|Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee|
9 November 1997 – 7 October 1998
|Preceded by||ACM Farooq Feroze Khan|
|Succeeded by||Gen Pervez Musharraf|
|Chief of Army Staff|
12 January 1996 – 6 October 1998
|Preceded by||Gen Abdul Waheed Kakar|
|Succeeded by||Gen Pervez Musharraf|
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States|
17 November 2004 – 3 June 2006
|President||Gen Pervez Musharraf|
|Prime Minister||Shaukat Aziz|
|Preceded by||General Jehangir Qazi|
|Succeeded by||Maj. Gen. Mahmud Ali Durrani|
20 February 1941 |
Karachi, Sind, British India (now Karachi, Pakistan)
|Alma mater||Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
Command and General Staff College
National Defence University
|Awards|| Nishan-e-Imtiaz (Military)
Legion of Merit
|Institutions||National Defence University (NDU)
Armed Forces War College (afwc)
|Notable students||Pervez Musharraf
Ali Kuli Khan
|Notable work(s)||Work in civil-military relations and Decentralization|
|Years of service||1961–1998|
|Unit||13th Lancers, Army Armoured Corps|
|Commands||DG for Military Operations
II Strike Corps
Pakistan Army Rangers
6th Armored Brigade Group
Pakistan Armed Forces, Middle East Contingent
|Battles/wars||Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Jehangir Karamat, (Urdu: جہانگیر کرامت; born 20 February 1941) NI(M), SBt, is a retired four-star rank army general, military academic, and a former professor of political science at the National Defense University who held four-star assignments– the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1997 to 1998, and as the Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army from January 1996 to October 1998. After retiring from military service, he continued as a professor of Political science at the National Defence University (NDU) in Islamabad. In 2004, he was appointed as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States where he served from November 2004 until June 2006. He is also one of very few army generals in the military history of Pakistan to have resigned over a disagreement with the civilian authorities.
He attended and graduated from Pakistan Military Academy in 1961 and served well in 1965 and the 1971 war with India. After his long active service in the army in which he held numerous prestigious assignments, he came to national prominence in 1995 when along with Major-General Ali Kuli Khan of Military Intelligence (MI) exposed the attempted coup d'état against the government of Prime minister Benazir Bhutto who conferred him with national award. In 1996, he was promoted to four-star rank and became Chief of Army Staff, and later became Chairman Joint Chiefs in 1997. He played a vital role in enhancing the democratic institutions in Pakistan, and staunchly backed Nawaz Sharif's authorisation of atomic-testing programme in 1998. On 6 October 1998, Karamat was forced to relieved from his four-star commands by Prime minister Nawaz Sharif over a disagreement on national security.
After his resignation, he became a diplomat and served as the military-civil adviser to the Islamabad Policy Research Institute (IPRI). Karamat has been credited for foresight prediction of the dangers of unbalanced civil-military relations and the rise of foreign-supported homegrown terrorism in the country. Many of his recommendations on national security were eventually became part of counterterrorism policy by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in 2013.
Early and education
Jehangir Karamat was born on 20 February 1941 in Karachi, Sindh, British India to a Punjabi family. His family hailed from Montgomery (now Sahiwal), and his father was a civil officer in the Pakistan government.
He attended a private and Christian-operated Saint Patrick's High School and received his high-school diploma. In 1957, Karamat passed the university entrance exam, and entered PMA, Kakul in the same year, and his mother also moved with him in Kakul to overlook his education. In 1961, Karamat gained his BS in Military Science after submitting his senior thesis that contained the details of solving problems in civil-military relations. Karamat is the class call of 24th PMA Long Course and stood as a top-ranking cadet at Kakul. On 14 August 1961, Karamat was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 13th Lancers, Armoured Corps.
In 1969, Karamat attended the Command and Staff College at Quetta where he gained a diploma in joint services before switching back to his war assignments. After participating in 1971 war, Karamat was accepted at the National Defence University. The same year, Karamat went to attend the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In 1976, Karamat completed his MSc in International Relations from there; and following his return, Karamat completed his master's programme at the National Defence University. In 1977, Karamat was awarded MSc in War studies where his master's thesis argued and enlightened on the failure of performance of armed forces in 1971 war.
In 1963, Karamat was promoted as Lieutenant, commanding an aromoured tank in the army. Karamat served well in the 1965 war with India where he led a combined infantry platoon and an armoured unit in the Akhnur Sector in Jammu and Kashmir. His company was the first unit that had penetrated 23 miles into enemy territory, which encouraged back-up companies to move forward into the enemy territory. Overall in this war, the 13 Lancers had suffered death of fourteen soldiers, including three officers, while twenty eight were wounded. For this action, the 13th Lancers was awarded the battle honour, Dewa— Chumb and Jaurian of 1965, and was also awarded the title of The Spearhead Regiment.
He progressed well in the army, being promoted to Captain in 1966; and elevated as Major in 1971. During the 1971 war with India. Karammat commanded the unit of the aromoured tanks while trying to defend Punjab against the Indian Army. Major Karamat was the CO of the 15th Armoured Troop, 13 Lancers, which, the 13th Lancers was part of the 8th Armoured Brigade that fought in the Shakargarh area of Sialkot Sector, which is now known as Battle of Barapind. The regiment was awarded battle honour of Bara Pind 1971. After the war, Karamat went on to attend premier military institutions for higher education where he specialised in administration and civil-military relations. In 1977, Karamat was situated as Lieutenant-Colonel and he commanded his parent regiment, the 13 Lancers. Karamat was promoted as a Colonel in 1981.
After completing his advanced studies on military sciences, Karamat was sent to hold academic assignments rather than holding combat assignments. Karamat did not take part in Soviet war in Afghanistan but was stationed in Lahore, Punjab Province. Upon promoting as Brigadier– a 1-star promotion—, Karamat was dispatched as military adviser to Saudi military and commanded the Pakistani military joint forces contingent's armoured group. He remained in Saudi Arabia until 1988 and returned to Pakistan after appointed to two-star assignment. While in Saudi Arabia, he also commanded his brigade and supervised military exercises between two countries. From 1988–91, Major-General Karamat served as the Director-General Military Operations (DGMO); he played a crucial role in advancing the fighting capabilities of the Pakistan Army while he planned numerous military exercises for Pakistan Army. In 1991, Karmat took the command of Army Rangers for a short time.
Prior to that, Karamat served as associate military professor at the Armed Forces War College. In 1992, Karamat was elevated to the three-star assignment, promoted as Lieutenant-General. From 1992–94, Karamat was the field commander of the II Corps stationed in Multan. Eventually, Karamat was posted at the staff assignment at the Army GHQ and appointed as the Chief of General Staff (CGS) by then-chief of army staff General Abdul Waheed Kakar. From 1993–96, Karamat continued to serve as honorary Colonel Commandant, and then Colonel-in-Chief– both ceremonial posts– of the Armoured Corps from 1996–98.
In 1995, Lieutenant-General Karamat rose to public prominence when he had the Military Intelligence (MI) to infiltrate within the army to apprehend the rogue culprits for attempting a coup d'état. Acting under orders from the General Karamat, DGMI Major-General Ali Kuli Khan monitored the activities of Major-General Zaheerul Islam Abbasi who himself was posted at the Army GHQ. The MI tapped the conversations and tracked down the culprits behind the coup. Upon revelation, Lieutenant-General Karamat forwarded the case and facilitated the high-ranking joint JAG court hearings at the specified military courts, and convened many proceedings while the hearings were heard by the military judges led by a Vice-Admiral. His actions were widely perceived in the country, and for his efforts, General Karamat was conferred with national honours in public conventions and state gatherings.
Chief of Army Staff
After approving the retirement papers of General Kakar, Lieutenant-General Jehangir Karamat was appointed the Chief of Army Staff by the then-Prime Minister Benazir who approved the paperwork for this appointment on 18 December 1995. Per Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's approval, President Farooq Leghari confirmed the promotion of Lieutenant-General Karamat to the four-star rank and was appointed as the Chief of Army Staff when General Kakar was due to retire on 12 January 1996.
At the time of his promotion, he was the senior most general at that time, and therefore at promotion to four-star general, he superseded no one. At the time of his promotion, there were four senior generals in the race to replace Kakar as Chief of Army Staff: Lieutenant-General Jehangir Karamat, chief of general staff (CGS); Lieutenant-General Nasir Akhtar, quartermaster general (QMG); Lieutenant-General Muhammad Tariq, inspector-general training and evaluation (IGT&E) at the GHQ; and Lieutenant-General Javed Ashraf Qazi, commander XXX Corps stationed in Gujranwala. As Chief of Army Staff, General Karamat tried to work with the Prime minister and President at once, but soon came to understand that the misconducts of politicians and bureaucrats would eventually lead to the dismissal of Benazir Bhutto's final government.
General Karamat reached to then-Speaker of the National Assembly Yousaf Raza Gillani and "leaked" an intelligence information and tried convincing Benazir Bhutto and President Leghari to resolve their issues, and emphasised on focused on good governance. At one point, General Karamat wrote:
In my opinion, if we have to repeat of past events then we must understand that Military leaders can pressure only up to a point. Beyond that their own position starts getting undermined because the military is after all is a mirror image of the society from which it is drawn.— General Jehangir Karamat commenting on Benazir's dismissal, 
Chairman of Joint Chiefs
In 1997, Chairman joint chiefs Air Chief Marshal Farooq Feroze Khan was due retirement. On immediate basis, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif appeared in news channels to confirmed General Karamat as the new Chairman joint chiefs. The appointment was met no resistance in the military, and General Karamat appointed as Chairman joint chiefs; he supersedes no one.
General Karamat drove Pakistan Armed Forces to focus on more professional duties rather than playing politics. Karamat worked on integrating Pakistan's military on a common platform, and had his staff worked on inter-services coordination in the battlefield. Karamat strengthened the joint work coordination and joint logistics of the military at the war time situations, resolving many issues that would hampered the performances of the inter-services in the war or peacetime situations.
As an aftermath of India's nuclear tests in 1998, General Karamat acted as principle military adviser to the government, aiding the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on military platform. At the telephonic meeting with the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, President Bill Clinton offered lucrative aid to Pakistan for not testing its devices; Prime Minister Sharif's response was inconclusive. President Bill Clinton described the meeting with the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to Strobe Talbott: "You can almost hear the guy [Sharif] wringing his hands and sweating."
With requests made by Strobe Talbott CENTCOM commander, General Anthony Zinni and US Chairman Joint chiefs General Henry Shelton, met with General Karamat to withdraw the decision to conduct nuclear test. Zinni'e meeting with Karamat was described by Strobe Talbott as less contentious. General Karamat and General Zinni were able to draw "soldier–to–soldier" bond. General Karamat made it clear that the final decision would be carried out by the civilian government. At the NSC cabinet meeting, the Pakistani government, military, scientific, and civilian officials were participating in a debate, broadening, and complicating the decision-making process. Although, General Karamat debated towards presenting the national security and military point of view, the final decision was left on Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's say.
After the decision was made, General Karamat was notified of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's decision and asked the military to be stand-by orders. After providing the joint military logistics, the nuclear tests were eventually carried out on 28 May 1998, as Chagai-I, and on 30 May 1998 as codename: Chagai-II. As dawn broke over the Chagai mountains, Pakistan became the world's seventh nuclear power.
Removal from Chairman joint chiefs
As the nuclear tests were conducted, there was a strong feelings in the military all together that any concession to India on Kashmir policy and other related issues would lead to a decline in the prestige and standing of the armed forces. After the failure to pass the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution, there were concerns raised by Benazir Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party on Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's absolute control over the politics, national security, and foreign policy.
On 6 October 1998, General Karamat lectured at the Naval War College in Karachi on the civic-military relations and presented the idea on reestablishing the official National Security Council (NSC) where military could have representation in the country's politics. General Karamat openly spoke on the role of the internal intelligences, such as FIA and IB, carrying out vendettas-like operations against political opponents and insecurity-driven and expedient policies while Pakistan capsized, at the behest of the politicians. Prime Minister Sharif and his cabinet members perceived this idea as Chairman joint chiefs's interference in national politics, therefore Sharif forced to resign Karamat when he criticised Pakistan's political leadership and advocated a National Security Council that would give the military a constitutional role in running the country, similar to Turkey's. In 1998, Prime Minister Sharif decided to relief General Karamat from the chairmanship of joint chiefs, eventually had him tendering his signature resignation at the Prime Minister's Secretariat.
The relief of the famous and famed general by the popular politician led to a storm of public controversy. Many influential ministers and advisers in Prime Minister Sharif's circle saw this decision as "ill-considered" and "blunder" made by the Prime Minister. At the military, Admiral Fasih Bokhari (Chief of Naval Staff at that time) criticized General Karamat for resigning but Karamat defended his actions as "right thing" to do as he lost th confidence of a constitutionally and popularly elected Prime Minister.
As General Karamat received a full guard of honour retirement in a colorful ceremony as Chairman joint chiefs and chief of army staff, Prime Minister Sharif's mandate plummeted and his popularity waned as the majority of the public disapproved of the decision to relieve Karamat. Prime Minister Sharif's further suffered with wide public disapproval after appointing much-junior General Pervez Musharraf at the both capacity, overruling the Admiral Bokhari's turn as the Chairman joint chiefs. In 1999, Musharraf's unilateral initiation of the Kargil war against India nearly pushed Pakistan and India to the brink of an all-out war between the two Nuclear states. Eventually, in the same year, Musharraf staged a successful coup d'état and overthrew Prime Minister Sharif.
Upon winning the general elections in 2013, Prime Minister Sharif did exactly what General Karamat had called for; first reestablishing the NSC with military gaining representation in the country's politics; and further making more reforms in intelligence community.
Before elevating to four-star assignments, General Karamat was the full tenured professor of the Political science at the National Defense University and held the chair of military science at the Armed Forces War College. Among his notable students included Pervez Musharraf, Ali Kuli Khan, Fasih Bokhari and Abdul Aziz Mirza who studied under his guidance. Karamat had significance influence on Bokhari and Musharraf's philosophy and critical thinking.
In 2000, Karamat accepted the professorship of War studies at the CISAC Institute of the Stanford University in Stanford, California, United States. In addition, he was selected as a scholar and awarded research associateship on civil military relations at the Brookings Institution based in Washington, D.C., United States. In 2001, Karamat joined the United Nations (UN) and was a part of the area study on Afghanistan. Thereafter, Karamat joined the influential Islamabad Policy Research Institute (IPRI) as the chairman of the board of governors.
Ambassador to the United States
In 2004, Karamat was first mentioned and named for the appointment as the Pakistan Ambassador to the United States. His nomination came after the outgoing Pakistan Ambassador, Ashraf Jehangir Qazi, termed was due expired. On 23 September 2004, Pakistan Ambassador Qazi was appointed by then-Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, as Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq. On 10 December 2004, Karamat presented his credentials to President George W. Bush.
On 23 March 2006, Pakistani news media reported that Ambassador Karamat was to be replaced by retired Major General Mahmud Ali Durrani. The reports further stated Ambassador Karamat, who took his post on a two-year contract, would be returning home after only a year and a half. These speculations were confirmed by the Foreign Office (FO) and noted that "Karamat will not be in the reception line at the Chaklala Airbase to welcome President George Bush.
While his stint as Pakistan Ambassador, Karamat made the pro-democracy statements at the different Pakistani American gatherings, while passing critics to President Musharraf's style of running the civilian government. In private, Karamat confided in Washington based U.S. journalist that "General Musharraf had made up this story to create wedge between the then-Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and him to get him fired.
Founding think tank
After ambassadorship, General Jehangir Karamat founded a socio-political policy and analysis institute, Spearhead Research, which focuses on social, economic, military and political issues concerning Pakistan and Afghanistan. General Jehangir Karamat is the director and contributor to the Spearhead Research Institute.
- Musharraf, Pervez (2006). In the line of fire : a memoir. New York [u.a.]: Free Press. ISBN 074-3283449.
- Rizvi, Hasan-Askari (2000). Military, state and society in Pakistan. Basingstoke [u.a.]: Macmillan [u.a.] ISBN 0312231938.
- Khan, Feroze (2010). "CIvil-military relations and problems". Eating Grass: the making of Pakistan's atomic bomb. Stanford, Calif. [u.s.]: §Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804784809.
- Shah, Aqil (2014). "Conclusion". The Armed Forces and Democracy. Harvard, U.S: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674419774.
- Staff writer (1995). "General Karamat appointed new army chief". Deutsches Orient-Institut, 1996. Deutsches Orient-Institut, 1996.
- Beaumont, edited by Christophe Jaffrelot ; translated by Gillian (2004). "§No National Integration Yet?". A history of Pakistan and its origins (New ed.). London: Anthem. ISBN 1843311496.
- Staff writers and editors (1995). "Pakistan & Gulf Economist: Jehangir Karamat COAS". Economist Publications, 1995. Economist Publications, 1995. 14 (40–52).
- editorial (1996). "Jehangir Karamat, COAS". Biographical work published by the News International's editorial section in 1996. The News International, 1996. The News International, 1996.
- "DIstinguished old Patricians". St Patrick's High School. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- staff editor. "A profile of a General". Pakistan Herald, 2015. Pakistan Herald. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Pakistan Army Museum. "General Jehangir Karamat". Pakistan Army Museum. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Constance Hale. "International Hallway Dedication Ceremony" U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 14 September 2000
- Spearhead. "Panel of Experts". Spearhead. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- staff writer (5 May 2000). "Former Chairman of the Pakistani Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Jehangir Karamat, arrives at Brookings". Brooklyn Institute. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Bhattacharya, Brigadier Samir (2014). Nothing But!. Partridge Pub. ISBN 148281787X.
- Husain, war despatches of Major General Abrar (2005). Men of steel : 6 Armoured Division in the 1965 war. Rawalpindi: Army Education Publishing House, Army Education Directorate GHQ. ISBN 9698125191.
- Ali, Sartaj Aziz ; foreword by Syed Babar (2009). "Second War". Between dreams and realities : some milestones in Pakistan's history (1. publ. ed.). Karachi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195477189.
- Amin, Agha H. (1999). "Battle of Barapind-Jarpal 16 Dec 1971". Defence Journal, 1999. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Qureshi, Hakeem Arshad (2013). 1971 indo-pak war : a soldier's narrative. [S.l.] Pakistan: Oup Pakistan. ISBN 0199067147.
- Amin, Agha Humayun (2010). India Pakistan Wars-1947 to 1971-A Strategic and Operational Analysis. London: Strategicus and Tacticus. p. 723. ISBN 9780557519842.
- Karamat, J. (1984). "The Tank that Failed". Hilal Magazine. Work published by then-Brigadier J. Karamat at the Inspector General Training and Evaluation Branch, General Headquarters. 2 (8): 69.
- Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost wars : the secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-007-6.
- Hassner, edited by Ron E. (2014). Religion in the military worldwide. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107037026.
- "A Profile on Educated General". Emirates Centre for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Mir, Amir (2010). The Bhutto murder trail : from Waziristan to G.H.Q. Chennai: Tranquebar Press. ISBN 9380658613.
- Staff. "COLONEL IN CHIEF-ARMOURED CORPS-01". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "COLONEL COMMANDANTS- ARMOURED CORPS". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Aziz, Mazhar (2007). Military Control in Pakistan: The Parallel State. Routledge. 2007. ISBN 1134074107.
- Chengappa, Bidanda M. (2004). Pakistan, Islamisation, army and foreign policy. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publ. ISBN 8176485489.
- Ihtashamul Haque. "Karamat named COAS" Daily Dawn, 12 December 1995
- Shuja Nawaz. Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within (Oxford University Press, 2008)
- Mazhar Aziz (2008). Military control in Pakistan: the parallel state. Milton Park, Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK: Taylor and Francis-e-Library. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-415-43743-1.
- Hasanie, Ali Abbas (2013). Democracy in pakistan : crises, conflicts and hope for a change. [S.l.]: Authorhouse. ISBN 1481790684.
- Mishra, Keshav (2004). Rapprochement across the Himalayas : emerging India-China relations in post Cold War period (1947–2003). New Delhi: Kalpaz Publ. ISBN 817835294X.
- Jones, Owen Bennett (2003). Pakistan eye of the storm (2nd ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300101473.
- Talbott, Strobe (2004). Engaging India : diplomacy, democracy, and the bomb ([Advance uncorrected manuscript]. ed.). Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. Press. ISBN 0815783000.
- Schaffer, Howard B.; Schaffer, Teresita C. (2011). "§Pakistan's politicians". How Pakistan negotiates with the United States : riding the roller coaster. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. ISBN 1601270755.
- Azam, Rai Muhammad Saleh (2 June 2000). "When Mountains Move – The Story of Chagai". Article written by RMS Azam ives a detailed account of events and personalities leading to Pakistan first nuclear explosion. The Nation, 1998. The Nation, 1998. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Jaisingh, Hari (9 October 1998). "Beleaguered Sharif wins first round". Tribune India, 1998. Tribune India. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- McGrik, TIm (19 October 1998). "The General Speaks Out". Times Magazine, 1998. Times Magazine. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- .Bennett-Jones, Owen (8 October 1998). "Analysis:Resignation shifts balance of power". BBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- Aziz, PhD (Economics), Sartaj (2009) , Between dreams and realities: some milestones in Pakistan's history (Illustrated ed.), Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 408, ISBN 978-0-19-547718-4
- Cohen, Stephen Philip (2004). The idea of Pakistan (1st pbk. ed.). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2004. ISBN 0815797613.
- Dutt, Sanjay (2000). Inside Pakistan : 52 years outlook. New Delhi: APH Pub. Corp. ISBN 8176481572.
- Staff reporter (22 August 2004). "Jehangir Karamat next ambassador to the US". Daily Times, 2004. Daily Times, 2004. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Reddy, B. Muralidhar (23 September 2004). "Jehangir Karamat is new Pakistan envoy to U.S.". The Hindu, 2004. The Hindu, 2004. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- APP (10 December 2004). "Gen Karamat meets Bush". Daily Times, Washington. Daily Times, Washington. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Khalid Hasan. 'Durrani in, Karamat out' Daily Times, 23 March 2006
- QA (3 March 2006). "Jehangir-Karamat-to-miss-bush-visit". Dawn News. Dawn News, 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Editorial (24 October 2012). "Why General Jehangir Karamat Falls From Grace?". Pakistan Weekly, 2006. Pakistan Weekly. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
|Chief of General Staff
Iftikhar Ali Khan
Abdul Waheed Kakar
|Chief of Army Staff
Farooq Feroze Khan
|Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Ashraf Jehangir Qazi
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States
Mahmud Ali Durrani