List of haplogroups of historic people

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This is a list of haplogroups of historic people. Haplogroups can be determined from the remains of historical figures, or derived from genealogical DNA tests of people who trace their direct maternal or paternal ancestry to a noted historical figure. Some contemporary notable figures have made their test results public in the course of news programs or documentaries about this topic; they may be included in this list too.

MtDNA results indicate direct maternal descent while Y-DNA results indicate direct paternal descent; these are only two of many lines of descent. Scientists make inferences of descent as hypotheses which could be disproved or modified by future research.

Ancient samples[edit]

These are results from 'ancient' samples, those collected from the remains or reputed remains of the person. Because mtDNA breaks down more slowly than nuclear DNA, it is often possible to obtain mtDNA results where other testing fails.

Ashina clan of Gokturks[edit]

There is a high possibility that the ruling class of Gok-Turk was Y haplogroup Q, and the ruling clans of Oghuz Turks were Q1a1b-M25. Also, the royal family of the Ashina (阿史那) clan that ruled Gok-Turk and the Khazaria kingdom is maintained to be Y haplogroup Q1b.[1] It is also plausible because Turk is a descendant of Xiongnu that was ruled by haplogroup Q. For example, in the ancient cemetery in Heigouliang (Xinjiang), which is known as the summer palace of Xiongnu king, 12 men were excavated, and all belong to Y haplogroup Q. Especially, all 4 Q1b men among them represent hosts of tombs.[2](Xiongnu nobles/conquerors found in another ancient site are turned out to be Q-M3)[3]

Birger Magnusson[edit]

Birger Jarl, the founder of Stockholm, the modern capital of Sweden, belonged to Y Haplogroup I-M253, according to Andreas Carlsson at the National Board of Forensic Medicine of Sweden. Birger Magnusson was the ancestor of a line of kings of both Sweden and Norway, starting with his son, Valdemar, King of Sweden.[4]

Cheddar Man[edit]

The Cheddar Man, the nickname for the ancient human excavated from Cheddar Gorge, is in mitochondrial haplogroup U5a. His approximate date of death was 7150 BCE.

Gaodang-king Korguz (高唐王=趙王 阔里吉思)[edit]

Noble burials of Mongols in the Yuan dynasty in Shuzhuanglou Site (northernmost Hebei, China, 700YBP) were excavated. All three men excavated belong to Y haplogroup Q, with subclade not analysed.

The most principal occupant, Gaodang King Korguz, had mtDNA of haplogroup D4m2; two others' mtDNA is A[5]

Korguz (Chinese: 高唐王阔里吉思) was the son of a princess of Kublai Khan and he was the king of the Ongud and a descendant of Gok-Turk. The Ongud claimed descent from the Shatuo. a branch of the Göktürks prominent in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His two wives were all princesses of Yuan Dynasty. It was very important for the Yuan dynasty to maintain marriage-alliance with the Onguds, which had been very important assistant since Genghis Khan. About 16 princesses of Yuan dynasty were married to khans of the Ongud.

Kennewick man[edit]

Analysis of the 8500-year-old skeleton of the Kennewick Man, found in Washington State, United States, showed that his Y haplogroup is Q-M3 and his mtDNA haplogroup X2a. This indicates that he was closely related to modern Native Americans.

"Markina Gora skeleton"[edit]

Analysis of mtDNA from the "Markina Gora" skeleton, a male early modern human who was interred approximately 30,000 years ago, at Markina Gora (also known as "Kostenki 14"), near Kostyonki, Voronezh Oblast on the River Don in Russia, has shown that it belongs to the U2 subclade.[6][7]

Mary Magdalene[edit]

A lock of hair kept at a reliquary at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume basilica, France, which local tradition holds belonged to the biblical figure Mary Magdalene, was assigned to mitochondrial haplogroup K. Ancient DNA sequencing of a capillary bulb bore the K1a1b1a subclade, indicating that she was likely of Pharisian maternal origin.[8]

Mummy Juanita[edit]

The mummy "Juanita" of Peru, also called the "Ice Maiden", has been shown to belong to mitochondrial haplogroup A.[9][10]

Nicholas II of Russia and family[edit]

The last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II of Russia, was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup T, based on mutations 16126C, 16169Y, 16294T, 16296T, 73G, 263G, and 315.1C. His results matched those of a cousin, Count Nikolai Trubetskoy, but showed a heteroplasmy — a mix of two different sequences — indicating a recent mutation. To further confirm the identity, the tsar's brother, Grand Duke George, was exhumed and found to have the same mitochondrial heteroplasmy.[11][12]

Empress Alexandra of Russia and her children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei were identified as belonging to mtDNA Haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C). This identity was confirmed by match to that of her grand-nephew, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[11][13]

As part of the same analysis mitochondrial types were determined for four further individuals, thought to have been the Royal Physician and servants.

Nicholas II has been predicted as having a Y-DNA R1b haplotype.[14][better source needed]

Oseberg ship remains[edit]

The remains of the younger of the two women buried with the Oseberg Ship were tested and discovered to have mtDNA of U7.[15]

Pengbo (倗伯)[edit]

In the Western Zhou-era Peng cemetery (Jiang County, Shanxi 2800-3000 BP), nine haplogroup Q-M120, two O-M95, one N-M231, four O-P201, two O-M122, and four O-M175 individuals were found.[16][better source needed] In another paper, the social status of those human remains of ancient Peng kingdom are analyzed:[17]

  1. Aristocrats: three Q-M120 (prostrate 2, supine 1), 2 O-M121 (supine 2), one N-M231 (prostrate)
  2. Commoners: eight Q-M120 (prostrate 4, supine 4), three O-M121 (prostrate 1, supine 2), three O-M122 (supine 3)
  3. Slaves: three O-M121, two O-M95, one O-M122.

The tomb of the Duke of Peng and his wife (presumed to be a Zhou royal house member) was excavated; the Duke of Peng is reportedly haplogroup Q-M120.[citation needed]

Petrarch[edit]

The purported remains of Francesco Petrarca, known as Petrarch, were tested for DNA in 2003.[18]

Ramesses III[edit]

In December 2012, a genetic study conducted by the same researchers who decoded King Tutankhamun's DNA found that Ramesses III, second pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt and considered to be the last great New Kingdom regent to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E-M2, alternatively known as haplogroup E1b1a.[19]

Richard III of England[edit]

Richard III's mitochondrial haplotype was inferred from living descendants and then the identity of his remains confirmed through a multidisciplinary process including genetic analysis of both his mitochondrial and Y-DNA. In 2004 British historian John Ashdown-Hill traced a British-born woman living in Canada, Joy Ibsen (née Brown), who is a direct maternal line descendant of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, a sister of Richard III of England. Joy Ibsen's mtDNA was tested and belongs to mtDNA Haplogroup J.[20][21] Joy Ibsen died in 2008. On 4 February 2013, University of Leicester researchers announced that there was an mtDNA match between that of a skeleton exhumed in Leicester suspected of belonging to Richard III and that of Joy Ibsen's son, Michael Ibsen, and a second unnamed direct maternal line descendant.[22][23][24] They share mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.[25][26]

The Y haplogroup of Richard III, last king of the House of York and last of the House of Plantagenet, was identified as Y-DNA G-P287, in contrast to the Y haplotypes of the putative modern relatives.[27]

Sweyn II of Denmark[edit]

In order to verify whether the body of a woman entombed near Sweyn II of Denmark in Roskilde Cathedral is that of his mother Estrid, mtDNA from pulp of teeth from each of the two bodies was extracted and analysed. The king was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H and the woman was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H5a. Based on the observation of two HVR1 sequence differences, it was concluded that it is highly unlikely that the woman was the king's mother.[28]

Tutankhamun[edit]

An academic study which included DNA profiling of some of the related male mummies of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2010. Tutankhamun's Y-DNA haplogroup was not published in the academic paper,[29][30][31] however iGENEA, a Swiss personal genomics company, claimed to have reconstructed King Tut's Y-DNA profile based on screencaps from a Discovery Channel documentary about the study. iGENEA without producing any proof, proposed that King Tut belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1a2,[32][33]

Members of the research team that conducted the academic study published in 2010 stated they had not been consulted by iGENEA before they published the haplogroup information and described iGENEA's claims as "unscientific." [31] After pressure to publish Tutankhamun's full DNA report to confirm his Y-DNA results, the researchers refused to respond.

Young Man of Byrsa[edit]

In 2016, an ancient Carthaginian individual, who was excavated from a Punic tomb in Byrsa, Tunisia, was found to belong to the rare U5b2c1 maternal haplogroup. The Young Man of Byrsa specimen dates from the late sixth century BCE, and his lineage is believed to represent early gene flow from the Iberian Peninsula to the Maghreb.[34]

Ötzi the Iceman[edit]

Analysis of the mtDNA of Ötzi, the frozen mummy from 3300 BCE found on the border of Austria and Italy, has shown that he belongs to the K1 subclade. His mtDNA cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has preliminarily been named K1ö for Ötzi.[35]

Ötzi has been found to be Y-DNA haplogroup G-M201.[36] The actual term used was G2a4, but the presumed L91 mutation has since been given a new category, G-M201.

Deduction by testing of descendents or other relatives[edit]

Because mtDNA is carried through the direct female line, some researchers have identified the haplotype of historic persons by testing descendants in their direct female line. In the case of males, their mother's direct female lineage descendants are tested. Y-DNA testing may be carried out on male relatives.

Bure kinship from Sweden[edit]

The male lineage of the medieval Bure kinship from Sweden has been identified as Y-DNA haplogroup G2a, based on several BigY tests carried out in 2014 on people living today. Descendants of two of the sons of Old Olof (who was born about 1380) were identified as G-Y12970*, and descendants of his alleged brother Fale as G-Y16788. The test result supports genealogical information recorded in about 1610 by Johan Bure. The DNA results also disproved a branch that was later added to the family book.[37]

Cao Cao, the Cao Wei State of Ancient China[edit]

Chinese warlord Cao Cao, who was posthumously titled Emperor Wu of the state of Cao Wei, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O1b-P31 (formerly known as haplogroup O2-P31) according to DNA tests of some documented descendants.[38][39] Ancient DNA analysis of the tooth of Cao Cao's granduncle, Cao Ding, showed that Cao Cao belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O-M175.[40] According to WEN Shaoqing (文少卿) et al. 2016, "Ancient DNA supports Emperor Cao’s paternal genetic lineage belonging to haplogroup O2," the Y-DNA of Cao Ding (曹鼎) has been confirmed to be M268+, F1462+, PK4-, which indicates that it belongs to haplogroup O1b1-F1462(xPK4).[41] This classification is, according to the current state of knowledge, equivalent to haplogroup O1b1a2-Page59/CTS10887. Haplogroup O1b1a2-Page59/CTS10887 has been found in approximately five percent of modern Han Chinese and occasionally outside China, such as in South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines, West Kalimantan, and Qatar.

Charles Darwin[edit]

Charles Darwin belonged to Y haplogroup R1b based on a sample from his great-great-grandson.[42]

Edward IV of England[edit]

Edward IV of England and his brother Richard III of England, both sons of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, would have shared the same mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.[25]

Albert Einstein[edit]

Albert Einstein is alleged to belong to Y Haplogroup E.[43][44] Tested Einsteins from Germany belong to E1b1b1b2* (cluster SNP PF1952, formerly known as the E-Z830-B or "Jewish cluster").[45] A patrilineal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein (1733–1799), Albert Einstein's great-grand-father, was tested and belonged to E-M35 (E1b1b1).[46]

Fath Ali Shah Qajar[edit]

Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (1772–1834), the second emperor/shah of the Qajar dynasty of Iran belonged to Haplogroup J-M267 with DYS388 = 13 as deducted from testing of descendants of several of his sons.[47]

Benjamin Franklin[edit]

Doras Folger, one of Benjamin Franklin's mother's six sisters, passed on her mtDNA to her 9th-great-granddaughter, Charlene Chambers King, therefore showing Franklin to belong to mitochondrial haplogroup V.[48]

Genghis Khan[edit]

There are no living males known to descend directly from Genghis Khan, or any of his nearest male relatives. Many researchers have attempted to infer his Y-DNA haplogroup, according to various criteria, from those now prominent in Mongolia and other areas formerly part of the Mongol Empire.

Most researchers suggest that Genghis Khan belonged to C2 (C-M217), C3c (C-M48) or another subclade of C (C-M130). According to Family Tree DNA,[49] Genghis Khan most likely belonged to haplogroup C-M217. An extended 25 Marker Y-DNA modal based on Mongolians matching the above modal haplotype in the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation database,[50] which also corresponds to the modal assigned to Genghis Khan released by Family Tree DNA:[49]

According to Zerjal et al. (2003),[51] Genghis Khan is believed to have belonged to Haplogroup C-M130711(xC3c-M48).

However, research published in 2016 based on ancient DNA from a Mongol burial site suggested that Genghis instead belonged to haplogroup R-M343 (R1b).[52] It is unsure if it belong to the Genghis Khan's Borijigin clan or other clans of Mongolian or central Asian origin.

Gia Long[edit]

Gia Long, who was the first emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam founded by the Nguyễn-Phuoc family may have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O-M95 according to the DNA tests of one documented descendant (if paternity matches genealogy).[53] Given the sample size, however, this result cannot be regarded as conclusive and further testing of other documented descendants is necessary to help confirm or refute this finding.

Adolf Hitler[edit]

According to research published in 2004, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany during 1933–1945, likely belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E-M35 ("E1b1b1"), a haplogroup which originated in East Africa about 22,400 years BP.[54]

In 2010, journalist Jean-Paul Mulders and historian Marc Vermeeren publicised analysis of samples taken from 39 patrilineal relatives of Hitler, supporting the above finding and pointing out this haplogroup was now common among Berbers, Somalis and Jews. Mulders contradicted interpretations of his research by some media outlets, which claimed that Hitler definitely had Jewish ancestry. Mulders commented:

I never wrote that Hitler was a Jew, or that he had a Jewish grandfather. I only wrote that Hitler's haplogroup is E1b1b, being more common among Berbers, Somalian people and Jews than among overall Germans. This, in order to convey that he was not exactly what during the Third Reich would have been called 'Aryan.' All the rest are speculations of journalists who didn't even take the trouble to read my article, although I had it translated into English especially for this purpose."[55]

The accuracy of some of the coverage arising from this study was questioned. Professor Michael Hammer of Family Tree DNA said that "scientific studies as well as records from our own database[,] make it clear that one cannot reach the kind of conclusion featured in the published articles." Citing Family Tree DNA's own data that shows that more than 9% of the German and Austrian population has the identified haplotype, and that about 80% of these are not Jewish, Hammer concluded, "[t]his data clearly shows that just because one person belongs to the branch of the Y-chromosome referred to as haplogroup E1b1b, that does not mean the person is likely to be of Jewish ancestry."[55]

Thomas Jefferson[edit]

Direct male-line descendants of a cousin of United States president Thomas Jefferson were DNA tested to investigate historical assertions that Jefferson fathered children with his slave Sally Hemings.[56]

An extended 17-marker haplotype was published in 2007,[57] and the company Family Tree DNA has also published results for other markers in its standard first 12-marker panel.[58] Combining these sources gives the consolidated 21-marker haplotype below. The Jeffersons belong to Haplogroup T (M184) (formerly known as K2).

Capitian kings[edit]

Several Capetians monarchs, including Louis XIV of France, Louis Philippe I of France, Philip V of Spain and Louis I of Etruria belonged to Y haplogroup R1b (U106).[59]

Martin Luther[edit]

Tested relatives of Protestant reformer Martin Luther belonged to Haplogroup I2a-Din-N (L147.2+).[60]

Napoleon[edit]

Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to Y haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (E-M34*). This haplogroup has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and in the Near East (Jordan). According to the authors of the study, "Probably Napoléon also knew his remote African patrilineal origins, because Francesco Buonaparte (the Giovanni son), who was a mercenary under the orders of the Genoa Republic in Ajaccio in 1490, was nicknamed “The Maur of Sarzane”.[61]

Niall of the Nine Hostages[edit]

A study conducted at Trinity College, Dublin,[62] found that a striking percentage of men in Ireland (and quite a few in Scotland) share the same Y chromosome. Niall established a dynasty of powerful chieftains who dominated the island for six centuries. Niall belongs to Haplogroup R1b1c7 (M222).[citation needed] It should be noted that Dr. Moore's results examined some different parts of DNA (loci) from the result given here. More recently, however, it has been determined that the emergence of R-M222 predates Niall and may be more than 2,000 years old. Therefore, not all men who belong to this haplogroup are descendants of Niall. A history of the lineage of Irish kings that was compiled by Irish monks, known as "the Annals of the Four Masters" lists "Conn of the Hundred Battles" among the ancestors of Niall. So, it may be that the haplogroup previously attributed to Niall is actually attributable to Conn of the Hundred Battles.

Nurhaci[edit]

Y Haplogroup C2b1a3a* (C-M401*, (xF5483) has been identified as a possible marker of the Aisin Gioro (who were founders of the Qing dynasty) and is found in ten different ethnic minorities in northern China, but completely absent from Han Chinese.[63][64][65]

Minamoto no Yoritomo[edit]

Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147–1199), the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate. He and the Minamonto (Genji) clan presumably belonged to the same Y-DNA haplogroup D1b1a2 (D-IMS-JST055457/CTS107).[66][67][68]

Somerled[edit]

In 2003 Oxford University researchers traced the Y-chromosome signature of Somerled of Argyll, one of Scotland's greatest warriors, who is credited with driving out the Vikings. He was also paternal grandfather of the founder of Clan Donald. Through clan genealogies, the genetic relation was mapped out.[69] Somerled belongs to haplogroup R1a1.

In 2005 a study by Professor of Human Genetics Bryan Sykes of Oxford University led to the conclusion that Somerled has possibly 500,000 living descendants — making him the second most common historical ancestor after Genghis Khan.[70] Sykes deduced that despite Somerled's reputation for having driven out the Vikings from Scotland, Somerled's own Y-DNA closely matched that of the Vikings he fought.

Emanuel Swedenborg[edit]

Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772), the 18th century scientist and mystic from Sweden likely belonged to the haplogroup I1-BY229, a haplogroup with a common ancestor about 1500 years ago who lived somewhere in central Scandinavia.[71]

Nikola Tesla[edit]

Tested relatives of Serbian-American scientist Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) belonged to Y Haplogroup I2a-Din-S (PH908).[72]

Queen Victoria[edit]

mtDNA Haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C): Empress Alexandra of Russia's identity was confirmed by matching her mtDNA with that of her grand-nephew, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[11] Their common maternal ancestor, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, and her mother, Queen Victoria, must therefore have shared this haplotype. Genealogies show that Charles II of England had the same matrilineal ancestress as Queen Victoria, namely Anne of Bohemia and Hungary.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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