Vertebrate fauna of the Maastrichtian stage

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This is an incomplete list that briefly describes vertebrates that were extant during the Maastrichtian, a stage of the Late Cretaceous Period which extended from 72.1 to 66 million years before present. This was the last time period in which non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, and mosasaurs existed.

Amphibians[edit]

Amphibians of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Albanerpeton galaktion
  • Albanerpeton gracilis
  • Albanerpeton nexuosus
105.3-65.043 Ma, Albian to Maastrichtian Canada

USA

A salamander-like albanerpetontid that thrived in North America and Europe from the Early Cretaceous to the late Pliocene.
  • Beelzebufo ampinga
70 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A horned frog. The largest frog to ever live, known to have grown to over 40 cm (16 in) and 4 kg (8.8 lb).
  • Habrosaurus dilatus
Maastrichtian to Danian Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

A large sirenid, about the size of a hellbender. The palate is specialized for crushing, suggesting it may have fed on hard-bodied prey.
  • Paranecturus garbanii
Hell Creek Formation, Montana USA A proteid closely related to the modern mudpuppies.
  • Piceoerpeton naylori
Maastrichtian to Thanetian Wyoming & Montana, USA A scapherpetontid salamander, one of the largest known salamanders.
  • Scotiophryne pustulosa
125-60.5 Ma, Aptian to Selandian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Mexico

A little-known frog.

†Ornithischians[edit]

†Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Ankylosaurus magniventris
68.5-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada

An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid. The largest known ankylosaur, estimated at 9 meters (30 feet) and up to 6 tonnes (13,000 lb).
  • Anodontosaurus lambei
72.8-67 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A medium-sized ankylosaurine ankylosaurid with a wide, pointed tail club.
  • Antarctopelta oliveroi
74-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica A medium-sized ankylosaur, reaching no more than 4 meters (13 feet) in length, with characteristics of both polacanthids and nodosaurs.
  • Brachypodosaurus gravis
66 Ma Lameta Formation, India An ankylosaur, originally described as a stegosaur.
  • Denversaurus schlessmani
68-66 Ma Lance Formation, South Dakota, USA An ankylosaur, originally described as a species of Edmontonia
  • Edmontonia longiceps
  • Edmontonia schlessmani
76.5-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

A nodosaur estimated to be roughly 6.6 meters (22 feet) long.
  • Glyptodontopelta mimus
69-66 Ma Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA A nodosaur once thought to be a species of Edmontonia.
  • Shanxia tianzhenensis
99-70 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Huiquanpu Formation, Shanxi, China An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid which a few scientists consider a possible synonym of Tianzhenosaurus.
  • Struthiosaurus austriacus
  • Struthiosaurus languedocensis
  • Struthiosaurus transylvanicus
85-66 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania A struthiosaurine nodosaur, one of the smallest known and most basal nodosaurs from the Late Cretaceous.
  • Tarchia kailanae
84.9-70.6 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid, and pne of the geologically youngest known Asian ankylosaurs. It has an estimated body length of 8 to 8.5 meters (26 to 28 ft) and weighing as much as 4.5 tonnes (5.0 short tons).
  • Tianzhenosaurus youngi
99-70.6 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Huiquanpu Formation, Shanxi, China An ankylosaurine ankylosaurid. Suggested by some to be a junior synonym of Saichania.

†Ceratopsians[edit]

Ceratopsians of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Agathaumas sylvestris
66 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A chasmosaurine ceratopsid, and the first Ceratopsian known toscience. Often considered a nomen dubium, provisionally considered a synonym of Triceratops.
  1. Anchiceratops ornatus
72-71 Ma St. Mary River Formation, Alberta, Canada

Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

A chasmosaurine ceratopsid with a distinctive frill lined with large epioccipitals.
  1. Arrhinoceratops brachyops
70.6-70 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A chasmosaurine ceratopsid
  1. Bravoceratops polyphemus
70 Ma Javelina Formation, Texas, USA A rare chasmosaurine ceratopsid that may be the sister taxon of Coahuilaceratops
  1. Coahuilaceratops magnacuerna
72.5-71.4 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Cerro del Pueblo Formation, Coahuila, Mexico A chasmosaurine ceratopsid thought to possess among the largest horns of any dinosaur currently known, rivaling those of larger chasmosaurines like Triceratops and Torosaurus.
  1. Eotriceratops xerinsularis
68-67.6 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A chasmosaurine ceratopsid.
  1. Gobiceratops minutus
83-69 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A bagaceratopsid known from the skull of a young individual.
  1. Lamaceratops tereschenkoi
84.9-70.6 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia It is debated whether this is a bagaceratopsid or a protoceratopsid.
  1. Leptoceratops gracilis
68.8-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Alberta, Canada

  • Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
A leptoceratopsid
  1. Micropachycephalosaurus hongtuyanensis
70.6-69.5 Ma Wangshi Group, Shandong, China A basal ceratopsian, originally thought to be a pachycephalosaur, with the longest generic name of any dinosaur.
  1. Montanoceratops cerorhynchos
70 Ma St. Mary River Formation, Montana, USA A leptoceratopsid distinguished by the presence of claws instead of hooves and having teeth in its upper jaw instead of a toothless beak.
  1. Nedoceratops hatcheri
67-66 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A chasmosaurine ceratopsid that may be a specimen of Triceratops.
  1. Ojoceratops fowleri
68-66 Ma Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA A chasmosaurine ceratopsid, possibly synonymous with Triceratops or Eotriceratops.
  1. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis
  2. Pachyrhinosaurus lakustai
  3. Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum
73.5-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian St. Mary Formation, Montana, USA

Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

A common centrosaurine ceratopsid with large, thick bosses on the skull. The largest Pachyrhinosaurus species were 8 meters (26 feet) long. This species is also regarded as the last of the North American centrosaurines before the K/T event.
  1. Platyceratops tatarinovi
75-71 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A bagaceratopsid, sometimes considered synonymous with Bagaceratops.
  1. Polyonax mortuarinus
66 Ma Denver Formation, Colorado, USA A dubious chasmosaurine ceratopsid. It has sometimes been listed as a synonym of Agathaumas or Triceratops.
  1. Protoceratops andrewsi
  2. Protoceratops hellenikorhinus
75-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Djadochta Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia

Bayan Mandahu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China

A common protoceratopsid.
  1. Regaliceratops peterhewsi
68.5-67.5 Ma St. Mary River Formation, Alberta, Canada A chasmosaurine ceratopsid named for its plated frill, which its describers thought looked somewhat like a crown.
  1. Sinoceratops zhuchengensis
72-66 Ma Xingezhuang Formation, Shandong, China A centrosaurine ceratopsid, currently the only known Asian Ceratopsid.
  1. Tatankaceratops sacrisonorum
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota, USA A chasmosaurine ceratopsid, probably a juvenile specimen of Triceratops.
  1. Torosaurus latus
  2. Torosaurus utahensis
68-66 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

A chasmosaurine ceratopsid with one of the largest skulls of any known land animal. Some researchers consider it an ontogenic stage of Triceratops.
  1. Triceratops horridus
  2. Triceratops prorsus
68-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

A chasmosaurine Ceratopsian.
  1. Zhuchengceratops inexpectus
70 Ma Wangshi Group, Shandong, China A leptoceratopsid slightly larger than most adult specimens of the similar Leptoceratops. It is known from a partial articulated skeleton including vertebrae, ribs, teeth, and parts of the skull and mandibles.

Ornithopoda[edit]

Ornithopods of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Amurosaurus riabinini
66 Ma Udurchukan Formation, Amur Oblast, Russia A lambeosaurine hadrosaur
  1. Arenysaurus ardevoli
66 Ma Spain A lambeosaurine hadrosaur
  1. Augustynolophus morrisi
70-66 Ma Moreno Formation, California, USA A saurolophine hadrosaur originally thought to be a species of Saurolophus.
  1. Bactrosaurus johnsoni
70 Ma Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China One of the best known early hadrosauroids from the Late Cretaceous
  1. Barsboldia sicinskii
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A hadrosaur originally described as a lambeosaurine, now believed to instead be a saurolophine.
  1. Blasisaurus canudoi
66 Ma Aren Formation, Spain A medium-sized lambeosaurine hadrosaur
  1. Canardia garonnensis
67.5-66 Ma Marnes d'Auzas Formation, Haute-Garonne, France A little-known lambeosaurine hadrosaur.
  1. Charonosaurus jiayinensis
66 Ma Yuliangze Formation, Heilongjiang, China A lambeosaurine hadrosaur appearing similar in skull shape to Parasaurolophus. It was a very large lambeosaurine, with an estimated length of around 10 meters (33 feet) long.
  1. Edmontosaurus regalis
  2. Edmontosaurus annectens
73-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Laramie Formation, Colorado, USA

A well-known genus of saurolophine hadrosaur. E. annectens has been previously named Anatosaurus and Anatotitan. This was one of the largest hadrosaurids, measuring up to 12 meters (39 feet) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons).
  1. Gilmoreosaurus mongoliensis
70 Ma Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China A hadrosauroid originally assigned as a species of Mandschurosaurus.
  1. Huaxiaosaurus aigahtens
70 Ma Xingzhuang Formation, Shandong, China A large saurolophine hadrosaur, some of its estimated dimensions include a length of 18.7 meters (61 feet) and a height of 11.3 meters (37 feet) (in a tripodal posture) makes it one of the largest ornithopods known.
  1. Hypacrosaurus altispinus
75-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A lambeosaurine hadrosaur that has a tall, hollow rounded crest similar to Corythosaurus. The animal is estimated to have been around 9.1 meters (30 feet) long, and to have weighed up to 4.0 tonnes (4.4 tons).
  1. Kerberosaurus manakini
66 Ma Tsagayan Formation, Amur Oblast, Russia A saurolophine hadrosaur.
  1. Koutalisaurus kohlerorum
67.5-66 Ma Tremp Formation, Province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain A lambeosaurine hadrosaur
  1. Kritosaurus navajovius
74-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, USA A saurolophine hadrosaur
  1. Kundurosaurus nagornyi
67-66 Ma Udurchukan Formation, Amur Oblast, Russia A saurolophine hadrosaur
  1. Lapampasaurus cholinoi
76-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Allen Formation, La Pampa Province, Argentina A hadrosaur named in honor the late collector Jose Cholino. It is one of the few hadrosaurs to live in Gondwana.
  1. Mandschurosaurus amurensis
  2. Mandschurosaurus laosensis
66 Ma Yuliangze Formation, Heilongjiang, China A poorly known hadrosaur.
  1. Microhadrosaurus nanshiungensis
Nanxiong Formation, Guangdong, China A hadrosaur based on juvenile remains.
  1. Morrosaurus antarcticus
Snow Hill Island Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica An elasmarian iguanodont that was a medium-sized animal. The descriptors were able to establish some distinctive features. Two of these are autapomorphies, i.e. derived features that are unique. In bottom view, the greater trochanter of the femur has an undulating profile with a thick edge output and a main thin edge. The fourth metatarsal bone has a triangular profile with a rearward projection that wraps around her and the third metatarsal. In addition, there is a unique combination of two features that by themselves are not unique features. In the femur, the lesser trochanter is inclined diagonally, right next to the greater trochanter. In the tibia, medial malleolus has a triangular outline view showing a front concave surface.
  1. Nanningosaurus dashiensis
72.1-66 Ma, Maastrichtian Guangxi, China A lambeosaurine hadrosaur known from an incomplete skeleton including skull, arm, and hip remains. The first hadrosaur discovered in southern China.
  1. Olorotitan arhanensis
72-66 Ma Tsagayan Formation, Amur Oblast, Russia A lambeosaurine hadrosaur.
  1. Orthomerus dolloi
Maastricht Formation, Limburg, Netherlands

Belgium

An obscure genus of hadrosaur. In the past it was conflated with the much better known Telmatosaurus.
  1. Pararhabdodon isonensis
67.5-66 Ma Tremp Formation, Province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain A lamebosaurine hadrosaur
  1. Parksosaurus warreni
70 - 66 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A thescelosaurid that is one of the few non-iguanodontian ornithopods from the end of the Cretaceous.
  1. Rhabdodon priscus
  2. Rhabdodon septimanicus
70-66 Ma Romania

Spain

A rhabdodontid common in Cretaceous Europe.
  1. Sahaliyania elunchunorum
68-66 Ma Yuliangze Formation, Heilongjiang, China A lambeosaurine hadrosaur known only from a few remains.
  1. Saurolophus angustirostris
  2. Saurolophus osborni
70-66 Ma Nemegt Formation5, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia

Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

A saurolophine hadrosaur distinguished by a spike-like cranial crest.
  1. Secernosaurus koerneri
Argentina A saurolophine hadrosaur once considered to be a species of Kritosaurus. It is one of the few Gondwanan hadrosaurs.
  1. Shantungosaurus giganteus
70 Ma Wangshi Group, Shandong, China A saurolophine hadrosaur, the largest known Hadrosaur, and one of the largest known ornithischians, estimated to be over 14.72 meters (48.3 feet) in length and weighing as much as 16 tonnes (18 short tons).
  1. Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus
70-66 Ma Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania A relatively small hadrosaur, approximately 5 meters (16 feet) long.
  1. Tethyshadros insularis
71-70 Ma Liburnia Formation, Province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy A relatively small species of hadrosauroid. It had a length of about 4 meters (13 feet) and a weight of 350 kilograms (770 pounds).
  1. Thescelosaurus garbanii
  2. Thescelosaurus neglectus
  3. Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis
68-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota, USA

Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada

A thescelosaurid known from several partial skeletons.
  1. Thespesius occidentalis
66 Ma Lance Formation, South Dakota, USA A dubious saurolophine hadrosaur notable for its taxonomic history
  1. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus
70 Ma Jingangkou Formation, Shandong, China A lambeosaurine hadrosaur
  1. Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis
69.2 Ma Colville River, Alaska, USA A saurolophine hadrosaur, originally thought to be the bones of juvenile Edmontosaurus regalis.
  1. Velafrons
73-72 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Cerro del Pueblo Formation, Coahuila, Mexico A lambeosaurine hadrosaur known from a mostly complete skull and partial skeleton of a juvenile individual
  1. Willinakaqe salitralensis
Campanian to Maastrichtian Allen Formation, La Pamapa Province, Argentina A saurolophine hadrosaur that had long spines on its pelvis and tail base. One of the few Gondwanan hadrosaurs.
  1. Wulagasaurus dongi
66 Ma Yuliangze Formation, Heilongjiang, China A basal saurolophine hadrosaur
  1. Zalmoxes robustus
  2. Zalmoxes shqiperorum
Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania

Albania

A small but stoutly built rhabdodontid.

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Pachycephalosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Alaskacephale gangloffi
80-69 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA
  1. Dracorex hogwartsia
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota, USA Named as a tribute to both dragons and the Harry Potter book series. Some paleontologists consider it a synonym of Stygimoloch or Pachycephalosaurus.
  1. Goyocephale lattimorei
85.8-66 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia Formally described from an incomplete skull, mandibles, and fragmentary postcranial material.
  1. Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis
70-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Montana, USA

The largest known pachycephalosaur. It has been estimated that Pachycephalosaurus was around 4.5 meters (15 feet) long and weighed 450 kilograms (990 pounds).
  1. Prenocephale prenes
70-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia
  1. Sphaerotholus bucholtzae
  2. Sphaerotholus edmontonensis
80-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

This species had a widespread distribution and a characteristically dome-shaped skull.
  1. Stygimoloch spinifer
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Wyoming, USA

Ferris Formation, Wyoming, USA

  • Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA
A relatively large pachycephalosaur. Some believe it is a juvenile form of Pachycephalosaurus.
  1. Tylocephale gilmorei
80-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia This species is estimated to have been about 1.4 meters (4.6 feet) in length, with the tallest dome of any known pachycephalosaur.

Non-Avian Saurischians[edit]

Non-Avian Theropods[edit]

Non-avian theropods of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Acheroraptor temertyorum
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA A velociraptorine and the youngest known dromaeosaur.
  1. Adasaurus mongoliensis
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A dromaeosaur unique in having relatively small sickle claws on its hind feet.
  1. Ajancingenia yanshini
70 Ma Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An oviraptorid. Originally called Ingenia, a name already preoccupied by a nematode.
  1. Albertonykus borealis
68.5 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A parvicursorine and the earliest known North American alvarezsaurid.
  1. Albertosaurus sarcophagus
71-68 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada An albertosaurine tyrannosaurid
  1. Alioramus remotus
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A tyrannosauroid
  1. Anserimimus planinychus
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An ornithomimid with more powerful forelimbs than other orinithomimids.
  1. Anzu wyliei
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana & South Dakota, USA A caenagnathine caenagnathid, originally thought to be a species of Chirostenotes. Anzu measured about 3 to 3.5 meters (9.8 to 11.5 ft) long, up to 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) tall at the hips and 200 to 300 kg (440 to 660 lb) in weight.
  1. Archaeornithomimus asiaticus
70 Ma Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China An ornithomimid, originally thought to have lived from the Cenomanian to the Turonian.
  1. Atrociraptor marshalli
68.5 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A dromaeosaur
  1. Austroraptor cabazai
70 Ma Allen Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina An unenlagiine and the largest dromaeosaur from the southern hemisphere.
  1. Avimimus portentosus
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A caenagnathoid oviraptorosaur
  1. Bagaraatan ostromi
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An indeterminate coelurosaur, theorized to be either a tyrannosaur or a maniraptoran.
  1. Banji long
66 Ma Nanxiong Formation, Jiangxi, China An oviraptorine oviraptorid
  1. Betasuchus bredai
66 Ma Maastricht Formation, Limburg, Netherlands One of the few abelisaurs to be found in the Northern Hemisphere.
  1. Bonapartenykus ultimus
70 Ma Argentina A patagonykine alvarezsaurid
  1. Borogovia gracilicrus
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A troodontid
  1. Bradycneme draculae
70 Ma Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania An alvarezsaurid, formerly believed to be a giant owl
  1. Carnotaurus sastrei
72-69 Ma La Colonia Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina A highly derived carnotaurine abelisaurid
  1. Ceratonykus oculatus
84-70 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A parvicursorine alvarezsaurid.
  1. Coeluroides
66 Ma Lameta Formation, India A small, little-known theropod.
  1. Compsosuchus solus
69 Ma Lameta Formation, India A poorly-known theropod
  1. Dakotaraptor steini
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota A very large species of dromaeosaur
  1. Deinocheirus mirificus
71-69 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A very large and distinctive ornithomimosaur
  1. Diplotomodon horrificus
70 Ma Navesink Formation, New Jersey, USA A dubious tyrannosauroid, possibly a synonym of Dryptosaurus.
  1. Dryptosauroides grandis
66 Ma Lameta Formation, India A dubious abelisaurid.
  1. Dryptosaurus aquilunguis
67-66 Ma New Jersey, USA A primitive tyrannosaur and among the first theropod dinosaurs known to science.
  1. Elmisaurus rarus
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An elmisaurine caenagnathid, once thought to be a Mongolian species of Chirostenotes.
  1. Elopteryx nopcsai
70 Ma Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania A troodontid, originally believed to be a pelecaniform bird.
  1. Epichirostenotes curriei
72 Ma Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A caenagnathine caenagnathid originally thought to be the same species as Chirostenotes.
  1. Erliansaurus bellamanus
72-68 Ma Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China A therizinosauroid that, for a therizinosaur, had a rather short neck.
  1. Euronychodon portucalensis
70 Ma Portugal A troodontid with teeth similar to those of Paronychodon.
  1. Gallimimus bullatus
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An ornithomimid that was one of the largest ornithomimosaurs.
  1. Ganzhousaurus nankangensis
Nanxiong Formation, Jiangxi, China An oviraptorine oviraptorid distinguished by a combination of primitive and derived features.
  1. Gigantoraptor erlianensis
70 Ma Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China A caenagnathid that was the largest of any known oviraptorosaur.
  1. Gobivenator mongoliensis
73-72 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Djadokhta Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A troodontid, known from the most complete Late Cretaceous Troodontid specimen currently known.
  1. Heptasteornis andrewsi
67 Ma Sânpetru Formation, Hunedaora County, Romania An alvarezsaurid originally presumed to be a giant prehistoric owl.
  1. Heyuannia huangi
70 Ma Dalangshan Formation, Guangdong, China An oviraptorine that was the first oviraptorid found in China.
  1. Indosaurus matleyi
69 Ma Lameta Formation, India A majungasaurine abelisaurid.
  1. Indosuchus raptorius
70-66 Ma Lameta Formation, Madhya Pradesh, India A carnotaurine abelisaurid, very similar to Indosaurus.
  1. Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis
72-66 Ma Nanxiong Formation, Jiangxi, China An oviraptorid similar to Heyuannia
Hawke's Bay Region, North Island, New Zealand A little-known theropod with no official scientific name as of yet.
  1. Jubbulpuria tenuis
70 Ma Lameta Formation, Madhya Pradesh, India A poorly known theropod that may have been a ceratosaur.
  1. Laevisuchus indicus
70 Ma Lameta Formation, Madhya Pradesh, India Originally thought to be a coelurid coelurosaur, now considered a noasaurid abelisaur.
  1. Lametasaurus indicus
70 Ma Lameta Formation, Madhya Pradesh, India A possibly dubious carnotaurine abelisaurid, originally considered a possible chimera.
  1. Luanchuanraptor henanensis
99.7-66 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Qiupa Formation, Henan, China A moderately sized dromaeosaur, and the first Asian dromaeosaurid described from outside the Gobi Desert or northeastern China.
  1. Leptorhynchos elegans
  2. Leptorhynchos gaddisi
75-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Aguja Formation, Texas, USA

A elmisaurine caenagnathid that was once thought to be a species of Chirostenotes.
  1. Majungasaurus crenatissimus
70-66 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A majungasaurine abelisaurid.
  1. Masiakasaurus knopfleri
70 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar
  1. Mononykus olecranus
70-66 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A parvicursorine alvarezsaurid
  1. Nankangia jiangxiensis
Nanxiong Formation, Jiangxi, China A caenagnathoid oviraptorosaur
  1. Nanotyrannus lancensis
68.5-66 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A tyrannosaurine that may be a juvenile Tyrannosaurus or other tyrannosaurid.[1]
  1. Nanshiungosaurus brevispinus
78-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Yuanpu Formation, Guangdong, China A therizinosaurid that distinguishes itself by the possession of twelve cervical vertebrae.
  1. Nanuqsaurus hoglundi
70-69.1 Ma Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA A small tyrannosaurid
  1. Neimongosaurus yangi
72-68 Ma Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China A therizinosauroid
  1. Nemegtomaia barsboldi
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An oviraptorine oviraptorid
  1. Noasaurus leali
70 Ma Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina A noasaurid originally thought to be a dromaeosaur.
  1. Nomingia gobiensis
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An oviraptorid characterized by a pygostyle-like mass of five fused vertebrae at the tail end, which probably supported a feather fan like Caudipteryx.
  1. Ojoraptorsaurus boerei
69 Ma Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA A caenagnathid known from an incomplete pair of fused pubic bones.
  1. Ornithomimoides barasimlensis
  2. Ornithomimoides mobilis
70-66 Ma India A dubious theropod that was probably a small variety of abelisaur.
  1. Ornithomimus edmontonicus
  2. Ornithomimus velox
75.5-66, Campanian to Maastrichtian Denver Formation, Colorado, USA

Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

  • Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA
A well-known ornithomimid.
  1. Orthogoniosaurus matleyi
66 Ma Lameta Formation, Madhya Pradesh, India A poorly known theropod, possibly an abelisaur.
  1. Paronychodon caperatus
66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota, USA

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

A disputed coelurosaur, mainly believed to be a troodontid.
  1. Pectinodon bakkeri
66 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A troodontid that has been historically considered synonymous with Troodon, now a valid genus.
  1. Pycnonemosaurus nevesi
70 Ma Mato Grosso, Brazil A carnotaurine abelisaurid known so far from fragmentary remains.
  1. Pyroraptor olympius
70.6 Ma France A dromaeosaur known only from a few bones: the distinctive foot claws, as well as fossilized teeth, arm and vertebrae.
  1. Qianzhousaurus sinensis
72-66 Ma Nanxiong Formation, Guangdong, China A tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurid nicknamed "Pinocchio rex" for its long snout in comparison to other known tyrannosaurs.
  1. Qiupalong henanensis
99.7-66 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Qiupa Formation, Henan, China An Ornithomimid
  1. Quilmesaurus curriei
Campanian to Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Neuquén Province, Argentina A carnotaurine abelisaurid.
  1. Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis
72.1-66 Ma Lameta Formation, Gujarat, India A large-sized majungasaurine abelisaurid similar to the closely related Rajasaurus.
  1. Rahonavis ostromi
70 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A small unenlagiine dromaeosaur with possible gliding abilities
  1. Rajasaurus narmadensis
69 Ma Lameta Formation, Gujarat, India A majungasaurine abelisaurid
  1. Raptorex kriegsteini
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A dubious tyrannosaurid known from only juvenile remains, possibly synonymous with Tarbosaurus.
  1. Richardoestesia isosceles
76.5-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Aguja Formation, Texas, USA A little-known coelurosaur known from a few jaws and teeth.
  1. Rinchenia mongoliensis
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An oviraptorid originally classified as a species of Oviraptor
  1. Saurornitholestes langstoni
77-69 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Canada

USA

A saurornitholestine dromaeosaur that was more long-legged and lightly built than other dromaeosaurs.
  1. Shixinggia oblita
70 Ma Guangdong, China An oviraptorid
  1. Struthiomimus altus
  2. Struthiomimus sedens
75-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

  • Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
An ornithomimid
  1. Tarbosaurus bataar
70-66 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurid, sometimes considered an Asian species of Tyrannosaurus.
  1. Therizinosaurus cheloniformis
70-66 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A therizinosaurid, one of the last and largest therizinosaurs.
  1. Tochisaurus nemegtensis
69 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A relatively large troodontid.
  1. Troodon formosus
77-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

  • Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
  • Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA
  • Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
A widespread troodontid with one of the largest known brains relative to body mass of any dinosaur group.
  1. Tyrannosaurus rex
68-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana & South Dakota, USA

North Horn Formation, Utah, USA

  • Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA
A tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurid. The largest known Tyrannosaruoid and among the last large non-avian dinosaurs.
  1. Variraptor mechinorum
70 Ma Gres a Reptiles Formation, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France A dromaeosaur
  1. Velociraptor mongoliensis
75-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Djadochta Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A velociraptorine dromaeosaur, one of the most familiar genera.
  1. Vitakridrinda sulaimani
69 Ma Pab Formation, Pakistan An abelisaurid known from partial remains.
  1. Vitakrisaurus saraiki
70 Ma Vitaki Formation, Pakistan A rare noasaurid.
  1. Yulong mini
99.7-66 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Qiupa Formation, Henan, China One of the smallest known oviraptorids.
  1. Zanabazar junior
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A troodontid, originally classified as a species of Saurornithoides.
  1. Zhuchengtyrannus magnus
73.5-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Wangshi Group, Shandong Province, China A tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurid

Sauropods[edit]

Sauropods of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Alamosaurus sanjuanensis
70-66 Ma Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA

North Horn Formation, Utah, USA

An opisthocoelicaudiine saltasaurid that was one of the largest dinosaur known from North America.
  • Ampelosaurus atacis
70-66 Ma Marnes Rouges Inferieures Formation, France Like most sauropods, this nemegtosaurid would have had a long neck and tail, but it also carried armor in the form of osteoderms 25–28 centimeters (9.8–11.0 inches) long. The four osteoderms found have three different morphologies, they are plate, bulb, and spine-shaped. This dinosaur would have stretched up to about 15 meters (49 feet) from snout to tail.
  • Arkharavia heterocoelica
66 Ma Udurchukan Formation, Russia A somphospondylan known from a few remains that were probably actually of a hadrosaur.
  • Balochisaurus malkani
72.1-66 Ma Pab Formation, Pakistan A titanosaur known from several tail vertebrae, with additional vertebrae and a partial skull.
  • Bonatitan reigi
84-66 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Argentina A saltasaurid known from a partial skeleton, including a braincase and caudal vertebrae. It may be a saltasaurine.
  • Campylodoniscus ameghinoi
95-70 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Argentina A little-known titanosaur known from a single jawbone, the maxilla, holding seven teeth.
  • Dreadnoughtus schrani
84-66 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina A giant titanosaur that is one of the largest of all known terrestrial vertebrates, possessing the greatest mass of any land animal that can be calculated with reasonable certainty, using limb bone measurements. It is known to be 26 meters (85 feet) long in total body length and a 2-story-tall (6 meters;20 feet) shoulder height.
  • Gondwanatitan faustoi
70 Ma Brazil An aeolosaurid titanosaur that had elongated centra in the vertebrae from the middle part of its tail. It had vertebral lateral fossae that resembled shallow depressions, similar to Saltasaurus, Alamosaurus, Malawisaurus and Aeolosaurus.
  • Huabeisaurus allocotus
99.7-70.6 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian Huiquanpu Formation, Shanxi, China A titanosaur that was mid-sized by sauropod standards, closely related to Tangvayosaurus.
  • Hypselosaurus priscus
70-66 Ma Grès à Reptiles Formation, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France A titanosaurid with proportionally robust legs. The eggs are also unusually large; measuring at around 1-foot (0.30 m) in length.
  • Isisaurus colberti
70 Ma Lameta Formation, Maharashtra, India An antarctosaurid that had a "bizarre" appearance with a short, vertically directed neck and long forelimbs, making it considerably different from other sauropods.
  • Jainosaurus septentrionalis
68 Ma Lameta Formation, Madhya Pradesh, India A large titanosaur that would have measured around eighteen meters long and held its head six meters high. No accurate estimate of the weight has yet been made. The humerus of the type specimen is 134 centimeters long.
  • Khetranisaurus barkhani
72.1-66 Ma Pab Formation, Pakistan A titanosaur closely related to Pakisaurus, known only from a tail vertebra.
  • Loricosaurus scutatus
71 Ma Allen Formation, Neuquén Province, Argentina A saltasaurine saltasaurid that, due to the presence of armor, was first thought to be an ankylosaur.
  • Magyarosaurus dacus
70-66 Ma Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania A nemegtosaurid that is one of the smallest known species of sauropod, measuring only six meters in length.
  • Marisaurus jeffi
72.1-66 Ma Pab Formation, Pakistan A titanosaur closely related to Bolochisaurus and known from tail vertebrae, a partial skull, many other vertebrae, and a few hind limb bones.
  • Nemegtosaurus mongoliensis
  • Nemegtosaurus pachi
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A nemegtosaurid with a skull resembling that of a diplodocoid in being long and low, with pencil-shaped teeth.
  • Neuquensaurus australis
  • Neuquensaurus robustus
71 Ma Anacleto Formation, Neuquén Province, Argentina

Uruguay

A saltasaurine saltasaurid that is a relatively small sauropod, with a femur only 0.75 meters (2.5 feet) long. It is one of the most completely known of Patagonian sauropods.
  • Opisthocoelocaudia skarzynskii
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia An opisthocoelicaudiine saltasaurid that was a relatively small sauropod, measuring over 11 m (36 ft) from the head to the tip of the tail. It is one of the best known sauropods from the Late Cretaceous.
  • Pakisaurus balochistani
70-66 Ma Pab Formation, Pakistan A titanosaur known only from a few vertebrae.
  • Paludititan nalatzensis
Hunedoara County, Romania A titanosaur known from a partial skeleton.
  • Quaesitosaurus orientalis
85-70 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A little-known nemegtosaurid. Its fossils consist solely of a partial skull. Long, low and horse-like with frontally located peg-like teeth, it is similar enough to the skulls of Diplodocus and its kin to have prompted informed speculation that the missing body was formed like those of diplodocids. It is possible that Nemegtosaurus, also known from only skull material, is a very close relative of Quaesitosaurus, if not indeed a variation of the same animal.
  • Rapetosaurus krausei
70-66 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A nemegtosaurid that was fairly modest in size, for a titanosaur, being less than half the length of Argentinosaurus and Paralititan.
  • Saltasaurus loricatus
70-66 Ma Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina

Uruguay

A well-known saltasaurine saltasaurid. Relatively small among typically-sized sauropods, though still massive by the standards of modern terrestrial creatures, Saltasaurus is characterized by a diplodocid-like head (with blunt teeth, only in the front of the mouth). It was the first genus of sauropod known to possess armour of bony plates embedded in its skin. The small bony plates (osteoderms) have since been found on other titanosaurs. When the plates of a saltasaur were originally found, independently of skeletal remains, they were assumed to be from an ankylosaur, whose plates they resemble. A crest of scutes has also been discovered running down the back of diplodocid sauropods.
  • Sulaimanisaurus gingerichi
72.1-66 Ma Pab Formation, Pakistan A titanosaur closely related to both Pakisaurus and Khetranisaurus.
  • Titanosaurus indicus
  • Titanosaurus blandfordi
70-66 Ma Lameta Formation, India A dubious titanosaurid estimated to have grown up to 9–12 meters (30–39 ft) long and about 13 tons in weight. Titanosaurus has traditionally been treated as a "wastebin taxon" for poorly preserved sauropod remains that demonstrate a distinctive vertebrae anatomy. The original Titanosaurus remains consist only of limb bones and a few vertebrae that have these characteristics. However, discoveries of more and better-preserved titanosaur species have shown that these once distinctive features are in fact widespread across many genera. Therefore, Titanosaurus itself is considered a nomen dubium by most paleontologists, since the original Titanosaurus specimens cannot be distinguished from those of related genera.
  • Uberabatitan ribeiroi
67 Ma Marilia Formation, Brazil A little-known titanosaur known from specific bones including neck, back, and tail vertebrae, pelvic bones and limb bones.
  • Vahiny depereti
70-66 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A rare titanosaur coexisting with the more common Rapetosaurus. It is distinguished from other titanosaurs by characteristics of its braincase, including the basal tubera, basipterygoid processes, parasphenoid, and cranial nerve foramina. Differences in the braincases of Vahiny and Rapetosaurus indicate that they are not closely related to one another. Vahiny is most similar to Jainosaurus, and bears similarities to Muyelensaurus and Pitekunsaurus.

Birds (avian theropods)[edit]

Birds of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Alamitornis minutus
70 Ma Los Alamitos Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina A basal euornithine, possibly a patagopterygiform.
  • Anatalavis rex
66-65 Ma, Maastrichtian to Danian Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, USA An anseriform, possibly resembling the magpie-goose.
  • Asiahesperornis bazhanovi
70 Ma Kazakhstan A hesperornithine that lived on the shores of the shallow Turgai Sea.
  • Avisaurus archibaldi
  • Avisaurus gloriae
70.6-65 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA A genus of avisaurid enantiornithine that is known from the humid low-lying swamps, lakes and river basins of the western shore of the Western Interior Seaway.
  1. Balaur bondoc
70 Ma Sebes Formation, Alba County Romania An avialian from Romania
  • Brodavis americanus
  • Brodavis baileyi
  • Brodavis mongoliensis
66.8-65 Ma Frenchman Formation, Alberta & Saskatchewan, Canada

Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota, USA

  • Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia
A freshwater, possibly flighted hesperornithine dating back to the Campanian.
  • Canadaga arctica
67 Ma Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada A genus of hesperornithine that, unlike its relatives which are mainly known from subtropical or tropical waters, seemed to have ranged in temperate or even subarctic areas.
  • Ceramornis major
66-65 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A charadriiform that might be mistaken for an anseriform.
  • Cimolopteryx maxima
  • Cimolopteryx minima
  • Cimolopteryx rara
  • Cimolopteryx petra
75-65 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

A fairly small charadriiform, with a maximum size about equal to that of a small gull.
  • Elbertornis bonapartei
70 Ma Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina A euenantiornithine.
  • Enantiornis leali
70 Ma Argentina Among the largest enantiornithines discovered to date, having an ecological niche resembling that of a mid-sized accipitrid.
  • Gargantuavis philoinos
70 Ma Marnes Rouges Inferieures Formation, France A large flightless euornithine bird that occupied an ecological niche somewhat similar to that of modern ratites or certain non-avian dinosaurs. Its eggs were previously attributed to titanosaurs.
  • Graculavus augustus
68 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A charadriiform that lived on the shores of the northwestern Atlantic and the Western Interior Seaway.
  • Gurilynia nessovi
70-65 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A euenantiornithine known from three partial bones.
  • Hesperornis regalis
  • Hesperornis crassipes
  • Hesperornis gracilis
  • Hesperornis altus
  • Hesperornis montana
  • Hesperornis rossicus
  • Hesperornis bairdi
  • Hesperornis chowi
  • Hesperornis macdonaldi
  • Hesperornis mengeli
80-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian
  • Hulsanpes perlei
70 Ma Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A euornithine first described as a Dromaeosaur.
  • Judinornis nogontsavensis
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A basal hesperornithine that, unlike its relatives, apparently lived in estuaries and rivers from the mountains thrown up by the Cimmerian Orogeny through the arid lands of continental East Asia towards the Turgai Sea and the former Shigatze Ocean.
  • Laornis edvardsianus
66-63 Ma, Maastrichtian to Danian Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, USA A neognath that may have been semiaquatic.
  • Lectavis bretincola
70.6-65 Ma Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina A genus of euenantiornithine with uncertain evolutionary affinities, it had legs resembling and a body approximately the size of a modern curlew.
  • Martinavis cruzyensis
  • Martinavis minor
  • Martinavis saltariensis
  • Martinavis vincei
  • Martinavis whetstonei
75-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina

Gres a Reptiles Formation, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

A euenantiornithine known mostly from a collection of humeruses per species.
  • Neogaeornis wetzeli
70-67 Ma Quiriquina Formation, Quiriquina Island, Chile A rare hesperornithine closely related to Baptornis (yet some believe it to be a gaviiform). Though apparently somewhat migratory, it is only known from temperate to warm subtropical climates, and it seems that towards the end of the Cretaceous their range shifted towards the South Pole.
  • Palintropus retusus
66-65 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A poorly known bird that is sometimes believed to be an early charadriiform or galliform. It is now primarily known to be an ambiortiform.
  • Polarornis gregorii
66-65 Ma Lopez de Bertodano Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica A gaviiform that was semiaquatic is suggested to be flightless or near-flightless, feeding on fish and large invertebrates. It was very similar to its loon relatives, as well as to grebes, hesperornithines, and penguins.
  • Potamornis skutchi
66-65 Ma Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A hesperornithine with unclear relationships.
  • Soroavisaurus australis
70 Ma Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina An avisaurid known from only a few remains.
  • Telmatornis priscus
71-68 Ma Navesink Formation, New Jersey, USA A charadriiform with grebe-like forelimbs
  • Teviornis gobiensis
70 Ma Nemegt Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A presbyornithid known from pieces of a crushed right forelimb.
  • Tytthostonyx glauconiticus
66-65 Ma Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, USA A little-known bird of unclear affiliations.
  • Vegavis iaai
66-65 Ma Lopez de Bertodano Formation, Vega Island, Antarctica An anseriform known from very few bones.
  • Vorona berivotrensis
83.5-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A euornithine sometimes confused with Rahonavis, a confusion that has led to the common misconception that Vorona had a dromaeosaur-like sickle claw on each foot.
  • Yungavolucris brevipedalis
70.6-65 Ma Lecho Formation, Salta Province, Argentina A small, little-known euenantiornithine that may have been adapted for swimming.

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

Cartilaginous Fish of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Coupatezia trempina
A myliobatiform ray whose genus survived into the Lutetian.
Turonian to Ypresian
100-0 Ma, Cenomanian to present
  1. Ptychodus mortoni
  2. Ptychodus polygurus
Kansas, USA
70-0 Ma, Maastrichtian to present
  1. Rhombodus binkhorsti
  2. Rhombodus levis
  1. Squalicorax kaupi
  2. Squalicorax pristodontus
80-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian New Zealand

Japan

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Crocodylomorphs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Allodaposuchus palustris
  2. Allodaposuchus precedens
Campanian to Maastrichtian Conques Formation, Province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain

Romania

An average-sized eusuchian, growing to around 3 meters (9.8 feet) long. The main feature that distinguishes this species from other related crocodylomorphs is the orientation of a groove at the back of the skull called the cranioquadrate passage; unlike the cranioquadrate passages of other crocodylomorphs, which are only visible at the back of the skull, the cranioquadrate passage of this variety is visible when the skull is viewed from the side.
  1. Araripesuchus tsangatsangana
Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A uruguaysuchid that can be distinguished by their laterally bulged edges of the snout, with the bulge being the most prominent around the area of an enlarged maxillary tooth.
  1. Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum
67.6-65 Ma Tremp Formation, Province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain A crocodyloid known a partial skull and four teeth. One feature linking it to early crocodilians is the contact of the frontal bones with the margin of the supratemporal fenestrae, two holes in the top of the skull. The frontal bone is also unusual in that its front end is extremely long. A sharp projection of the frontal divides the nasal bones, making up most of the midline length of the snout. Usually, the nasal bones would occupy the midline and the frontal would be restricted near the eye sockets. Near the frontal, the lacrimal bones are unusually wide in comparison to their length.
  1. Borealosuchus sternbergii
Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming A medium-sized crocodilian genus that lived into the Eocene.
  1. Brachychampsa montana
83.5-63.3 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA A globidontan distinguished by an enlarged fourth maxillary tooth in the upper jaw. Its genus dates back to the Campanian and lived until the Danian.
  1. Caryonosuchus pricei
83-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Adamantina Formation, Sao Paulo, Brazil A sphagesaurid characterized by a unique combination of characters, including three autapomorphies such as a rostrum with horn-like tubercles on the maxilla and on the premaxilla. Caryonosuchus also has autapomorphic rough ornamentation with grooves and bony ridges on its rostrum.
  1. Chenanisuchus lateroculi
Maastrichtian to Danian Mali

Morocco

A dyrosaurid with the shortest snout relative to the dorsal skull length among all dyrosaurids.
  1. Itasuchus jesuinoi
70.6-65 Ma Marilia Formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil A trematochampsid known from a 370 mm skull, suggesting a total body length of about 3 m (9.8 ft).
  1. Labidiosuchus amicum
Marilia Formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  1. Mahajangasuchus insignis
70-65 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A mahajangasuchid that was a fairly large predator, measuring up to 3 meters (9.8 feet) with a weight up to 360 kg (790 lb).
  1. Mariliasuchus amarali
84.9-66 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Adamantina Formation, Sao Paulo, Brazil A notosuchian that may have had a pig-like diet and was almost certainly warm blooded.
  1. Miadanasuchus oblita
74-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A trematochampsid known from only a few remains.
  1. Ocepesuchus eoafricanus
Oulad Abdoun Basin, Khouribga Province, Morocco A gavialoid a long snout with a tubular shape, wider than high. It is the oldest known true crocodilian from Africa.
  1. Pabwehshi pakistanensis
Pab Formation, Balochistan, Pakistan
  1. Peirosaurus torminni
68-66 Ma Marilia Formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil A peirosaurid with a ziphodont dentition that is somewhat heterodont, with conical premaxillary teeth and serrated maxillary and posterior mandibular teeth. The rostrum is laterally compressed with a grove between the maxilla and premaxilla to accommodate for an enlarged mandibular tooth. A maxillary wedge-like anterior process is also present. The external nares face slightly forward and anteriorly protrude. The dorsal osteoderms are thin and sculptured with low longitudinal keels while the abdominal ones are smaller and lack keels.
  1. Pepesuchus deiseae
Campanian to Maastrichtian Presidente Prudente Formation, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  1. Pissarrachampsa sera
Campanian to Maastrichtian Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  1. Rhabdognathus aslerensis
  2. Rhabdognathus keiniensis
70.6-55.8 Ma, Maastritchtian to Ypresian Nigeria

Mali

A dyrosaurid with an extremely elongated snout that makes up around 75% of the length of the entire skull.
  1. Sabresuchus sympiestodon
Romania
  1. Simosuchus clarki
70-65 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A ziphosuchian notosuchian which had teeth shapes like cloves, which coupled with its short and deep snout suggest it was not a carnivore like most other crocodylomorphs. In fact, these features have led many to consider it a herbivore.
  1. Sphagesaurus huenei
84-70 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Adamantina Formation, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  1. Stratiotosuchus maxhechti
83-70 Ma, Santonian to Maastricthian Adamantina Formation, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  1. Thoracosaurus borissiaki
  2. Thoracosaurus macrorhynchus
  3. Thoracosaurus neocesariensis
  4. Thoracosaurus pneumaticus
73.6-50.3 Ma, Campanian to Ypresian Crimea

Maastrichter Tuffkreide Formation, Limburg, Netherlands

  • France
  • Hornerstown Formaion, New Jersey, USA
  • Navesink Formation, New Jersey, USA
A fairly large gavialoid that comes in a number of species, but most are dubious.
  1. Uberabasuchus terrificus
85-65 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Marilia Formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil A peirosaurid that was about 2.5 m long and appears to have a high skull like that of the sebecosuchians, but differs from them in having teeth with circular cross-section. Thus, rather than slicing flesh and blood vessels, it is likely to have inflicted powerful crushing bites. It lived in an arid climate, indicating that it was likely a terrestrial predator.

Bony fish[edit]

Bony Fish of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Belonostomus lamarquensis
  • Belonostomus longirostris
82-65 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Argentina

Alberta & Saskatchewan, Canada

  • Chile
  • USA
  • Coriops amnicolus
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA
Hell Creek Formation A species of Gar
Hell Creek Formation A type of large fish of the order Amiiformes
Hell Creek Formation A type of Paddlefish
  • Xiphactinus audax
  • Xiphactinus vetus
94.3-65 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian A voracious, predatory ichthyodectid, resembling a gargantuan, fanged tarpon.

Mammals[edit]

Mammals of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Alphadon marshi
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

New Mexico, USA

  • Alberta, Canada
An opossum-like metathere that fed on fruits, invertebrates and possibly smaller vertebrates.
  1. Argentodites coloniensis
La Colonia Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina An allothere that is either a multituberculate or a gondwanathere.
  1. Barbatodon oardaensis
  2. Barbatodon transylvanicum
  3. Barbatodon ungureanui
Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania A small and very rare kogaionid.
  1. Bharattherium jederi
70-66 Ma Intertrappean Beds, Telangana, India A sudamericid known from a total of eight isolated teeth.
  1. Buginbaatar clarki
Mongolia A cimolomyid known from incomplete remains.
  1. Catopsbaatar catopsaloides
83-70 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Barun Goyot Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A djadochtatheriid that was originally regarded as a species of Djadochtatherium. One of its most characteristic features is a very deep anterior zygomatic ridge, and a small medial zygomatic ridge, the latter forming about a quarter of a circle and adhering the anterior one from behind.
  1. Cimexomys minor
Maastrichtian to Danian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Denver Formation, Colorado, USA

An unspecified multituberculate known from small teeth of an eighth to a tenth of an inch in length.
  1. Cimolestes incisus
75-56 Ma, Campanian to Thanetian USA A basal cimolestan that was once considered to be a marsupial, then a primitive placental mammal, but now is considered to be a member of the order Cimolesta (which was named after the genus), outside of placental mammals proper.
  1. Cimolomys clarki
  2. Cimolomys gracilis
  3. Cimolomys trochuus
Campanian to Maastrichtian USA

Saskatchewan, Canada

A widespread cimolomyid that probably weighed about the same as a modern rat.
  1. Clemensodon megaloba
Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA A eucosmodontid strictly known from tooth remains.
  1. Deccanolestes hislopi
  2. Deccanolestes robustus
Intertrappean Beds, Andhra Pradesh, India Previously referred to as a palaeoryctid, but recent evidence has shown the it is probably the most basal euarchontan, probably more specifically an adapisoriculid.
  1. Didelphodon coyi
  2. Didelphodon padanicus
  3. Didelphodon vorax
73-66 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Wyoming, UA

  • Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
A stagodont metathere that was one of the largest Mesozoic mammals.
  1. Djadochtatherium matthewi
84-70 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Djadochta Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A djadochtatheriid that was a relatively large multituberculate. It was originally diagnosed as an Asian species of Catopsalis.
  1. Essonodon browni
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Frenchman Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada

  • Wyoming, USA
  • New Mexico, USA
  1. Ferugliotherium windhauseni
70 Ma Los Alamitos Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina A ferugliotheriid with long upper and lower incisors that are rodent-like.
  1. Gondwanatherium patagonicum
84.9-65 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Los Alamitos Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina A sudamericid that, even though it lived earlier than Sudamerica, is considered more anatomically advanced. Thus, an ancestral lineage outlived their later, more specialized descendants.
  1. Gypsonictops hypoconus
70-65 Ma Canada

USA

  1. Kharmerungulatum vanvaleni
Intertrappean Beds, Andhra Pradesh, India One of the earliest known condylarths.
  1. Kimbetohia campi
66-63 Ma, Maastrichtian to Danian Nacimiento Formation, New Mexico, USA A ptilodontid that was briefly mistaken for Clemensodon.
  1. Kogaionon ungureanui
Sanpetru Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania A kogaionid that was a micro-mammal, based on a well-preserved skull.
  1. Kryptobaatar gobiensis
  2. Kryptobaatar saichanensis
70.6 Ma Djadochta Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A djadochtatheriid with a skull length of perhaps 3 centimeters.
  1. Lavanify miolaka
71-65 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A sudamericid with high-crowned, curved teeth and probably ate hard plant material.
  1. Nanocuris improvida
Saskatchewan, Canada

Wyoming, USA

  1. Paracimexomys priscus
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA An unspecified multituberculate closely related to Cimexomys.
  1. Purgatorius janisae
  2. Purgatorius titusi
  3. Purgatorius unio
66-63 Ma, Maastrichtian to Danian Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Tullock Formation, Montana, USA

Possibly an early plesiadapiform, closely related to true primates.
  1. Reigitherium bunodontum
Campanian to Maastrichtian Los Alamitos Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina

La Colonia Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina

At first mistaken for either a dryolestid or a docodont, now known to be a meridiolestid dryolestoid.
  1. Sahnitherium rangapurensis
Intertrappean Beds, Andhra Pradesh, India
  1. Stygimys kuszmauli
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA
  1. Trapalcotherium matuastensis
Allen Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina A ferugliotheriid known from one tooth, a first lower molar.
  1. Vintana sertichi
65 Ma Madagascar A caviomorph-like sudamericid with supersensory capabilities.
  1. Zalambdalestes lechei
84-70.6 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Djadochta Formation, Omnogovi Province, Mongolia A shrew-like eutherian that was perhaps placental.

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Plesiosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Albertonectes vanderveldei
83-70.6 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Alberta, Canada
  • Aphrosaurus furlongi
70-65 Ma California, USA An elasmosaur named after University of California Berkeley field assistant and specimen preparator Eustace Furlong.
  • Aristonectes parvidens
  • Aristonectes quiriquiensis
70-65 Ma Quiriquina Formation, Quiriquina Island, Chile

Antarctica

An aristonectine elasmosaur that has been classified variously since the 1941 description of it. It is now known to be an elasmosaurid.
  • Cardiocorax mukulu
Mocuio Formation, Angola
  • Dolichorhynchops herschelensis
93.5-65 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Bearpaw Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • Fresnosaurus drescheri
70.6-65 Ma California, USA An elasmosaur named in honor of Fresno County and Arthur Drescher.
  • Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae
California, USA An elasmosaur named for its discoverer, Annie Montague Alexander by Samuel Paul Welles.
  • Kaiwhekea katiki
70-69 Ma Katiki Formation, Otago, South Island, New Zealand A leptocleidid known from a single, nearly complete specimen.
  • Leurospondylus ultimus
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A little-known plesiosaur, probably either an elasmosaur or a late-surviving plesiosaurid. Offspring most likely spent their early lives in brackish rivers and estuaries.
  • Mauisaurus haasti
80-69 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Conway Formation, Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand An elasmosaur that was the largest plesiosaur and, perhaps, the largest marine reptile in New Zealand waters at the time.
  • Trinacromerum kirki
93-70 Ma, Turonian to Maastrichtian Manitoba, Canada
  • Zarafasaura oceanis
Ouled Abdoun Basin, Khouribga Province, Morocco

Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Aerotitan sudamericanus
84-66 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Argentina Known to be the first unambiguous azhdarchid from South America. The wingspan has been estimated as at least 5 meters (16 feet).
  1. Arambourgiania philadelphiae
70.6-66 Ma Zarqa Governorate, Jordan An azhdarchid with a very elongated neck and was one of the largest pterosaurs.
  1. Eurazhdarcho langendorfensis
69 Ma Sebes Formation, Alba County, Romania A medium-sized azhdarchid (having an estimated wingspan of 3 meters) with some distinctive traits, all present in the cervical vertebrae.
  1. Hatzegopteryx thambema
70-66 Ma Densus-Ciula Formation, Hunedoara County, Romania An azhdarchid known from incomplete remains. The skull fragments, left humerus, and other fossilized remains indicate it was among the largest pterosaurs, very similar (almost identical) to Quetzalcoatlus. The authors estimated the size of Hatzegopteryx by comparing the humerus fragment, 236 mm (9.3 in) long, with that of Quetzalcoatlus, of which one specimen has a 544 mm (1 ft 9.4 in) long humerus. Observing that the Hatzegopteryx fragment presented less than half of the original bone, they established that it could possibly have been "slightly longer" than that of Quetzalcoatlus. They noted that the wing span of the latter had in 1981 been estimated at 11 to 12 meters (36 to 39 ft), while earlier estimates had strongly exceeded this at 15 to 20 meters (49 to 66 ft). From this they concluded that an estimate of a 12 meters (39 feet) wingspan for Hatzegopteryx was conservative if its humerus was indeed somewhat longer than that of Quetzalcoatlus. In 2003 they moderated the estimates to a close to 12 meters (39 feet) wing span and an over 2.5 meters (8 feet 2 inches) skull length. In 2010 Mark Witton e.a. stated that any appearance that the Hatzegopteryx humerus was bigger than TMM 41450-3 had been caused by a distortion of the bone after deposition and that the species thus likely had no larger wingspan than Quetzalcoatlus, today generally estimated at 10 to 11 meters (33 to 36 ft).
  1. Navajodactylus boerei
75.56-70.6 Ma, Campanian to Maastrichtian Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, USA A pterosaur of uncertain affinities with an estimated wingspan of 3.5 meters (11 feet). Its autapomorphies largely exist in the unique form of the process on the first wing phalanx for the extensor tendon.
  1. P. mauritanicus
66 Ma Oulad Abdoun Basin, Khouribga Province, Morocco The first azhdarchid found in North Africa, as well as being unusual among azhdarchids for having elongate vertebrae at the base of the neck (also with neural spines), interpreted as modified dorsal vertebrae; the neck is also one of the most complete known for azhdarchids. The cervical vertebrae are thought to be a series from the fifth (the longest with a length of thirty centimeters) to the ninth. The individual to which the neck belonged would have had a wingspan of about 5 meters (16 feet).
  1. Quetzalcoatlus northropi
68-66 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Javelina Formation, Texas, USA

An azhdarchid named after the Mesoamerican Aztec feathered serpent god Quetzalcoatl. Alongside Q. northropi, a second species exists without an official specific name yet, currently called Quetzalcoatlus sp.. One of the largest known flying animals of all time, it had a stork-like lifestyle. When it was first discovered, scientists estimated that the largest Quetzalcoatlus fossils came from an individual with a wingspan as large as 15.9 meters (52 feet), choosing the middle of three extrapolations from the proportions of other pterosaurs that gave an estimate of 11, 15.5 and 21 meters respectively (36 feet, 50.85 feet, 68.9 feet). In 1981, further study lowered these estimates to 11–12 meters (36–39 ft). More recent estimates based on greater knowledge of azhdarchid proportions place its wingspan at 10–11 meters (33–36 ft). It is known to have a scavenging lifestyle similar to a marabou stork, rather than a fishing lifestyle.

Squamates[edit]

Squamates of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Carinodens belgicus
Netherlands A mosasaurine mosasaur measuring approximately 3.5 meters (11 feet) in length, making it one of the smallest known mosasaurs.
  • Cerberophis robustus
Hell Creek Formation, USA An advanced snake of uncertain phylogenetic placement.
  1. Eremiasaurus heterodontus
Morocco
  1. Globidens alabamaensis
  2. Globidens dakotensis
  3. Globidens phosphaticus
  4. Globidens schurmanni
  5. Globidens timorensis
84.9-70.6 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian USA

East Timor

A mosasaurine mosasaur with teeth vastly different from other mosasaurs, as they were globular, as suggested in its generic name. While many other mosasaurs were capable of crushing the shells of ammonites, none were as specialized in dealing with armored prey like Globidens. Globidens, unlike most other mosasaurs, had semispherical teeth with rounded nubbin-like points, which were much better suited for crushing tough armored prey like smaller reptiles and mollusks.
  1. Goronyosaurus nigeriensis
Sokoto State, Niger

Nigeria

A mosasaur with an almost crocodilian-like head and was one of the few kinds to live in freshwater. It lived in rivers and hunted both aquatic and terrestrial animals in the area.
  1. Hainosaurus bernardi
70.6-65 Ma Sweden A tylosaurine mosasaur that had more vertebrae in the neck and tail than its Tylosaurus cousin. It is one of the largest mosasaurs, though its size has been revised more than once.
  1. Halisaurus platyspondylus
USA With a length of 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft), this species of halisaurine mosasaur is small compared to most other mosasaurs.
  1. Igdamanosaurus aegyptiacus
70-65 Ma Egypt
  1. Kelyophis hechti
70-65 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar
  1. Liodon anceps
  2. Liodon compressidens
  3. Liodon mosasauroides
  4. Liodon sectorius
99.7-65 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian France

Netherlands

  • Spain
  1. Madtsoia madagascariensis
  2. Madtsoia pisdurensis
Campanian to Maastrichtian Madagascar

India

  1. Menarana nosymena
70-65 Ma Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar A madtsoiid snake that was probably fossorial, borrowing with its head.
  1. Moanasaurus mangahouangae
North Island, New Zealand A mosasaurine mosasaur that was one of the largest of the mosasaurs.
  1. Mosasaurus beaugei
  2. Mosasaurus conodon
  3. Mosasaurus dekayi
  4. Mosasaurus hoffmannii
  5. Mosasaurus missouriensis
  6. Mosasaurus mokoroa
70-65 Ma Netherlands

USA

  • Saskatchewan, Canada
  • Morocco
  • Angola
  • Bulgaria
  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • Italy
  • Poland
  • Turkey
  • Syria
  • Conway Formation, Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand
  1. Nedophis insularis
Romania
  1. Obamadon gracilis
66-65 Ma Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

A polyglyphanodontian lizard known from two lower jaw fragments, each less than a centimeter in length. It had a V-shaped connection between the two halves of the lower jaw, a slot-and-ridge type connection between the dentary bone of the lower jaw and another missing bone called the splenial bone, and teeth that are implanted within the jaw bone. Its jaw is thin and straight, unlike the curved jaws of most other polyglyphanodontians. Obamadon is estimated to have been about 30 cm (1-foot) in length and may have preyed on insects. It was named after United States president Barack Obama.
  1. Plesiotylosaurus crassidens
California, USA
  1. Plotosaurus tuckeri
California, USA A mosasaurine mosasaur that was probably a faster swimmer than most other mosasaurs.
  1. Prognathodon currii
  2. Prognathodon giganteus
  3. Prognathodon kianda
  4. Prognathodon overtoni
  5. Prognathodon rapax
  6. Prognathodon saturator
  7. Prognathodon solvayi
  8. Prognathodon waiparaensis
84.9-65 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian USA

Alberta, Canada

  • Netherlands
  • South Island, New Zealand
  • Morocco
  • Jordan
  • Angola
  • Spain
A mosasaurine mosasaur that had protective bony rings surrounding its eye sockets, indicating it lived in deep water. Its teeth are similar to those of some Triassic placodonts, so it may have lived a similar lifestyle, feeding on shellfish, large fish and sea turtles.
  1. Sanajeh indicus
68 Ma Lameta Formation, India A madtsoiid snake that is known to eat the eggs and hatchlings of dinosaurs.
  1. Socognathus unicuspis
Campanian to Maastrichtian Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

Alberta, Canada

  1. Taniwhasaurus antarcticus
  2. Taniwhasaurus mikasaensis
  3. Taniwhasaurus oweni
85.8-65.043 Ma, Santonian to Maastrichtian Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica

Conway Formation, Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand

  • Japan
A widespread tylosaurine mosasaur. T. owni was the first species discovered and the two other species (T. antarcticus and T. mikasaensis) were at first assigned to two different genera: Lakumasaurus and Yezosaurus.

Turtles[edit]

Testudines of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
USA
75-65, Ma Campanian to Maastrichtian USA
  • Alienochelys selloumi
Oulad Abdoun Basin, Khouribga Province, Morocco
  • Cedrobaena putorius
66-56.8 Ma, Maastrichtian to Selandian Hell Creek Formation, Wyoming, USA
  • Compsemys victa
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA A dermatemydid that was a moderately sized turtle up to 30 cm (12 in) long, with a carapace covered with raised, flattened tubercles, which are not seen in any other turtle. Similar to an alligator snapping turtle, with its sharply hooked beak; this relative of the Central American river turtle must have been a semiaquatic carnivore.
  • Dollochelys atlantica
  • Dollochelys coatesi
70-65 Ma New Jersey & Maryland, USA
  • Gamerabaena sonsalia
Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota, USA A baenid that was similar to Palatobaena, but it differs in its lack of a posterior expansion of the triturating (or chewing) surface, a somewhat rectangular skull, and a wide angle between the maxillae. Gamerabaena also has a lingual ridge on the inner side of the jaw that is not seen in Palatobaena. It is named after Gamera, the kaiju created by the Daiei Motion Picture Company.
  • Gigantatypus salahi
Jordan A sea turtle that was one of the largest sea turtles ever.
  • Gilmoremys lancensis
Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota, USA

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

A softshell turtle that is known from five skulls, a mandible and an incomplete postcranial skeleton. One find consists of a nearly complete carapace and an isolated hyoplastral fragment.
  • Kurmademys kallamedensis
70.6-65 Ma Kallamedu Formation, India
  • Ocepechelon bouyai
67 Ma Oulad Abdoun Basin, Khouribga Province, Morocco A dermochelyid with a feeding apparatus unique among tetrapods and shares unique convergences with both syngnathids (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and forward directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws).
  • Palatobaena bairdi
  • Palatobaena cohen
70.6-65 MA Fort Union Formation, Wyoming, USA

Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota, USA

  • Patagoniaemys gasparinae
Campanian to Maastrichtian La Colonia Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina A little-known basal turtle.
  • Peckemys brinkman
Hell Creek Formation, USA
  • Pneumatoarthrus peloreus
Kansas, USA A protostegid sea turtle that was at first mistakenly believed to be a hadrosaur by Edward Drinker Cope.
  • Shweboemys pisdurensis
94-65, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian India

Choristoderes[edit]

Choristoderes of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Champsosaurus albertensis
  • Champsosaurus annectens
  • Champsosaurus laramiensis
  • Champsosaurus lindoei
  • Champsosaurus natator
84.9-36 Ma, Santonian to Eocene Alberta & Saskatchewan, Canada

Hell Creek Formation, Montana & Wyoming, USA

A gharial-like champsosaurid that hunted in rivers and swamps, catching fish with its long, tooth-lined jaws. The genus survived until the Ypresian.
  • Cteniogenys antiquus
167.7-70.6 Ma, Bathonian to Maastrichtian USA

Canada

A cteniogenid originally believed to be either a lizard or a frog. It lived from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous.
  • Eotomistoma multidentata
99.7-66 Ma, Cenomanian to Maastrichtian China

References[edit]

  1. ^ Henderson (2005). "Nano No More: The death of the pygmy tyrant." In "The origin, systematics, and paleobiology of Tyrannosauridae”, a symposium hosted jointly by Burpee Museum of Natural History and Northern Illinois University.

See also[edit]

Cretaceous Period
Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous
Berriasian | Valanginian | Hauterivian
Barremian| Aptian | Albian
Cenomanian | Turonian | Coniacian
Santonian |Campanian | Maastrichtian