Insect euthanasia is the process of killing insects "in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress." It may apply to animals in the laboratory, schools, as pets, as food, or otherwise.
Euthanasia of insects and other invertebrates has historically received limited attention. While vertebrate animal experimentation typically requires approval by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in the United States, use of invertebrate animals has few guidelines, and many research papers make no mention of how their invertebrate subjects were killed.
Many of the euthanasia methods developed for vertebrates do not transfer well to invertebrates. While a number of euthanasia methods have been proposed for various invertebrate taxa, many have not been adequately vetted, and more research is needed.
- 1 Uncertainty over insect sentience
- 2 Laboratory euthanasia
- 3 Farm euthanasia
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
Uncertainty over insect sentience
Vincent Wigglesworth suggests giving insects the benefit of the doubt, in case they can suffer. Cornelia Gunkel and Gregory A. Lewbart suggest that "Until the question of pain in invertebrates is clearly answered, an analgesic should be given to any animal that is subjected to a painful procedure." Jeffrey A. Lockwood agrees:
If we use anesthetic and it turns out that insects don’t experience pain, the material cost of our mistake is very low [...]. However, if we don’t use anesthetic and it turns out that the insects were in agony, then the moral cost of our mistake is quite high.
While there is ongoing debate about invertebrates’ abilities to perceive pain or otherwise experience compromised welfare, the Guidelines assume that a conservative and humane approach to the care of any creature is warranted and expected by society. Consequently, euthanasia methods should be used that minimize the potential for pain or distress.
Pentobarbital is an anesthetic drug used in medicine, human euthanasia, and capital punishment. AVMA recommends overdose of pentobarbital or similar drugs as a method of invertebrate euthanasia. The dose can be chosen at comparable levels as those given to poikilotherm vertebrates, adjusted proportionally to the animal's weight. Injection into hemolymph is ideal, but for invertebrates that have an open circulatory system, "an intracoelomic injection" may be required rather than injection into blood vessels. It may help to premedicate the animal with another injected or inhaled drug.
Verifying an insect's death from chemical injections is difficult, so it's often recommended to follow up anesthetic overdose with physical destruction. Note that since insects have different nervous systems from vertebrates, decapitation alone may not always be sufficient to destroy neural function.
Professor Peer Zwart has observed that commercial pentobarbital may have a pH between 9.5 and 11.0, which can coagulate the protein of snail hemocele. This might be painful to a live organism.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is one of the three drugs typically used in lethal injection in the United States. It causes hyperkalemia, which stops the heart by inducing depolarization of cellular membrane potentials. Intravenous KCl injection is unacceptable for vertebrate animals unless they have been rendered unconscious by other means.
Development on American lobster:
Andrea Battison and colleagues proposed KCl for euthanasia of the American lobster. The researchers injected KCl solution in order to fill with potassium ions (K+) the hemolymph sinus that holds the lobster's ventral nerve cord and the region around its supraesophageal ganglion. In normal circumstances, neurons maintain a negative membrane potential and have a high intracellular K+ concentration. When KCl is injected into hemolymph, extracellular K+ increases and begins to enter the neurons to restore equilibrium. This depolarizes the neurons and generates an action potential. Subsequent repolarization is blocked by the high intracellular K+, so the nervous system fails, and transmission of adverse sensory information is prevented. The potassium then triggers cardiac arrest within 40–90 seconds, in both warm and cold environments.
While intravenous KCl is not humane for vertebrates, the researchers in this study assume that in lobsters "disruption of the CNS, its ability to process and transmit sensory input, and loss of any awareness would be almost immediate" because the injection directly targets the lobster's "brain." KCl injection produced immediate extension of claws and legs due to deactivation of motor neurons, and the researchers assume that sensory neurons degraded in a similar fashion.
The lethal dose for this procedure was rather high: 1 g KCl per 1 kg of body weight. This was 10-30 times more than the required dose for intravenous mammalian killing with KCl, and it may reflect the lobster's resilient physiology. Tissues were well preserved, except for myofiber damage at the injection site, which means this technique is generally suitable for histology research.
Extension to terrestrial arthropods:
Neil A. C. Bennie and colleagues extended the technique of Battison et al. to arthropods like Blaberus giganteus, Gryllus bimaculatus, and Locusta migratoria. They produced a table of suggested injection sites and doses for ten orders of arthropods. The researchers propose the name targeted hyperkalosis to describe the procedure of injecting a large dose of K+ to the thoracic ganglia. Advantages of this approach are that KCl is cheap, safe, doesn't need special storage, and preserves specimens for most research use cases except those that look at the neural culture itself. That said, the method is hard to use for small insects like Drosophila sp.
Techniques requiring an adjunctive method of euthanasia
Overdose on inhaled anesthetics can work for terrestrial invertebrates like insects, but verifying death can be difficult, so it's advised to use another euthanasia method alongside them. Isoflurane and sevoflurane are examples of volatile anaesthetics that can be used; afterward, the insects should be mechanically destroyed such as by crushing. Systems have been developed to provide vaporized anesthetic in the minimal required amounts in order to make anesthesia more cost-effective.
Chemicals like alcohol and formalin can destroy nervous tissue but are not humane by themselves and should be preceded by other means of anaesthesia. Ethyl Acetate (EtOAC) or Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) are and were commonly used field chemicals in conjunction with a kill jar for collecting insect specimens by many entomologists.
Freezing is sometimes suggested as a method of insect euthanasia. Other contend that freezing is not humane on its own but should be preceded by other means of anaesthesia. Cold by itself doesn't produce analgesia. Romain Pizzi suggests that freezing, while common in "hobbyist literature," is not humane for spiders.
The British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) Terrestrial Invertebrate Working Group (TIWG) reports on a survey conducted by Mark Bushell of BIAZA institutions. He found that refrigeration and freezing were the most common methods "of euthanasia of invertebrates although research has suggested that this is probably one of the least ethical options." That said, freezing is a worst-case method if chemical or instantaneous physical destruction is not possible.
Insects put in an ordinary freezer may require a day or more to be killed.
Carbon dioxide is sometimes used for terrestrial invertebrates, including insects. However, its effectiveness is not known. It has been reported to cause convulsions and excited behavior, perhaps suggesting animal discomfort. It is not believed to induce analgesia.
John E. Cooper writes: "If a procedure is considered to be potentially painful, there may be merit in using isoflurane, halothane, or sevoflurane rather than CO2 because the extent to which the latter induces analgesia in invertebrates is not known, and its use in vertebrate animals is controversial because of concerns about its effects on the animals' health and welfare.":198
Some insect farmers believe that mechanical shredding is the least painful way to kill insects suitable for human consumption. Freezing is also commonly used for commercial entomophagy operations, though as discussed above, there is debate over whether freezing is fully humane.
Many insects eaten by humans are roasted, fried, boiled, or otherwise heated directly, without any effort made at euthanasia. Many pets eat live insects, which cannot be euthanized.
- "AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition" (PDF). American Veterinary Medical Association. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Murray, Michael J. (2006). "Appendix 3: Euthanasia". In Gregory A. Lewbart. Invertebrate Medicine. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9780470344606. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Battison, A.; MacMillan, R.; MacKenzie, A.; Rose, P.; Cawthorn, R.; Horney, B. (Oct 2000). "Use of Injectable Potassium Chloride for Euthanasia of American Lobsters (Homarus americanus)". Comparative Medicine. 50 (5): 545–550. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Crook, Robyn J. (Feb 2013). "The welfare of invertebrate animals in research: Can science's next generation improve their lot?" (PDF). Journal of Postdoctoral Research. 1 (2): 9‐20. doi:10.14304/surya.jpr.v1n2.2.
- Cornelia Gunkel; Gregory A. Lewbart (2007). "13. Invertebrates". In Gary West; Darryl Heard; Nigel Caulkett. Zoo Animal & Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. Blackwell. pp. 147–158. ISBN 978-0-8138-2566-3.
- Cooper, John E. (2011). "Anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia of invertebrates". ILAR Journal. 52 (2): 196–204. doi:10.1093/ilar.52.2.196.
- Sherwin, C.M. (2001). "Can invertebrates suffer? Or, how robust is argument-by-analogy?". Animal Welfare (supplement). 10: 103–S118.
- Wigglesworth, Vincent B. (1980). "Do insects feel pain?". Antenna: 8–9.
- Lockwood, Jeff (25 Nov 2011). "Do bugs feel pain?". OUPblog. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- Bennie, Neil A. C.; Christopher D. Loaring; Mikaella M. G. Bennie; Steven A. Trim (2012). "An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia". Journal of Experimental Biology. 215: 4237–4241. doi:10.1242/jeb.074997. PMID 22996446.
- Sarah Pellett; Romain Pizzi; Steven Trim; Mark Bushell; Dave Clarke; Jamie Wood (Jun 2015). BIAZA Recommendations for Ethical Euthanasia of Invertebrates (2.6 ed.). British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
- A. Walcourt; D. Ide (Oct 1998). "A system for the delivery of general anesthetics and other volatile agents to the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster". J Neurosci Methods. 84 (1–2): 115–119. doi:10.1016/s0165-0270(98)00105-8. PMID 9821642.
- "Euthanizing Insects". Colorado Plateau Biodiversity Center. 6 Aug 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Pizzi, Romain (2012). "Spiders". In Gregory A. Lewbart. Invertebrate Medicine (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 211. ISBN 978-0813817583.
- Hahn, Jeffrey. "Collecting and preserving insects". University of Minnesota Extension. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Steven M. Valles; Philip G. Koehler (June 1994). "Influence of Carbon Dioxide Anesthesia on Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)". Journal of Economic Entomology. 87 (3): 709–713. doi:10.1093/jee/87.3.709.
- Erens, Jesse; Es van, Sam; Haverkort, Fay; Kapsomenou, Eleni; Luijben, Andy (2012). "A bug's life: Large-scale insect rearing in relation to animal welfare" (PDF). Wageningen University. Retrieved 13 May 2014.