Cross Austereo 0x119F 88kbit/s
Buddha - Chill Chill-out music Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 0x11A3 48kbit/s
Easy Radio Easy Listening Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 0x11A2 48kbit/s
OLDSKOOL Old School Hits Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 0x11A5 48kbit/s
TheRange-Country News Digital only Southern Cross Austereo 0x11A4 32kbit/s
2RPH Digital Radio Reading Simulcast of 1224 AM and 101.5 FM Community 0x120E 64kbit/s
2000 Languages Ethnic Simulcast of 98.5 FM Community 0x121F 64kbit/s
Fine Music Classical Music Simulcast of 102.5 FM Community 0x120C 64kbit/s
1SM '60s and '70s music Digital only Community 0x1197 48kbit/s
Kinderling Kids Kids music redefined Digital only Community 0x11A6 48kbit/s
Koori Radio Indigenous programming Simulcast of 93.7 FM Community 0x120D 48kbit/s
9B Sydney Multiplex
Station Name Format Details Owner Service ID Bitrate
2GB 873 Talk Simulcast of 873 AM Macquarie 0x11D0 128kbit/s
2CH 1170 Oldies Simulcast of 1170 AM Macquarie 0x11D1 128kbit/s
smooth fm 95.3 Easy listening Simulcast of 95.3 FM NOVA Entertainment 0x11BC 64kbit/s
Nova 969 Top 40 (CHR) & Independent Music Simulcast of 96.9 FM NOVA Entertainment 0x11BD 112kbit/s
Koffee Chill-out music Digital only NOVA Entertainment 0x11BF 40kbit/s
Coles Radio Supermarket Radio Digital only NOVA Entertainment 0x11BE 40kbit/s
WSFM 1017 80's Music Simulcast of 101.7 FM ARN 0x1180 48kbit/s
KIIS 1065 Top 40 (CHR) Digital only ARN 0x1181 48kbit/s
The Edge Rhythmic contemporary Simulcast of 96.1 FM ARN 0x1182 48kbit/s
The 80s 80's Music Digital only ARN 0x1185 48kbit/s
The 90s 90's Music Digital only ARN 0x1183 32kbit/s
CW Remix Classic Hits & Hot Adult contemporary Digital only ARN 0x1184 48kbit/s
2MFM Muslim DR Islamic programming Simulcast of 92.1 FM Community 0x1222 32kbit/s
FBi Radio Independent Music Simulcast of 94.5 FM[25] Community 0x1223 64kbit/s
2SER 107.3 Varied Simulcast of 107.3 FM Community 0x1221 64kbit/s
Inspire Digital Christian Music Digital only - related to Hope 103.2 FM Community 0x1220 48kbit/s
Hope 1032 Hot adult contemporary & easy listening Simulcast of 103.2 FM Hope Media 0x1224 128kbit/s

References[edit]

  1. ^ Canberra digital radio trial update, 14 July 2010, Digital Radio Plus
  2. ^ Commercial Radio Australia: The Future Archived 25 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090522202307/http://www.dbcde.gov.au/media_broadcasting/radio/digital_radio/rollout_of_digital_radio_in_australia. Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.  Missing or empty |title= (help) - redirects to http://www.communications.gov.au/, the home page of the Department of Communications.
  4. ^ Tech review with Peter Marks: digital radio, 14 May 2009, ABC Radio National
  5. ^ "Digital radio trial to begin in Canberra". 2010-05-05. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  6. ^ "Digital radio trial on in Darwin". 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  7. ^ "Regional radio broadcasters meet to discuss rollout of digital radio" (PDF). Media release. Commercial Radio Australia (CRA). 8 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  8. ^ White, Alex (23 May 2011). "National Community Launch". Community Digital Radio. 
  9. ^ List of licensed broadcasting transmitters Archived 25 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA)
  10. ^ Canberra & Darwin digital radio trials extended, Media release 23 August 2013, Commercial Radio Australia (CRA)
  11. ^ ABC launches digital radio stations, The Australian, 1 July 2009[dead link]
  12. ^ Home page, ABC Jazz
  13. ^ Home page, ABC Dig Music
  14. ^ Home page, ABC Country
  15. ^ Home page, ABC Extra
  16. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100103083343/http://www.sbs.com.au/radio/article/717/Live-commentary-schedule. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ a b "dmg drop NovaNation/Koffee for Coles Radio". Radio Today. 29 December 2013. 
  18. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100309074107/http://www.cbaa.org.au/content/Digital-Radio-A-Go-Go. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ "Melbourne community radio stations go digital next month". 2011-03-21. Archived from the original on 26 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  20. ^ "Adelaide Launching Digital Community Radio in April". Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-12. 
  21. ^ White, Alex (10 June 2011). "Brisbane Stations Launch Digital Services". Community Digital Radio. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  22. ^ a b White, Alex (10 June 2011). "Sydney Community Digital Radio Stations Launch". Community Digital Radio. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  23. ^ a b c d Home page, Buddha Radio
  24. ^ "ACMA Digital Radio". 2013-04-14. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. 
  25. ^ "We're making changes to FBi on digital radio" FBi website, 6 June 2017

External links[edit]