|Writing system||Latin script|
|Type||Alphabetic and Logographic|
|Language of origin||Old English language|
Old Norse language
|Time period||~800 to present|
|Other letters commonly used with||th, dh|
Eth (//, uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) known as ðæt in Old English, is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.
It is often transliterated as d.
In Old English, ð (called ðæt) was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/ or its allophone /ð/, which exist in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives both now spelled "th".
Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. Neither ð nor þ were found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð (along with đ) began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming strongly preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing".
Under King Ælfred the Great, þ grew greatly in popularity and started to overtake ð. Þ completely overtook ð by Middle English, and þ died out by Early Modern English, mostly due to the rise of the printing press, and was replaced by the digraph th.
Lower case version
In Icelandic, ð, called "eð", represents a voiced dental fricative [ð], which is the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word. At the end of words as well as within words when it's followed by a voiceless consonant, ð is devoiced to [θ̠], such . The ð in the name of the letter is devoiced in the Nominative and Accusative cases [ɛθ̠]. In the Icelandic alphabet, ð follows d.
In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears mostly for etymological reasons, but it indicates most glides. When ð appears before r, it is in a few words pronounced [ɡ]. In the Faroese alphabet, ð follows d.
Ð used in Khmer romanization, e.g. preðh riðciðnaacak kampucið (Kingdom of Cambodia).
U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription.
The Faroese and Icelandic keyboard layouts have a dedicated button for eth.
On macOS, eth can be typed by activating the ABC Extended keyboard layout and typing ⌥ Option+D.
On Chrome OS with 'extended keyboard' Chrome extension, AltGr+D will result in ð being displayed; ⇧ Shift+AltGr+D will result in Ð.
|GTK||Ctrl+⇧ Shift+U D0 ↵ Enter||Ctrl+⇧ Shift+U F0 ↵ Enter|
|Vim||Ctrl+K ⇧ Shift+D -||Ctrl+K D -|
- The letter ð is sometimes used in mathematics and engineering textbooks, as a symbol for a spin-weighted partial derivative.
This operator gives rise to spin-weighted spherical harmonics.
- Marsden, Richard (2004). The Cambridge Old English Reader. Cambridge University Press. p. xxix.
- Shaw, Philip (2013). "Adapting the Roman alphabet for writing Old English: evidence from coin epigraphy and single-sheet charters". Early Medieval Europe. 21 (2): 115–139. doi:10.1111/emed.12012.
- Freeborn, Dennis (1992). From Old English to Standard English. London: Macmillan. p. 24. ISBN 9780776604695.
- Testament Newydd (1567) [The 1567 New Testament].
- Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
- Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
- "Vim documentation: digraph".
- "README.md". Dogecoin Integration/Staging Tree (Source code). February 5, 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
- Pétursson, Magnus (1971), "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie" [Study of the realisation of Icelandic consonants þ, ð, s, in the pronunciation of an Icelandic subject from radiocinematography], Phonetica, 33 (4): 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344
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|Look up eth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|