|• Revised Romanization||Haeju-si|
Views of Haeju
|• Total||206.9 km2 (79.9 sq mi)|
Haeju is a city located in South Hwanghae Province near Haeju Bay in North Korea. It is the administrative centre of South Hwanghae Province. As of 2000, the population of the city is estimated to be 236,000. At the beginning of 20th century, it became a strategic port in Sino-Korean trade. Haeju has chemical-related enterprises and a cement factory.
The area around Haeju is known to have been inhabited since the Neolithic period, as shellmounds, pottery, and stone tools have been found at Ryongdangp'o. During the early Three kingdoms period, it was briefly governed by a small chieftain, when it was known as "Naemihol" (內米忽郡). In 757, however, it was conquered by the Goguryeo kingdom, who later lost it to Silla. It was under the Goryeo dynasty's King T'aejo that it received its current name.
Sohyon Academy (소현서원) was a Confucian academy founded near Haeju by the famous scholar Yi I (1536–84) after his retirement. It is situated in Unbyong Valley, a part of Soktamgugok (Nine valleys of pools and rocks.
According to the North Korean government, the North Korean attack on South Korea on 25 June 1950 was a response to a two-day long bombing by the South Koreans and their surprise attacks on Haeju and other places. Early in the morning of 26 July, the South Korean Office of Public Information announced that the Southern forces had indeed captured Haeju. The South Korean government later denied ever capturing the town and blamed the report on an exaggerating officer. Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union proposed that North Korea would be invited to the UN Security Council to present its side of the story. Both proposals were voted down.
Haeju City is located at western part of Korean Peninsula, 60 km north of the Military Demarcation Line,100 km south from Pyongyang. This city, being not very mountainous, most part of landforms are composed of plains. All the mountains of this city are under 1,000 m.
- Mountain Suyang, 946 m.
- Mountain Jangdae,686 m.
- Nam Hill,122 m.
|Climate data for Haeju|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||3||2||5||5||6||7||14||10||6||4||6||5||73|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67||64||63||64||68||76||85||79||71||66||68||70||70|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||207.7||211.9||226.3||249.0||260.4||231.0||189.1||217.0||234.0||248.0||195.0||176.7||2,646.1|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||6.7||7.5||7.3||8.3||8.4||7.7||6.1||7.0||7.8||8.0||6.5||5.7||7.3|
|Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst|
Culture and travel
Famous tourist attractions in the city center include Puyong Pavilion, the Haeju Dharani Monument, the Haeju Sokbinggo, and several trees classified as living monuments. Farther out, scenic spots include Suyangsan Falls, the Sokdamgugok scenic area, Suyangsan Fortress and the Sohyon Academy.
Haeju Special Economic Zone was announced in the Second Inter-Korean Summit meeting between the South Korean president Roh Moo-Hyun and the North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il. It was to be a Special Economic Zone centered on the Haeju port. The zone would have consisted of 16.5 km2 of development, and also the expansion of the Haeju port. This project was estimated to cost over US$4.5 billion.
This economic agreement between South Korea and North Korea would have allowed trading across the Northern Limit Line between the ports of Incheon and Haeju, only 110 km apart. Recent military skirmishes make any revival of this deal unlikely for the time being.
Haeju has a military and civilian dual purposes air station (HAE), with a 12/30 runway (Haeju Airport). Haeju also has one of the major economic and military ports in North Korea. It is connected to Sariwŏn via the Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line of the Korean State Railway.
Haeju is home to Haeju University of Education, Haeju College of Art, and Kim Je Won Haeju University of Agriculture. Sohyon Academy (소현서원) was a Confucian academy founded by the famous scholar Yi Yulgok (1536–84). It is situated in the Unbyong Valley west of Haeju.
People born in Haeju
- Choe Chung (984-1068), Confucian scholar and poet
- Choe Yun-ui (1102–1162), Confucian scholar
- Choe Manri (?-1445), minister of Hall of Worthies
- Syngman Rhee, the first president of South Korea
- Kim Ku (1876–1949), last president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
- An Jung-gun (1879–1910), independence activist who assassinated Ito Hirobumi
- Mirok Li (1899–1950), writer
- Kang Joon-ho (1928–1990), bronze-medalist Olympic boxer (1952)
- Jong Song-ok (1974), marathon gold-medalist & Olympic runner
- William Blum (2004). Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Zed Books Ltd. p. 46-48.
- "Klimatafel von Haeju / Korea (Nordkorea)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Rodger Baker (24 November 2010). "Importance of the Koreas' Northern Limit Line". STRATFOR. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haeju.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Haeju.|
- North Korea Uncovered (Google Earth), see the geographical locations of many of Haeju's cultural locations including Mt. Suyang Fort and Mt. Suyang Falls, as well as Haeju's railway, industrial, and commercial infrastructure on Google Earth."
- Haeju photos Traveller's blog with pictures from North Korea
- City profile of Haeju