Noble Eightfold Path

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Translations of
The Noble Eightfold Path
Pali अरियो अट्ठङगिको मग्गो (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo).
Sanskrit आर्याष्टाङगमार्ग (āryāṣṭāṅgamārga)
Burmese မဂ္ဂင်ရှစ်ပါး
(IPA: [mɛʔɡɪ̀ɴ ʃɪʔ pá])
Chinese 八正道
(PinyinBāzhèngdào)
Japanese 八正道
(rōmaji: Hasshōdō)
Korean 팔정도
(RR: Paljeongdo)
Mongolian qutuγtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör
Sinhala ආර්ය අෂ්ටා◌ගික මාර්ගය
Thai อริยมรรคมีองค์แปด
Glossary of Buddhism
The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path

The Noble Eightfold Path (Pali: ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, Sanskrit: āryāṣṭāṅgamārga)[1] is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.[2][3]

The Eightfold Path consists of eight practices: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right "samadhi" (meditative absorption or union).[4] In the earliest Buddhism these practices started with insight (right view), culminating in dhyana/samadhi as the core soteriological practice.[5] In later Buddhism insight (prajna) became the central soteriological instrument, leading to a different concept and structure of the path.[5][6]

The Eightfold Path teaches that by restraining oneself, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation, house-leavers (monks and nuns) attain nirvana and stop their craving, clinging and karmic accumulations, thereby ending their rebirth and suffering.[7][8][9][3][10][11]

The Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of Theravada Buddhism, leading to Arhatship.[12] In the Theravada tradition, this path is also summarized as sila (morals), samadhi (meditation) and prajna (insight). In Mahayana Buddhism it is contrasted with the Bodhisattva path, which culminates in full Buddhahood.[12]

In Buddhist symbolism, the Noble Eightfold Path is often represented by means of the dharma wheel (dharmachakra), whose eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path.

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

The Pali terms ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo (Sanskrit: arya astanga marga) is typically translated in English as "Noble Eightfold Path". This translation is a convention started by the early translators of Buddhist texts into English, just like ariya sacca is translated as Four Noble Truths.[13][14] However, the phrase does not mean the path is noble, rather that the path is of the arya (enlightened, noble, precious people).[15] The term maggo (Sanskrit: marga) means "path", while aṭṭhaṅgiko means "eightfold". An alternate rendering of ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo is "eightfold path of the noble ones",[3][16][17] or "eightfold Aryan Path".[18][19][20]

All eight elements of the Path begin with the word samyañc (in Sanskrit) or sammā (in Pāli) which means "right, proper, as it ought to be, best".[18] The Buddhist texts contrast samma with its opposite miccha.[18]

The Eightfold Path[edit]

Origin[edit]

According to Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may initially have been as simple as the term "the middle way".[5] In time, this short description was elaborated, resulting in the description of the eightfold path.[5] Vetter and Bucknell both note that longer descriptions of "the path" can be found, which can be condensed into the eightfold path.[5][21][note 1]

The Eight Divisions[edit]

Eight-fold path illustrated in a dharma wheel.

The eight Buddhist practices in the Noble Eightfold Path are:[23][note 2]

  1. right view: our actions have consequences; death is not the end, and our actions and beliefs have also consequences after death; the Buddha followed and taught a successful path out of this world and the other world (heaven and underworld/hell)[24][25][26][27][note 3] Later on, right view came to explicitly include karma and rebirth, and the importance of the Four Noble Truths, when "insight" became central to Buddhist soteriology.[28][29]
  2. Right Resolve: the giving up home and adopting the life of a religious mendicant in order to follow the path; this concept, states Harvey, aims at peaceful renunciation, into an environment of non-sensuality, non-ill-will (to loving kindness), away from cruelty (to compassion).[30] Such an environment aids contemplation of impermanence, suffering, and non-Self.[30]
  3. Right Speech: no lying, no rude speech, no telling one person what another says about him, speaking that which leads to salvation;[23]
  4. Right Conduct: no killing or injuring, no taking what is not given, no sexual acts.[23]
  5. Right Livelihood: beg to feed, only possessing what is essential to sustain life;[23]
  6. Right Effort: guard against sensual thoughts; this concept, states Harvey, aims at preventing unwholesome states that disrupt meditation.[30]
  7. Right Mindfulness: never be absent minded, being conscious of what one is doing; this, states Harvey, encourages the mindfulness about impermanence of body, feeling and mind, as well as to experience the five aggregates (skandhas), the five hindrances, the four True Realities and seven factors of awakening.[30]
  8. Right samadhi: practicing four stages of meditation (dhyāna) culminating into unification of the mind

Liberation[edit]

Following the Noble Eightfold Path leads to liberation in the form of nirvana:[31][32]

(...) Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. That is the ancient path, the ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of aging & death, direct knowledge of the origination of aging & death, direct knowledge of the cessation of aging & death, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of aging & death. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of birth... becoming... clinging... craving... feeling... contact... the six sense media... name-&-form... consciousness, direct knowledge of the origination of consciousness, direct knowledge of the cessation of consciousness, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of consciousness. I followed that path.

— The Buddha, Nagara Sutta, Samyutta Nikaya ii.124, Translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu[33][34]

Threefold division[edit]

The Noble Eightfold Path is sometimes divided into three basic divisions, as follows:[35]

Division Eightfold Path factors
Moral virtue[29] (Sanskrit: śīla, Pāli: sīla) 3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
Meditation[29] (Sanskrit and Pāli: samādhi) 6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness
8. Right concentration
Insight, wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā, Pāli: paññā) 1. Right view
2. Right resolve

This order is a later development, when discriminating insight (prajna) became central to Buddhist soteriology, and came to be regarded as the culmination of the Buddhist path.[36] Yet, Majjhima Nikaya 117, Mahācattārīsaka Sutta, describes the first seven practices as requisites for right samadhi. According to Vetter, this may have been the original soteriological practice in early Buddhism.[5]

"Moral virtues" (Sanskrit: śīla, Pāli: sīla) group consists of three paths: right speech, right action and right livelihood.[29] The word śīla though translated by English writers as linked to "morals or ethics", states Bhikkhu Bodhi, is in ancient and medieval Buddhist commentary tradition closer to the concept of discipline and disposition that "leads to harmony at several levels – social, psychological, karmic and contemplative".[37] Such harmony creates an environment to pursue the meditative steps in the Noble Eightfold Path by reducing social disorder, preventing inner conflict that result from transgressions, favoring future karma-triggered movement through better rebirths, and purifying the mind.[37][38]

The meditation group ("samadhi") of the path progresses from moral restraints to training the mind.[39][40] The goal in this group of the Noble Eightfold Path is to develop clarity and insight into the nature of reality – dukkha, anicca and anatta, discard negative states and dispel avidya, ultimately attaining nirvana.[41]

In the threefold division, prajna (insight, wisdom) is presented as the culmination of the path, whereas in the eightfold division the path starts with correct knowledge or insight, which is needed to understand why this path should be followed.[42]

Tenfold Path[edit]

In the Mahācattārīsaka Sutta[43][44] which appears in the Chinese and Pali canons, the Buddha explains that cultivation of the noble eightfold path of a learner leads to the development of two further paths of the Arhants, which are right knowledge, or insight (sammā-ñāṇa), and right liberation, or release (sammā-vimutti).[45] These two factors fall under the category of wisdom (paññā).[46]

The Noble Eightfold Path, in the Buddhist traditions, is the direct means to nirvana and brings a release from the cycle of life and death in the realms of samsara.[47][48]

Further explanation[edit]

Right view[edit]

Right view (samyak-dṛṣṭi / sammā-diṭṭhi) explicates that our actions have consequences, that death is not the end, that our actions and beliefs have also consequences after death, and that the Buddha followed and taught a successful path out of this world and the other world (heaven and underworld/hell)[24][25][26][27] Majjhima Nikaya 117, Mahācattārīsaka Sutta, a Pāli Canonical text, describes the first seven practices as requisites of right samadhi, starting with right view:

Of those , right view is the forerunner [...] And what is the right view with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions? 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed.[note 4] There are fruits, and results of good and bad actions. There is this world and the next world. There is mother and father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are contemplatives and brahmans who faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim this world and the next after having directly known and realized it for themselves.' This is the right view with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions.[43][49]

Later on, right view came to explicitly include karma and rebirth, and the importance of the Four Noble Truths, when "insight" became central to Buddhist soteriology.[28] This presentation of right view still plays an essential role in Theravada Buddhism.[29]

The purpose of right view is to clear one's path from confusion, misunderstanding, and deluded thinking. It is a means to gain right understanding of reality.[50] Right view in some interpretations, state Chryssides and Wilkins, is ultimately non-view, as the enlightened become aware that nothing can be expressed in fixed conceptual terms and rigid, dogmatic clinging to concepts is discarded.[50]

Right View can be further subdivided, states Bhikkhu Bodhi, into Mundane Right View and Superior or Supramundane Right View:[51][52]

  1. Mundane right view, knowledge of the fruits of good behavior. Having this type of view will bring merit and will support the favourable rebirth of the sentient being in the realm of samsara.
  2. Supramundane (world-transcending) right view, the understanding of karmic and rebirth, as implicated in the Four Noble Truths, leading to awakening and liberation from rebirths and associated dukkha in the realms of samsara.[53][29]

According to Theravada Buddhism, mundane right view is suitable for lay followers, while supramundane right view, which requires deeper understanding, is suitable for monastics. Usually, it involves accepting the following doctrines of Buddhism:[54][55]

  1. Karma: Every action of body, speech, and mind has karmic results, and influences the kind of future rebirths and realms a being enters into.
  2. Three marks of existence: everything, whether physical or mental, is impermanent (anicca), a source of suffering (dukkha), and lacks a self (anatta).
  3. The Four Noble Truths are a means to gaining insights and ending dukkha.

Right view for monastics is also described in the Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta ("Right View Discourse"), in which Sariputta instructs that right view can alternately be attained by the thorough understanding of the unwholesome and the wholesome, the four nutriments, the twelve nidanas or the three taints.[56] "Wrong view" arising from ignorance (avijja), is the precondition for wrong resolve, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness and wrong concentration.[57][58] The practitioner should use right effort to abandon the wrong view and to enter into right view. Right mindfulness is used to constantly remain in right view.

Right resolve[edit]

Right resolve (samyak-saṃkalpa / sammā sankappa) can also be known as "right thought", "right intention", or "right aspiration". In this factor, the practitioner resolves to leave home, renounce the worldly life and dedicate himself to a spiritual pursuit.[23][29] In section III.248, the Majjhima Nikaya states,

And what is right resolve? Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right resolve.[59]

Like right view, this factor has two levels. At the mundane level, the resolve includes being harmless (ahimsa) and refraining from ill will (avyabadha) to any being, as this accrues karma and leads to rebirth.[29][60] At the supramundane level, the factor includes a resolve to consider everything and everyone as impermanent, a source of suffering and without a Self.[60]

Right speech[edit]

Right speech (samyag-vāc / sammā-vācā) in most Buddhist texts is presented as four abstentions, such as in the Pali Canon thus:[43][61]

And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, from divisive speech, from abusive speech, and from idle chatter: This is called right speech.

Instead of the usual "abstention and refraining from wrong" terminology,[37] a few texts such as the Samaññaphala Sutta and Kevata Sutta in Digha Nikaya explain this virtue in an active sense, after stating it in the form of an abstention.[62] For example, Samaññaphala Sutta states that a part of a monk's virtue is that "he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world."[62] Similarly, the virtue of abstaining from divisive speech is explained as delighting in creating concord.[62] The virtue of abstaining from abusive speech is explained in this Sutta to include affectionate and polite speech that is pleasing to people. The virtue of abstaining from idle chatter is explained as speaking what is connected with the Dhamma goal of his liberation.[62][29]

In the Abhaya-raja-kumara Sutta, the Buddha explains the virtue of right speech in different scenarios, based on its truth value, utility value and emotive content.[63][64] The Tathagata, states Abhaya Sutta, never speaks anything that is unfactual or factual, untrue or true, disagreeable or agreeable, if that is unbeneficial and unconnected to his goals.[64][65] Further, adds Abhaya Sutta, the Tathagata speaks the factual, the true, if in case it is disagreeable and unendearing, only if it is beneficial to his goals, but with a sense of proper time.[64][65] Additionally, adds Abhaya Sutta, the Tathagata, only speaks with a sense of proper time even when what he speaks is the factual, the true, the agreeable, the endearing and what is beneficial to his goals.[64][65][66]

The Buddha thus explains right speech in the Pali Canon, according to Ganeri, as never speaking something that is not beneficial; and, only speaking what is true and beneficial, "when the circumstances are right, whether they are welcome or not".[66]

Right action[edit]

Right action (samyak-karmānta / sammā-kammanta) is like right speech, expressed as abstentions but in terms of bodily action. In the Pali Canon, this path factor is stated as:

And what is right action? Abstaining from killing, abstaining from stealing, abstaining from sexual misconduct. This is called right action.[67]

The prohibition on killing precept in Buddhist scriptures applies to all living beings, states Christopher Gowans, not just human beings.[68] Bhikkhu Bodhi agrees, clarifying that the more accurate rendering of the Pali canon is a prohibition on "taking life of any sentient being", which includes human beings, animals, birds, insects but excludes plants because they are not considered sentient beings.[69] Further, adds Bodhi, this precepts refers to intentional killing, as well as any form of intentional harming or torturing any sentient being.[69] This moral virtue in early Buddhist texts, both in context of harm or killing of animals and human beings, is similar to ahimsa precepts found in the texts particularly of Jainism as well as of Hinduism,[70][71] and has been a subject of significant debate in various Buddhist traditions.[69]

The prohibition on stealing in the Pali Canon is an abstention from intentionally taking what is not voluntarily offered by the person to whom that property belongs.[72] This includes, states Bhikkhu Bodhi, taking by stealth, by force, by fraud or by deceit.[73] Both the intention and the act matters, as this precept is grounded on the impact on one's karma.[73]

The prohibition on sexual misconduct in the Noble Eightfold Path, states Tilmann Vetter, refers to "not performing sexual acts".[74] This virtue is more generically explained in the Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta, which teaches that one must abstain from all sensual misconduct, including getting sexually involved with someone unmarried (anyone protected by parents or by guardians or by siblings), and someone married (protected by husband), and someone betrothed to another person, and female convicts or by dhamma.[75][76]

For monastics, the abstention from sensual misconduct means strict celibacy, states Christopher Gowans, while for lay Buddhists this prohibits adultery as well as other forms of sensual misconduct.[77][78][79] Later Buddhist texts, states Bhikkhu Bodhi, state that the prohibition on sexual conduct for lay Buddhists includes any sexual involvement with someone married, a girl or woman protected by her parents or relatives, and someone prohibited by dhamma conventions (such as relatives, nuns and others).[75]

Right livelihood[edit]

Right livelihood (samyag-ājīva / sammā-ājīva) precept is mentioned in many early Buddhist texts, such as the Mahācattārīsaka Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya as follows:[43]

"And what is right livelihood? Right livelihood, I tell you, is of two sorts: There is right livelihood with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions; there is right livelihood that is noble, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

"And what is the right livelihood with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abandons wrong livelihood and maintains his life with right livelihood. This is the right livelihood with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions.

"And what is the right livelihood that is noble, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The abstaining, desisting, abstinence, avoidance of wrong livelihood in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is without effluents, who is fully possessed of the noble path. (...)

The early canonical texts state right livelihood as avoiding and abstaining from wrong livelihood. This virtue is further explained in Buddhist texts, states Vetter, as "living from begging, but not accepting everything and not possessing more than is strictly necessary".[74] For lay Buddhists, states Harvey, this precept requires that the livelihood avoid causing suffering to sentient beings by cheating them, or harming or killing them in any way.[30]

The Anguttara Nikaya III.208, states Harvey, asserts that the right livelihood does not trade in weapons, living beings, meat, alcoholic drink or poison.[30][80] The same text, in section V.177, asserts that this applies to lay Buddhists.[81] This has meant, states Harvey, that raising and trading cattle livestock for slaughter is a breach of "right livelihood" precept in the Buddhist tradition, and Buddhist countries lack the mass slaughter houses found in Western countries.[82]

Right effort[edit]

Right effort (samyag-vyāyāma / sammā-vāyāma) is presented in the Pali Canon, such as the Sacca-vibhanga Sutta as follows:[61][67]

And what is right effort?

Here the monk arouses his will, puts forth effort, generates energy, exerts his mind, and strives to prevent the arising of evil and unwholesome mental states that have not yet arisen.
He arouses his will... and strives to eliminate evil and unwholesome mental states that have already arisen. He arouses his will... and strives to generate wholesome mental state that have not yet arisen.
He arouses his will, puts forth effort, generates energy, exerts his mind, and strives to maintain wholesome mental states that have already arisen, to keep them free of delusion, to develop, increase, cultivate, and perfect them.
This is called right effort.

The unwholesome states (akusala) are described in the Buddhist texts, as those relating to thoughts, emotions, intentions, and these include pancanivarana (five hindrances) - sensual thoughts, doubts about the path, restlessness, drowsiness, and ill will of any kind.[74][83] Of these, the Buddhist traditions consider sensual thoughts and ill will needing more right effort. Sensual desire that must be eliminated by effort includes anything related to sights, sounds, smells, tastes and touch.[84] Ill will that must be eliminated by effort includes any form of aversion including hatred, anger, resentment towards anything or anyone.[84]

Right mindfulness[edit]

Right mindfulness (samyak-smṛti / sammā-sati) in the Sacca-vibhanga Sutta is explained as follows:[61][67]

And what is right mindfulness?

Here the monk remains contemplating the body as body, resolute, aware and mindful, having put aside worldly desire and sadness;
he remains contemplating feelings as feelings;
he remains contemplating mental states as mental states;
he remains contemplating mental objects as mental objects, resolute, aware and mindful, having put aside worldly desire and sadness;
This is called right mindfulness.

This factor in the Noble Eightfold Path helps the monk to guard the mind, and not to crave and cling to any transitory state or thing, by complete and constant awareness of phenomena as impermanent, suffering and without self.[41] The most detailed discussion of the right mindfulness in the Pali Canon is in the Satipatthana Sutta, where the emphasis is to consider the "four contemplations" – body, feelings, mind and phenomena – as just that and nothing more, and not ascribe to them any substantiality, nor self.[85][note 5]

According to modern Theravada orthodoxy, these "four contemplations" through right mindfulness lead to insight of the three characteristics of existence – anicca, dukkha and anatta, and cover the five skandhas (aggregates, heaps).[87][note 6]

Right samadhi ("concentration")[edit]

Samadhi (samyak-samādhi / sammā-samādhi) is a common practice in Indian religions. Although often translated as "concentration," as in the limiting of the attention of the mind on one object, it also refers to the clearness and hightened alertness of mind which appears through prolonged practice of dhyana.[88] The term samadhi derives from the root sam-a-dha, which means 'to collect' or 'bring together', and thus it is often translated as 'concentration' or 'unification of mind'. In the early Buddhist texts, samadhi is also associated with the term samatha (calm abiding). In the suttas, samadhi is defined as one-pointedness of mind (Cittass'ekaggatā).[89] Buddhagosa defines samadhi as "the centering of consciousness and consciousness concomitants evenly and rightly on a single object...the state in virtue of which consciousness and its concomitants remain evenly and rightly on a single object, undistracted and unscattered."[90]

Neither the Four Noble Truths nor the Noble Eightfold Path discourse, states Johannes Bronkhorst, provide details of right samadhi.[91] The explanation is to be found in the Canonical texts of Buddhism, in several Suttas, such as the following in Saccavibhanga Sutta:[61][67]

And what is right concentration?

[i] Here, the monk, detached from sense-desires, detached from unwholesome states, enters and remains in the first jhana (level of concentration, Sanskrit: dhyāna), in which there is applied and sustained thinking, together with joy and pleasure born of detachment;
[ii] And through the subsiding of applied and sustained thinking, with the gaining of inner stillness and oneness of mind, he enters and remains in the second jhana, which is without applied and sustained thinking, and in which there are joy and pleasure born of concentration;
[iii] And through the fading of joy, he remains equanimous, mindful and aware, and he experiences in his body the pleasure of which the Noble Ones say: "equanimous, mindful and dwelling in pleasure", and thus he enters and remains in the third jhana;
[iv] And through the giving up of pleasure and pain, and through the previous disappearance of happiness and sadness, he enters and remains in the fourth jhana, which is without pleasure and pain, and in which there is pure equanimity and mindfulness.
This is called right concentration.[67][92]

According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, the right concentration factor is reaching a one-pointedness of mind and unifying all mental factors, but it is not the same as "a gourmet sitting down to a meal, or a soldier on the battlefield" who also experience one-pointed concentration.[93] The difference is that the latter have a one-pointed object in focus with complete awareness directed to that object – the meal or the target, respectively. In contrast, right concentration meditative factor in Buddhism is a state of awareness without any object or subject, and ultimately unto nothingness and emptiness.[93]

Some scholars, such as Bronkhorst, question the historicity and chronology of these details. Bronkhorst states that this path may be similar to what Buddha taught, but the details and form of right concentration in particular, and possibly other factors, is likely of later scholasticism.[94][95] Bronkhorst states this is likely because Buddha could not have assumed the third stage of jhana, which includes "Noble Ones say", since he is considered to be the first to reach the samadhi and enlightened state of nirvana, then turning the wheel of dhamma.[94] It is likely that later Buddhist scholars incorporated this, then attributed the details and the path, particularly the insights at the time of liberation, to have been discovered by the Buddha.[94]

Practice[edit]

Order of practice[edit]

Vetter notes that originally the path culminated in the practice of dhyana/samadhi as the core soteriological practice.[5] According to the Pali and Chinese canon, the samadhi state (right concentration) is dependent on the development of preceding path factors:[43][96][97]

The Blessed One said: "Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness — is called noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions.

— Maha-cattarisaka Sutta

According to the discourses, right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness are used as the support and requisite conditions for the practice of right concentration. Understanding of the right view is the preliminary role, and is also the forerunner of the entire Noble Eightfold Path.[43][98]

According to the modern Theravada bhikkhu (monk) and scholar Walpola Rahula, the divisions of the noble eightfold path "are to be developed more or less simultaneously, as far as possible according to the capacity of each individual. They are all linked together and each helps the cultivation of the others."[99] Bhikkhu Bodhi explains that these factors are not sequential, but components, and "with a certain degree of progress all eight factors can be present simultaneously, each supporting the others. However, until that point is reached, some sequence in the unfolding of the path is inevitable."[100]

The stage in the Path where there is no more learning in Yogachara Abhidharma, state Buswell and Gimello, is identical to Nirvana or Buddhahood, the ultimate goal in Buddhism.[101][102]

Gender[edit]

According to Bernard Faure, the ancient and medieval Buddhist texts and traditions, like other religions, were almost always unfavorable or discriminatory against women, in terms of their ability to pursue Noble Eightfold Path, attain Buddhahood and nirvana.[103][104] This issue of presumptions about the "female religious experience" is found in Indian texts, in translations into non-Indian languages, and in regional non-Indian commentaries written in East Asian kingdoms such as those in China, Japan and southeast Asia.[103] Yet, like other Indian religions, exceptions and veneration of females is found in Indian Buddhist texts, and female Buddhist deities are likewise described in positive terms and with reverence. Nevertheless, females are seen as polluted with menstruation, sexual intercourse, death and childbirth. Rebirth as a woman is seen in the Buddhist texts as a result of part of past karma, and inferior than that of a man.[103]

In some Chinese and Japanese Buddhist texts, the status of female deities are not presented positively, unlike the Indian tradition, states Faure.[103] In the Huangshinu dui Jingang (Diamond Sutta), a woman admonishes her husband about he slaughtering animals, who attacks her gender and her past karma, implying that "women go to hell" not because of her intentions nor actions (kamma), but simply because of the biology of her gender and the bodily functions over which she has no choice.[105] Similar discriminatory presumptions are found in other Buddhist Suttas such as the Blood Bowl Sutta and Sukhavativyuha Sutta.[103][105] In the Five Obstacles theory[note 7] of Buddhism, a woman needs a rebirth as a man, before she can pursue the Eightfold Path and reach perfect Buddhahood. The Lotus Sutra similarly presents the story of the dragon kings daughter, who desires of enlightenment, but states Faure, the Sutta describes that "her female organs vanished, the male organs became visible, then she appeared as a bodhisattva".[108] The gender discrimination worsened during the medieval era in various sub-traditions of Buddhism that independently developed regionally, such as in Japan.[109]

Some scholars, such as Kenneth Doo Young Lee, interpret the Lotus Sutra to imply that "women were capable of gaining salvation", either after they first turned into a man, or being reborn in Pure Land realm after following the Path.[110] Peter Harvey lists many Suttas that suggest "having faded out the mind-set of a woman and developed the mind-set of a man, he was born in his present male form", and who then proceeds to follow the Path and became an Arahant.[111] In Mahayana Buddhism texts, a Sutta is dedicated to "Changing the Female Sex", one that asserts that a woman has more greed, hate and delusion than a man, and where the Buddha teaches a woman how she can "no longer be reborn as a female", and how she can achieve rebirth as a male.[112]

According to Wei-Yi Cheng, the Pali Canon are silent about women's inferior karma, but have statements and stories that mention Eightfold Path while advocating female subordination.[113] For example, a goddess reborn in the heavenly realm asserts:

When I was born a human being among men I was a daughter-in-law in a wealthy family. I was without anger, obedient to my husband, diligent on the Observance (days). When I was born a human being, young and innocent, with a mind of faith, I delighted my lord. By day and by night I acted to please. Of old (...). On the fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth (days) of the bright fortnight and on a special day of the fortnight well connected with the eightfold (precepts) I observed the Observance day with a mind of faith, was one who was faring according to Dhamma with zeal in my heart...

— Vimanavatthu III.3.31, Wei-Yi Cheng[113]

Such examples, states Wei-Yi Cheng, include conflating statements about spiritual practice (Eightfold Path, Dhamma) and "obedience to my husband" and "by day and by night I acted to please", thus implying unquestioned obedience of male authority and female subjugation.[113] Such statements are not isolated, but common, such as in section II.13 of the Petavatthu which teaches that a woman had to "put away the thoughts of a woman" as she pursued the Path and this merit obtained her a better rebirth; the Jataka stories of the Pali Canon have numerous such stories, as do the Chinese Sutta that assert "undesirability of womanhood".[113] Modern Buddhist nuns have applied Buddhist doctrines such as Pratītyasamutpāda to explain their disagreement with women's inferior karma in past lives as implied in Samyutta Nikaya 13, states Wei-Yi Cheng, while asserting that the Path can be practiced by either gender and "both men and women can become arhant".[114]

Cognitive psychology[edit]

The noble eightfold path has been compared to cognitive psychology, wherein states Gil Fronsdal, the right view factor can be interpreted to mean how one's mind views the world, and how that leads to patterns of thought, intention and actions.[115] In contrast, Peter Randall states that it is the seventh factor or right mindfulness that may be thought in terms of cognitive psychology, wherein the change in thought and behavior are linked.[116]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ One of those longer sequences, from the CulaHatthipadopama-sutta, the "Lesser Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant's Footprints", is as follows:[22]
    1. Dhammalsaddhalpabbajja: A layman hears a Buddha teach the Dhamma, comes to have faith in him, and decides to take ordination as a monk;
    2. sila: He adopts the moral precepts;
    3. indriyasamvara: He practises "guarding the six sense-doors";
    4. sati-sampajanna: He practises mindfulness and self-possession (actually described as mindfulness of the body, kāyānussatti);
    5. jhana 1: He finds an isolated spot in which to meditate, purifies his mind of the hindrances (nwarana), and attains the first rupa-jhana;
    6. jhana 2: He attains the second jhana;
    7. jhana 3: He attains the third jhana;
    8. jhana 4: He attains the fourth jhana;
    9. pubbenivasanussati-nana: he recollects his many former existences in samsara;
    10. sattanam cutupapata-nana: he observes the death and rebirth of beings according to their karmas;
    11. dsavakkhaya-nana: He brings about the destruction of the dsavas (cankers), and attains a profound realization of (as opposed to mere knowledge about) the four noble truths;
    12. vimutti: He perceives that he is now liberated, that he has done what was to be done.
  2. ^ See also Majjhima Nikaya 44, Culavedalla Sutta
  3. ^ Quotes:
    * Vetter: "Compare AN 10.17.10 (Nal. ed. IV p. 320,26): "He has the right views (sammiiditthiko hotz), he does not see things in a wrong way: that which is given exists, that which is sacrificed exists, that which in poured (into the fire) exists, the fruit, i.e. retribution for good and evil actions, exists, the world, here, exists, the other world exists, the mother exists, the father exists, beings who appear (spontaneously) exist, in the world ascetics and brahmans exist who have gone and followed the right path and who describe this world and the other world from their own experience and realization."
    * Wei-hsün Fu and Wawrytko: "In the Theravada Buddhist Canon, many episodes appear where the Buddha emphasizes that accepting the reality of an afterlife is a part of having the Right View, the initial wisdom that one must have in pursuit of [...]"[26]
  4. ^ Vetter translates it as "offering into the fire".[49]
  5. ^ From The Way of Mindfulness, The Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary, Soma Thera (1998),
    (...)
    For the dull-witted man of the theorizing type [ditthi carita] it is convenient to see consciousness [citta] in the fairly simple way it is set forth in this discourse, by way of impermanence [aniccata], and by way of such divisions as mind-with-lust [saragadi vasena], in order to reject the notion of permanence [nicca sañña] in regard to consciousness. Consciousness is a special condition [visesa karana] for the wrong view due to a basic belief in permanence [niccanti abhinivesa vatthutaya ditthiya]. The contemplation on consciousness, the Third Arousing of Mindfulness, is the Path to Purity of this type of man.[86]
    For the keen-witted man of the theorizing type it is convenient to see mental objects or things [dhamma], according to the manifold way set forth in this discourse, by way of perception, sense-impression and so forth [nivaranadi vasena], in order to reject the notion of a soul [atta sañña] in regard to mental things. Mental things are special conditions for the wrong view due to a basic belief in a soul [attanti abhinivesa vatthutaya ditthiya]. For this type of man the contemplation on mental objects, the Fourth Arousing of Mindfulness, is the Path to Purity.[86]
    (...)
  6. ^ Vetter and Bronkhorst note that the path starts with right view, which includes insight into anicca, dukkha and anatta.
  7. ^ The Lotus Sutra, for example, asserts "A woman's body is filthy, it is not a Dharma-receptacle. How can you attain unexcelled bodhi?... Also a woman's body even then has five obstacles.[106][107]

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Sources[edit]

Primary sources
Secondary sources

Further reading[edit]

  • Sangharakshita, The Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path, Windhorse Publications, 2007. ISBN 1-899579-81-8.

External links[edit]