Ghomala' language

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Ghomala
Ghɔmálá’
RegionCameroon
EthnicityBamileke
Native speakers
350,000 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3bbj
Glottologghom1247[2]
Alphabet of the Ghomala' language

Ghɔmálá’, or Bamileke-Banjun (Bamiléké-Bandjoun), is a major Grassfields language of Cameroon.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless p͡f t͡s t͡ʃ
voiced b͡v d͡z d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s (ʃ) h
voiced (v) (ʒ) (ɣ)
Nasal m n ŋ
Approximant lateral (l)
central w j
centralized ɥ̈
  • The glottal stop /ʔ/ only occurs as word-final.
  • Sounds [v l ʃ ʒ ɣ] are alternative consonant sounds of /b͡v d t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ɡ/.
  • /t d/, when occurring before close front-central vowel sounds /i ʉ/, can sound palatalized as [tʲ dʲ].
  • Sounds /p b t d k/, when preceding a /h/ sound, are realized as affricated [p͡ɸ b͡β t͡θ d͡ð k͡x].
  • /ɡ/, when occurring before central vowel sounds /ə ɐ/, may sound affricated as [ɡ͡ɣ].
  • A word-final /k/ sound, may be realized as uvular sounds [q χ].

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
High i ʉ u
Mid e ə o
ɛ ɐ ɔ
Low a
  • Sounds /ɐ u ɔ/ when occurring with a velar nasal /ŋ/, can be realized as nasalized vowel sounds [ɐ̃ ũ ɔ̃].[3]

Tone[edit]

Tones are marked as high [á], low [à], central (unmarked) [a], rising [ǎ], or falling [â].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ghomala at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ghomálá'". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Nissim, Gabriel M. (1981). Le Bamileke-Ghomálá' (Parler de Bandjoun, Cameroun). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Sciéntifique.